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資料種別 図書

Encyclopedia of radicals in chemistry, biology and materials

editors, Chryssostomos Chatgilialoglu, Armido Studer

詳細情報

タイトル Encyclopedia of radicals in chemistry, biology and materials
著者 editors, Chryssostomos Chatgilialoglu, Armido Studer
出版地(国名コード) GB
出版地Chichester, West Sussex, United Kingdom
出版社John Wiley & Sons Ltd
出版年月日等 2012
大きさ、容量等 4 volumes : illustrations (some colour) ; 26 cm
注記 表現種別 : text
注記 Includes bibliographical references and index
ISBN(set) 9780470971253
LC番号 2011040417
部分タイトル v. 1. Basic concepts and methodologies -- v. 2. Synthetic strategies and applications -- v. 3. Chemical biology -- v. 4. Polymers and materials
出版年(W3CDTF) 2012
件名(キーワード) Free radicals (Chemistry)
件名(キーワード) Radicals (Chemistry)
件名(キーワード) SCIENCE / Chemistry / Industrial & Technical
NDLC PA47
LCC QD471
DDC 541/.224
要約・抄録 "In recent years, free radicals have played an important role in various disciplines, ranging from organic synthesis to biology and medicine, polymer chemistry and materials science. The aim of this handbook is to offer for the first time a description of free radicals within an interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary context, connecting structural characteristics and chemical properties to their applications in different areas of chemistry and related disciplines. The Handbook covers not only basic concepts and chemical synthesis, but also touches on various aspects concerning the role of free radicals in materials and life sciences. The reader will find a balanced contribution of topics related to free radicals covering for example, their role in proteomics, genomics and lipidomics as well as their enormous potential in synthesis and technology. The Handbook will be interesting for anybody working in the field of free radicals in the broadest sense. It will address scientists who want to enter the interdisciplinary field of free radicals. In particular, it is aimed primarily at chemists and life science researchers who want to gain a wider and deeper understanding of free radicals which will allow them to apply free radicals in their own scientific field. The book consists of four themed volumes: Basic Concepts & Methodologies, Synthetic Strategies & Applications, Chemical Biology, Polymers & Materials. Within the volumes the chapters will also be thematically structured"--
対象利用者 一般
資料の種別 図書
関連資料(URI形式) http://catalogimages.wiley.com/images/db/jimages/9780470971253.jpg
言語(ISO639-2形式) eng : English

目次
 

  • Encyclopedia of radicals in chemistry, biology and materials
  • Contents
  • VOLUME 1: BASIC CONCEPTS AND METHODOLOGIES
  • VOLUME 1: Preface ix
  • VOLUME 1: List of Contributors xi
  • VOLUME 1: Abbreviations and Acronymns xix
  • VOLUME 1: 1 The History of Free Radical Chemistry Thomas T.Tidwell 1
  • VOLUME 1: 2 Overview of Radical Initiation Jacques Lalevée,Jean Pierre Fouassier 37
  • VOLUME 1: 3 Basic Concepts on Radical Chain Reactions Michael S.Sherburn 57
  • VOLUME 1: 4 Thermochemistry and Hydrogen Transfer Kinetics Andreas A.Zavitsas 81
  • VOLUME 1: 5 Radical Kinetics and Clocks Martin Newcomb 107
  • VOLUME 1: 6 Radical Rearrangements: Ester-Substituted Radicals and Hydrogen Atom Migrations Kaname Sasaki,Ian Cumpstey,David Crich 125
  • VOLUME 1: 7 Analysis of Radicals by EPR John C.Walton 147
  • VOLUME 1: 8 Structures and Reactivity of Radicals Followed by Magnetic Resonance Alexandra Yurkovskaya,Olga Morozova,Georg Gescheidt 175
  • VOLUME 1: 9 Matrix Isolation of Radicals Artur Mardyukov,Wolfram Sander 207
  • VOLUME 1: 10 Supramolecular Radical Chemistry Marco Lucarini 229
  • VOLUME 1: 11 Redox Properties of Radicals David C.Magri,Mark S.Workentin 249
  • VOLUME 1: 12 Photo Induced Radical Reactions Julia Pérez-Prieto,Miguel A.Miranda 275
  • VOLUME 1: 13 Radical Cation/Anion and Neutral Radicals: A Comparison Amber N.Hancock,J.M.Tanko 301
  • VOLUME 1: 14 The SRN1 Reaction Javier I.Bardagí,Victoria A. Vaillard,Roberto A.Rossi 333
  • VOLUME 1: 15 Photoinduced Reactions of Radical Ions via Charge Separation Shunichi Fukuzioni,Kei Ohkubo 365
  • VOLUME 1: 16 Radiation-Induced Radical Reactions Krzysztof Bobrowski 395
  • VOLUME 1: 17 Free Radical Chemistry in Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids Ilya A.Shkrob,James F.Wishart 433
  • VOLUME 1: 18 Radical Stability-Thermochemical Aspects Johnny Hioe,Hendrik Zipse 449
  • VOLUME 1: 19 Radical Chemistry in the Gas Phase Christian Alcaraz,Ingo Fischer,Detlef Schröder 477
  • VOLUME 1: 20 Atmospheric Radical Chemistry Paul H.Wine,J.Michael Nicovich 503
  • VOLUME 2: SYNTHETIC STRATEGIES AND APPLICATIONS
  • VOLUME 2: Preface ix
  • VOLUME 2: List of Contributors xi
  • VOLUME 2: Abbreviations and Acronymns xix
  • VOLUME 2: 21 Tin Hydrides and Functional Group Transformations Hannelore Jasch,Markus R.Heinrich 529
  • VOLUME 2: 22 Silanes as Reducing Reagents in Radical Chemistry Chryssostomos Chatgilialoglu,Vitaliy I.Timokhin 561
  • VOLUME 2: 23 Boron in Radical Chemistry Philippe Renaud 601
  • VOLUME 2: 24 Intramolecular Homolytic Substitutions in Synthesis Sara H.Kyne,Carl H.Schiesser 629
  • VOLUME 2: 25 Stereoselective Radical Reactions Yong-Hua Yang,Mukund P.Sibi 655
  • VOLUME 2: 26 Unusual Cyclizations Kerry Gilmore,Igor V.Alabugin 693
  • VOLUME 2: 27 Radical Cascade Reactions Alexandre Baralle,Abdulkader Baroudi,Marion Daniel,Louis Fensterbank,Jean-Philippe Goddard,Emmanuel Lacôte,Marie-Hélène Larraufie,Giovanni Maestri,Max Malacria,Cyril Ollivier 729
  • VOLUME 2: 28 Main-Group Elements in Radical Chemistry Alexandre Baralle,Abdulkader Baroudi,Marion Daniel,Louis Fensterbank,Jean-Philippe Goddard,Emmanuel Lacôte,Marie-Hélène Larraufie,Giovanni Maestri,Max Malacria,Cyril Ollivier 767
  • VOLUME 2: 29 Organic Electron Donors John A.Murphy 817
  • VOLUME 2: 30 Organic Synthesis Using Samarium Diiodide Susannah C.Coote,Robert A.Flowers II,Troels Skrydstrup,David J.Procter 849
  • VOLUME 2: 31 Manganese(III) Acetate, CAN, and Fe(III) Salts in Oxidative Radical Chemistry Jonathan W.Burton 901
  • VOLUME 2: 32 Halogen and Chalcogen Transfer Chemistry Chaozhong Li 943
  • VOLUME 2: 33 Xanthates and Related Derivatives as Radical Precursors Samir Z.Zard 965
  • VOLUME 2: 34 Epoxides in Titanocene-Mediated and -Catalyzed Radical Reactions Andreas Gansäuer,André Fleckhaus 989
  • VOLUME 2: 35 Transition Metals and Radicals Hideki Yorimitsu 1003
  • VOLUME 2: 36 Unusual Radical Acceptors Piero Spagnolo,Daniele Nanni 1019
  • VOLUME 2: 37 Radical Arylations Santiago E.Vaillard,Annido Studer 1059
  • VOLUME 2: 38 Nitroxides in Synthetic Radical Chemistry Chittreeya Tansakul,Rebecca Braslau 1095
  • VOLUME 2: 39 Radicals and Carbohydrates Inés Pérez-Martín,Ernesto Suárez 1131
  • VOLUME 2: 40 Electrochemically Initiated Radical Reactions Martin A.Bohn,Anna Paul,Gerhard Hilt 1175
  • VOLUME 2: 41 Synthetic Radical Photochemistry Emmanuel Riguet,Norbert Hoffmann 1217
  • VOLUME 2: 42 Radical Chemistry by Using Flow Microreactor Technology Takahide Fukuyama,Ilhyong Ryu 1243
  • VOLUME 3: CHEMICAL BIOLOGY
  • VOLUME 3: Preface ix
  • VOLUME 3: List of Contributors xi
  • VOLUME 3: Abbreviations and Acronymns xix
  • VOLUME 3: 43 Biological Chemistry of Reactive Oxygen Species Christine C.Winterbourn 1259
  • VOLUME 3: 44 Reactions of Small Reactive Species with DNA Nicholas E.Geacintov,Vladimir Shafirovich 1283
  • VOLUME 3: 45 Oxidatively Generated Nucleobase Modifications in Isolated and Cellular DNA Jean Cadet,Thierry Douki,Didier Gasparutto,Jean-Luc Ravanat,J.Richard Wagner 1319
  • VOLUME 3: 46 Oxidatively Formed Sugar Radicals in Nucleic Acids Thanasis Gimisis,Chryssostomos Chatgilialoglu 1345
  • VOLUME 3: 47 Understanding DNA Radicals Employing Theory and Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy Amitava Adhikary,Anil Kumar,David Becker,Michael D.Sevilla 1371
  • VOLUME 3: 48 Charge Transfer in DNA Mamoru Fujitsuka,Tetsuro Majima 1397
  • VOLUME 3: 49 Oxidative Damage to Proteins Michael J. Davies 1425
  • VOLUME 3: 50 Radical-Based Damage of Sulfur-Containing Amino Acid Residues Christian Schöneich 1459
  • VOLUME 3: 51 Electron Transfer in Peptides and Proteins Bernd Giese,Sonja Eckhardt,Miriam Lauz 1475
  • VOLUME 3: 52 Radical Enzymes Wolfgang Buckel,Bernard T.Golding 1501
  • VOLUME 3: 53 Theoretical Studies of Radical Enzymes Gregory M.Sandala,David M.Smith,Leo Radom 1547
  • VOLUME 3: 54 Lipid Peroxidation Etsuo Niki 1577
  • VOLUME 3: 55 Lipid Isomerization Carla Ferreri,Chryssostomos Chatgilialoglu 1599
  • VOLUME 3: 56 Antioxidants in Chemistry and Biology Luca Valgimigli,Derek A.Pratt 1623
  • VOLUME 3: 57 Free Radicals and Metabolic Disorders Guy Cohen,Yael Riahi,Shlomo Sasson 1679
  • VOLUME 4: POLYMERS AND MATERIALS
  • VOLUME 4: Preface ix
  • VOLUME 4: List of Contributors xi
  • VOLUME 4: Abbreviations and Acronymns xix
  • VOLUME 4: 58 Radical Polymerization in Industry Peter Nesvadba 1701
  • VOLUME 4: 59 Kinetics of Polymerizations Michael Buback,Gregory T.Russell 1737
  • VOLUME 4: 60 Fundamentals of Controlled/Living Radical Polymerization Krzysztof Matyjaszewski 1785
  • VOLUME 4: 61 Nitroxide-Mediated Polymerization and its Applications Didier Gigmes,Sylvain R.A.Marque 1813
  • VOLUME 4: 62 Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization (ATRP) and Addition (ATRA) and Applications Tomislav Pintauer,Krzysztof Matyjaszewski 1851
  • VOLUME 4: 63 Reversible Addition Fragmentation Chain Transfer (RAFT) Polymerization: Mechanism, Process and Applications Christopher Barner-Kowollik,James P.Blinco,Mathias Destarac,Kristofer J.Thurecht,Sébastien Perrier 1895
  • VOLUME 4: 64 Sb, Bi, Te, and I-Transfer Polymerization and Applications Shigeru Yamago,Eiichi Kayahara 1931
  • VOLUME 4: 65 Spin Labels and Spin Probes David Bardelang,Micaël Hardy,Olivier Ouari,Paul Tordo 1965
  • VOLUME 4: 66 Radical Thiol-X Click Chemistry Niels ten Brummelhuis,Helmut Schlaad 2017
  • VOLUME 4: 67 Conducting Polymers: Applications in Electronics and Photovoltaics Huanli Dong,Wenping Hu 2057
  • VOLUME 4: 68 Silicon Radical Surface Chemistry Bart Rijksen,Mabel A.Caipa Campos,Jos M.J.Paulusse,Han Zuilhof 2081
  • VOLUME 4: 69 Persistent and Stable Silyl Radicals Boris Tumanskii,Miriam Karni,Yitzhak Apeloig 2117
  • VOLUME 4: 70 Physical Properties of Thiazyl Radicals Toward Conductive and Magnetic Materials Kunio Awaga 2147
  • VOLUME 4: 71 Polyradicals in Batteries Kenichi Oyaizu,Hiroyuki Nishide 2163
  • VOLUME 4: 72 Radical Chemistry on Fullerenes Manolis D.Tzirakis,Michael Orfanopoulos 2171
  • VOLUME 4: 73 A Paradigm for the Radical-Mediated Photochemical Synthesis of Metal Nanostructures Juan C.Scaiano,Kevin G.Stamplecoskie,Katherine L.McGilvray,Natalia L.Pacioni 2197
  • Author Index 2211
  • Subject Index 2213
  • Author Index
  • Adhikary, Amitava 3:1371-1396
  • Alabugin, Igor V. 2:693-728
  • Alcaraz, Christian 1:477-502
  • Apeloig, Yitzhak 4:2117-2146
  • Awaga, Kunio 4:2147-2162
  • Baralle, Alexandre 2:729-766,2:767-816
  • Bardagí, Javier I. 1:333-364
  • Bardelang, David 4:1965-2016
  • Barner-Kowollik, Christopher 4:1895-1930
  • Baroudi, Abdulkader 2:729-766,2:767-816
  • Becker, David 3:1371-1396
  • Blinco, James P. 4:1895-1930
  • Bobrowski, Krzysztof 1:395-432
  • Bohn, Martin A. 2:1175-1216
  • Braslau, Rebecca 2:1095-1130
  • Brummelhuis, Niels ten 4:2017-2056
  • Buback, Michael 4:1737-1784
  • Buckel, Wolfgang 3:1501-1546
  • Burton, Jonathan W. 2:901-942
  • Cadet, Jean 3:1319-1344
  • Caipa Campos, Mabel A. 4:2081-2116
  • Chatgilialoglu, Chryssostomos 2:561-600,3:1345-1370,3:1599-1622
  • Cohen, Guy 3:1679-1700
  • Coote, Susannah C. 2:849-900
  • Crich, David 1:125-146
  • Cumpstey, Ian 1:125-146
  • Daniel, Marion 2:729-766,2:767-816
  • Davies, Michael J. 3:1425-1458
  • Destarac, Mathias 4:1895-1930
  • Dong, Huanli 4:2057-2080
  • Douki, Thierry 3:1319-1344
  • Eckhardt, Sonja 3:1475-1500
  • Fensterbank, Louis 2:729-766,2:767-816
  • Ferreri, Carla 3:1599-1622
  • Fischer, Ingo 1:477-502
  • Fleckhaus, André 2:989-1002
  • Flowers II, Robert A. 2:849-900
  • Fouassier, Jean Pierre 1:37-56
  • Fujitsuka, Mamoru 3:1397-1424
  • Fukuyama, Takahide 2:1243-1258
  • Fukuzumi, Shunichi 1:365-394
  • Gansäuer, Andreas 2:989-1002
  • Gasparutto, Didier 3:1319-1344
  • Geacintov, Nicholas E. 3:1283-1318
  • Gescheidt, Georg 1:175-206
  • Giese, Bernd 3:1475-1500
  • Gigmes, Didier 4:1813-1850
  • Gilmore, Kerry 2:693-728
  • Gimisis, Thanasis 3:1345-1370
  • Goddard, Jean-Philippe 2:729-766,2:767-816
  • Golding, Bernard T. 3:1501-1546
  • Hancock, Amber N. 1:301-332
  • Hardy, Micaël 4:1965-2016
  • Heinrich, Markus R. 2:529-560
  • Hilt, Gerhard 2:1175-1216
  • Hioe, Johnny 1:449-476
  • Hoffmann, Norbert 2:1217-1242
  • Hu, Wenping 4:2057-2080
  • Jasch, Hannelore 2:529-560
  • Karni, Miriam 4:2117-2146
  • Kayahara, Eiichi 4:1931-1964
  • Kumar, Anil 3:1371-1396
  • Kyne, Sara H. 2:629-654
  • Lacôte, Emmanuel 2:729-766,2:767-816
  • Lalevée, Jacques 1:37-56
  • Larraufie, Marie-Hélène 2:729-766,2:767-816
  • Lauz, Miriam 3:1475-1500
  • Li, Chaozhong 2:943-964
  • Lucarini, Marco 1:229-248
  • Maestri, Giovanni 2:729-766,2:767-816
  • Magri, David C. 1:249-274
  • Majima, Tetsuro 3:1397-1424
  • Malacria, Max 2:729-766,2:767-816
  • Mardyukov, Artur 1:207-228
  • Marque, Sylvain R.A. 4:1813-1850
  • Matyjaszewski, Krzysztof 4:1785-1812,4:1851-1894
  • McGilvray, Katherine L. 4:2197-2210
  • Miranda, Miguel A. 1:275-300
  • Morozova, Olga 1:175-206
  • Murphy, John A. 2:817-848
  • Nanni, Daniele 2:1019-1058
  • Nesvadba, Peter 4:1701-1736
  • Newcomb, Martin 1:107-124
  • Nicovich, J. Michael 1:503-528
  • Niki, Etsuo 3:1577-1598
  • Nishide, Hiroyuki 4:2163-2170
  • Ohkubo, Kei 1:365-394
  • Ollivier, Cyril 2:729-766,2:767-816
  • Orfanopoulos, Michael 4:2171-2196
  • Ouari, Olivier 4:1965-2016
  • Oyaizu, Kenichi 4:2163-2170
  • Pacioni, Natalia L. 4:2197-2210
  • Paulusse, Jos M.J. 4:2081-2116
  • Paul, Anna 2:1175-1216
  • Pérez-Martín, Inés 2:1131-1174
  • Pérez-Prieto, Julia 1:275-300
  • Perrier, Sébastien 4:1895-1930
  • Pintauer, Tomislav 4:1851-1894
  • Pratt, Derek A. 3:1623-1678
  • Procter, David J. 2:849-900
  • Radom, Leo 3:1547-1576
  • Ravanat, Jean-Luc 3:1319-1344
  • Renaud, Philippe 2:601-628
  • Riahi, Yael 3:1679-1700
  • Riguet, Emmanuel 2:1217-1242
  • Rijksen, Bart 4:2081-2116
  • Rossi, Roberto A. 1:333-364
  • Russell, Gregory T. 4:1737-1784
  • Ryu, Ilhyong 2:1243-1258
  • Sandala, Gregory M. 3:1547-1576
  • Sander, Wolfram 1:207-228
  • Sasaki, Kaname 1:125-146
  • Sasson, Shlomo 3:1679-1700
  • Scaiano, Juan C. 4:2197-2210
  • Schiesser, Carl H. 2:629-654
  • Schlaad, Helmut 4:2017-2056
  • Schöneich, Christian 3:1459-1474
  • Schröder, Detlef 1:477-502
  • Sevilla, Michael D. 3:1371-1396
  • Shafirovich, Vladimir 3:1283-1318
  • Sherbum, Michael S. 1:57-80
  • Shkrob, Ilya A. 1:433-448
  • Sibi, Mukund P. 2:655-692
  • Skrydstrup, Troels 2:849-900
  • Smith, David M. 3:1547-1576
  • Spagnolo, Piero 2:1019-1058
  • Stamplecoskie, Kevin G. 4:2197-2210
  • Studer, Armido 2:1059-1094
  • Suárez, Ernesto 2:1131-1174
  • Tanko, J. M. 1:301-332
  • Tansakul, Chittreeya 2:1095-1130
  • Thurecht, Kristofer J. 4:1895-1930
  • Tidwell, Thomas T. 1:1-36
  • Timokhin, Vitaliy I. 2:561-600
  • Tordo, Paul 4:1965-2016
  • Tumanskii, Boris 4:2117-2146
  • Tzirakis, Manolis D. 4:2171-2196
  • Vaillard, Victoria A. 1:333-364
  • Vaillard, Santiago E. 2:1059-1094
  • Valgimigli, Luca 3:1623-1678
  • Wagner, J. Richard 3:1319-1344
  • Walton, John C. 1:147-174
  • Wine, Paul H. 1:503-528
  • Winterbourn, Christine C. 3:1259-1282
  • Wishart, James F. 1:433-448
  • Workentin, Mark S. 1:249-274
  • Yamago, Shigeru 4:1931-1964
  • Yang, Yong-Hua 2:655-692
  • Yorimitsu, Hideki 2:1003-1018
  • Yurkovskaya, Alexandra 1:175-206
  • Zard, Samir Z. 2:965-988
  • Zavitsas, Andreas A. 1:81-106
  • Zipse, Hendrik 1:449-476
  • Zuilhof, Han 4:2081-2116
  • Subject Index
  • A ring construction, 1,22-dihydroxynitiane nitiol analogs, Norrish reactions, 2:1228
  • AB ring synthesis, azadirachtin, stereoselective radical cascade, 2:730
  • ab initio emulsion polymerization, reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer, 4:1920-1921
  • ab initio methods, radical enzyme theoretical studies, 3:1548,1550-1551,1552,1555,1557-1558
  • ab initio values
  • bond dissociation enthalpies, 1:84
  • enthalpies of formation, 1:84
  • EPR parameters, 1:152,155
  • hydrogen transfer kinetics, 1:100-101
  • absolute cross-section, photoionization of gas phase radicals, 1:491
  • absorption spectra, electron paramagnetic resonance, principles, 1:149
  • AC see alternating current
  • acceptors see radical acceptors
  • α-acetamido tetralins, metal-dependent synthesis, 2:918
  • acetate anions, room-temperature ionic liquids, 1:441
  • acetic acid/derivatives, γ-lactone synthesis, manganese(III) acetate-mediated, 2:904-906
  • acetone
  • photochemical radical generation, metal nanostructures synthesis, 4:2199-2200
  • radiolysis, 1:414-415
  • acetonitrile, radiolysis, 1:413-414
  • acetophenone coupling, samarium diiodide, 2:854-855
  • acetoxylated C60 derivatives, one-pot synthesis, 4:2179-2180
  • acetylene additions, carbamotelluroates, 2:961
  • p-acetyl-L-phenylalanine, orthogonal spin labeling, 4:1967,1970
  • acetyl radicals, acetylium transition, ionization energy, 1:489-490
  • acid effects, nitroxide-mediated polymerization, 4:1835-1836
  • acid fluoride monolayers, silicon surfaces, 4:2109-2110
  • Acr+-Mes see 9-mesityl-10-methylacridinium ion
  • acridinium ions, chromophore/electron acceptor, photocatalytic reactions, 1:366
  • acrylamides
  • polymerization
  • nitroxide-mediated, 4:1838
  • reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer, 4:1903-1904
  • synthesis, tin hydride-mediated, 2:552-553
  • acrylates
  • polymerization
  • organoheteroatom-mediated radical living polymerization, 4:1940,1941-1943
  • reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer, 4:1903-1904
  • production, biotechnological applications of radical enzymes, 3:1539-1540
  • acrylic acid, nitroxide-mediated polymerization, 4:1838
  • acrylonitrile
  • additions, glycos-l-yl radicals, stereoelectronic effects, 2:1131-1132
  • nitroxide-mediated polymerization, 4:1838
  • activated alkanes, SRN1 reactions, 1:354-355
  • activated alkenes, epoxide radicals additions, 2:993-995
  • activated allyl derivatives, SRN1 reactions, 1:361
  • activated benzyl derivatives, SRN1 reactions, 1:355-358
  • activated benzyl halides, SRN1 reactions, 1:360-361
  • activating passivation, silicon surfaces, hydrogen, 4:2082
  • activating (Z) groups, reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer agents, 4:1896,1897,1904
  • activation/deactivation mechanisms, persistent radical effect, controlled/living radical polymerization, 4:1786-1787,1953-1956
  • activation energies, 1:81
  • bond dissociation enthalpies, 1:82-83
  • reactive oxygen species, 3:1267,1268,1271
  • activation rate constants, atom transfer radical polymerization, 4:1864-1865
  • activation of sulfatases, alcohol oxidation to aldehyde, SAM radical enzymes, 3:1520
  • activators generated by electron transfer (AGET), atom transfer radical polymerization, 4:1862
  • activators regenerated by electron transfer (ARGET)
  • atom transfer radical addition/cyclization, 4:1879-1880
  • atom transfer radical polymerization, 4:1862-1863
  • industrial processes, 4:1729-1730
  • active esters, silicon surfaces, functionalized monolayers, 4:2106-2109
  • (-)-acutumine, synthesis, intramolecular homolytic aromatic substitutions, 2:1085
  • acyclic 1,2-inductions, substrate controlled, 2:655-656
  • acyclic phosphonylated a-hydro nitroxides, nitroxide-mediated polymerization, industrial processes, 4:1728
  • acyclic sugar derivatives
  • carbocycle synthesis, 2:1149-1155
  • carbofuranose synthesis, 2:1149-1153
  • acyl-CoA dehydrogenases, ketyl radicals, 3:1530-1531
  • acyl derivatives, decarbonylations, tris(trimethylsilyl)silane, 2:563-565
  • N-acyl hydrazones, enantioselective additions, organoboranes, 2:618
  • acylhypohalogenites, fullerene reactions, 4:2182
  • β-acyloxyalkyl radicals, rearrangements, 1:126,127,128
  • γ-acyloxyalkyl radicals, non-rearrangement, 1:126,127
  • N-acyloxyamine radical initiators, industrial radical polymerization, 4:1710-1711
  • β-acyloxyaryl radicals, non-rearrangement, 1:126,127
  • acyloxy rearrangements, 1:126-130
  • cyclic transition states, 1:126,127
  • fragmentation/recombination mechanism, 1:126,127
  • acyloxy rearrangements (continued)
  • shift away from nucleoside 1'-position 1:129,130
  • shift to anomenc centers, 1:128-129,130
  • acyl radicals
  • additions, alkyl azides, 2:770
  • arrunyl radical generation, 2:769-770
  • cascade chain reactions, 2:731-733
  • clocks, 1:118
  • cyclizations
  • aliphatic azides, 2:1022
  • 7-exo/6-exo cascade, 2:732
  • electrophrlic nitrogen effects 2:713
  • decatungstate catalyzed addition to fullerenes, 4:2173-2174
  • lactam synthesis, 2:721-722
  • ring closures
  • at silicon, 2:648-649
  • at sulfur 2:636
  • acyl substitutions, conjugated Reformatsky reactions, samarium diiodrde mediated, 2:889
  • acyl telluride radicals, generation, 2:960
  • acyl throhydroxamates
  • radical chain reactions, 1:68,76-77
  • see also Barton esters
  • addinon-cyclizations
  • aryl rings, 2:910-913
  • cenum(IV) ammonium nitrate-mediated, 2:911-913
  • iron(III) salt-mediated, 2:910-913
  • manganese(III) acetate-mediated, 2:911-913
  • addition-rearrangement-cyclizations, chhydronaphthalene synthesis, 2:912-913
  • additions
  • acetylenes, carbamotelluroates 2:961
  • acrylonitrile, glycos-1-yl radicals, stereoelectronic effects, 2:1131-1132
  • activated alkenes, epoxide radicals, 2:993-995
  • acyl radicals, alkyl azides, 2:770
  • aldehydes, ketones, 2:906-907
  • alkenes
  • azinclinyl radicals, 2:773-774
  • carboxylic acids, γ-lactone synthesis, 2:904-906
  • β-chcarbonyl compounds, 2:907-918
  • diethylthiophosphite, 2:604
  • epoxide radicals, 2:993-995
  • β-keto esters, 2:902
  • kinetics, 1:121-122
  • organoboranes, 2:603-604
  • samarium diiodide-mediated, 2:877-879
  • 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl malonate, 2:1247
  • xanthates, 2:976
  • alkyl azides
  • acyl radicals, 2:770
  • alkyl radicals, 2:770
  • alkylcatecholboranes, nitroxrdes, carbon radical generation, 2:1097
  • B-alkylcatecholboranes, quinones, 2:611
  • alkyl radicals
  • alkyl azides, 2:770
  • isothiocyanates, 2:1049-1050
  • unsaturated carbohydrates, α-C-glycosides synthesis, 2:1137-1139
  • alkynes
  • organoboranes, 2:603-604
  • samarium diiodide-mediated, 2:877-879
  • allylboron derivatives, α-iodoesters, 2:622
  • arenes, aryl radicals, spirocyclic cyclohexachenone synthesis, 2:1063-1064
  • aromatic azides, aryl radicals, 2:770-771
  • aryl radicals
  • arenes, spirocyclic cyclohexachenone synthesis, 2:1063-1064
  • aromatic amides, 2:770-771
  • olefins, synthetic applications, 2:1066-1067,1080-1082
  • 2-arylsulfinylcyclopentenones, tnalkylboranes, 2:609
  • azindinyl radicals, alkenes, 2:773-774
  • C60, scandine, 2:1217-1218
  • carbamotelluroates, acetylenes, 2:961
  • carbon carbon multiple bonds, fluoroalkyl radicals, tris(trimethylsilyl)silane mediated, 2:585-586
  • carbonyl groups, N-stannylammyl radicals, 2:768-769
  • carboxylic acids, alkenes γ-lactone synthesis, 2:904-906
  • catecholboranes, nitroxides, synthetic applications, 2:1097
  • cerium(IV) ammonium nitrate-mediated, 2:913-917,1142
  • conjugate
  • B-alkylcatecholboranes, 2:610-612
  • chiral oxazolichnone auxiliaries, 2:664-665
  • 5-endo-trig cyclizations, 2:703-705
  • trialkylboranes, 2:607-609
  • cyanamides, N-stannylaminyl radicals, 2:768
  • β-chcarbonyl compounds
  • alkenes, 2:907-918
  • enamines, pyrrole synthesis, 2:915
  • dihydrofuran, α-xanthate-α-fluoroacetate, 2:606
  • enammes, β-dicarbonyl compounds, pyrrole synthesis, 2:915
  • enantioselectwe, N-acyl hydrazones, organoboranes, 2:618
  • enones, organoboranes, 2:611
  • fluoroalkyl radicals, carbon-carbon multiple bonds, tris(trimethylsilyl)silane-mediated, 2:585-586
  • glycals, malonates, cenum(IV) ammonium nitrate-mediated 2:1142
  • glycos-1-y1 radicals, unsaturated acceptors, C-glycoside synthesis, 2:1144
  • halogens to radicals, history, 1:17
  • heteroatom centered radicals, isonitriles, 2:1038
  • imine derivatives, nitrogen-centered radical formation, 2:780-781
  • imines, trialkylboranes, 2:609
  • indium-aminyl radicals nitrites, 2:769
  • indoles, ketyl radicals radical/anionic sequences, 2:893-894
  • α-iodoesters, allylboron derivatives, 2:622
  • isonitriles
  • heteroatom centered radicals, 2:1038
  • imidoyl radical formation, 2:1037-1038
  • telluro derivatives, 2:1046
  • isothiocyanates, alkyl radicals, 2:1049-1050
  • ketene, mtroxides, 2:1104
  • β-keto esters, alkenes, 2:902
  • ketones, aldehydes, 2:906-907
  • ketyl radicals, indoles radrcal/anionic sequences, 2:893-894
  • kinetics, 1:121-122
  • malonates, 2:947
  • glycals, 2:1142
  • malononitriles, 2:947
  • manganese(III) acetate-mediated, 2:913-917
  • multiple bonds, sulfur centered radicals, 2:798-803
  • nitriles
  • indium-aminyl radicals, 2:769
  • nitrogen-centered radical formation, 2:780-781
  • N-stannylammyl radicals 2:768
  • nitrones, tnalkylboranes, 2:609
  • nitroxides
  • alkylcatecholboranes carbon radical generation 2:1097
  • ketene, synthetic applications 2:1104
  • olefins
  • aryl radicals synthetic applications, 2:1066-1067,1080-1082
  • oxoammonium cations, alkoxyamme synthesis, 2:1096
  • xanthates, 2:976-977
  • organoboranes, enones 2:611
  • oxidative
  • cobalt-catalyzed 2:1008-1012
  • manganese-catalyzed 2:1014
  • nickel-catalyzed, 2:1006-1008
  • palladium-catalyzed 2:1004-1006
  • silver-catalyzed, 2:1014
  • titanium-catalyzed, 2:1014-1015
  • zirconium catalyzed reactions, 2:1015-1016
  • oxoammonium cations, olefins alkoxyamine synthesis, 2:1096
  • 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine radical cation, 3:1309-1311
  • oxygen-centered radicals π-systems, 2:787-790
  • photochemical electron transfer-induced 2:1217-1221
  • alkynes, silylated tertiary amines 2:1218-1219
  • C60, scanchne, 2:1217-1218
  • silylated tertiary ammes alkynes 2:1218-1219
  • tertiary amines, pyrrolizadine synthesis, 2:1220
  • photoinduced radicals, 1:287-288
  • π-systems, oxygen-centered radicals, 2:787-790
  • primary amidyl radicals, C=C bonds, 2:772
  • quinones
  • B-alkylcatecholboranes, 2:611
  • trialkylboranes 2:609
  • radical chain reactions 1:60,61-62,63,66,69-71,75
  • atom transfer 1:66,75
  • intermolecular radical additions to multiple bonds, 1:69-71
  • regroselective, thryl radicals, vrnyhdenecyclopopane, 2:800
  • scandine C60 2:1217-1218
  • selenium-centered radicals, insaturations, 2:808-809
  • SOMO catalysis, styrenes, 2:681-682
  • N-stannylammyl radicals 2;768
  • carbonyl groups, 2:768-769
  • cyanamides, 2:768
  • nitriles, 2:768
  • stereoelectronic effects, acrylonitrile, glycos-1-y1 radicals, 2:1131-1132
  • styrenes, SOMO catalysis, 2:681-682
  • sulfanyl radicals, isonitriles five-membered heterocycle synthesis, 2:1045
  • sulfur-centered radicals, multiple bonds, 2:798-803
  • telluro derivatives, isonitriles, 2:1046
  • tetranitromethane, B-alkylcatecholboranes 2:615
  • thiols to unsaturated compounds
  • click chemistry applications, 4:2017,2021-2053
  • mechanisms, 4:2017,2018-2020
  • tin radicals, unsaturated systems, radical generation 2:551-554
  • unsaturated carbohydrates
  • alkyl radicals, α-C-glycosides synthesis, 2:1137-1139
  • tethered radicals branched-chain sugar synthesis, 2:1146-1149
  • α,β-unsaturated esters, L-fucos-1-y1 radicals, 2:1133
  • unsaturated systems tin radicals, radical generation, 2:551-554
  • vinyl epoxides xanthates, 2:619
  • α-xanthate-α-fluoroacetate, dihydrofuran, 2:606
  • xanthates
  • alkenes, 2:976
  • olefins, 2:976-977
  • addition-elimination (A/E)
  • coenzyme B12-dependent enzyme mechanism, 3:1552-1553,1555
  • lipid isomerization 3:1601
  • additives
  • atom transfer radical polymerization, 4:1860
  • organoheteroatom-mediated radical living polymerization, 4:1935-1937,1956-1958
  • adenine (A)
  • hydroxyl radical reactions, 3:1292:1328
  • oxidation
  • 5',8-cyclonucleosides 3:1338
  • DNA charge transfer, 3:1398
  • hydroxyl radicals, 3:1292,1328
  • one-electron transfer, 3:1293-1294,1333
  • adenosylcobalamin see coenzyme B12
  • S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) radical enzymes, 3:1501,1514-1525
  • activation of sulfatases, alcohol oxidation, 3:1520
  • biotin synthase, 3:1501
  • C-C bond formation, 3:1524
  • fragmentations and rearrangements, 3:1520-1523
  • glycyl-ractical enzymes, 3:1517-1520,1562
  • irreversible, 3:1517-1525
  • mechanisms, 3:1501,1502,1503
  • primary versus secondary, 3:1502
  • recycling, 3:1501,1515-1517
  • sulfur insertion, 3:1523-1524
  • adhesives
  • organotellurium-mediated radical living polymerization, 4:1960
  • UV-curing, industrial processes, 4:1711
  • adiabatic electron detachment energres (EDEad), anions, room-temperature ionic liquids, 1:441
  • adiabatic temperature increase, industrial radical polymerization, 4:1719-1720
  • adipose tissue, oxidative stress, 3:1690-1692
  • AdoCb1 (5'-deoxyadenosylcobalamin) see coenzyme B12
  • advanced glycation end products (AGEs), 3:1681,1682,1684-1685
  • adventitious oxides, activation by glass reaction vessels, monolayer generation on silicon surfaces 4:2091-2092
  • A/E see addition-elimination
  • aerobic oxidations, alcohols, 2:1113,1119-1121
  • aerobic respiration
  • electron transfer in proteins, 3:1475,1476
  • reactive oxygen species generation, 3:1261-1262
  • AGEs see advanced glycation end products
  • AGET see activators generated by election transfer
  • AGE-RAGE-induced free radicals, hyperglycemia, 3:1684-1685
  • aggregated silyllithium radicals, persistent and stable, 4:2138-2140
  • alcohols
  • aerobic oxidations
  • cerium ammonium nitrate-mediated, 2:1113
  • copper-catalyzed, nitroxide-mediated, 2:1119-1121
  • iron-catalyzed, nitroxide-mediated, 2:1119-1121
  • metal catalyzed, nitroxide-mediated, 2:1119-1121
  • ruthenium-catalyzed, rutroxide-mediated, 2:1119-1121
  • Anelli oxidations synthetic applications, 2:1113-1114
  • Barton-McCombie deoxygenations, 2:621,970
  • chemoselective oxidations, oxoammonium salts, 2:1108-1117
  • conversions, thiols, Barton-McCombre deoxygenations, 2:971-972
  • enthalpies of formation, 1:91-93
  • formations, epoxide reductive opening, 2:990-993
  • hydrogen abstractions, metal-catalyzed, nitroxide-mediated, 2:1119-1121
  • alcohols (continued)
  • non-anomeric, deoxygenations, carbohydrate synthesis, 2:1158-1160
  • oxidation to aldehydes, activation of sulfatases SAM radical enzymes, 3:1520
  • radical generation, Barton-McCombie deoxygenations, 2:965-967
  • racholysis, 1:410-412
  • tertiary allylic, oxidative rearrangements oxoammonium salts, 2:1110
  • aldehydes
  • additions, ketones, 2:906-907
  • aldol reactions, ketones, samarium diiodide-mediated, 2:888
  • asymmetric α-alkylations, 2:1224-1225
  • azidations, iodine azide, 2:1035
  • α-benzylations SOMO catalysis, 2:682-683
  • carbene-catalyzed oxidations, carboxylic ester formation, 2:1105-1106
  • cyclizations, metal-dependent, 2:919
  • 3-exo/4-exo cychzations, epoxides, 2:995-997
  • fullerene reactions, 4:2182
  • glycosyl pyridyl sulfone reductions, 1,2-trans-C-glycostdes synthesis, 2:1137
  • intermolecular pinacol coupling, samarium diiodide, 2:866
  • lipid peroxidation products, 3:1585
  • human physiological levels, 3:1591
  • α-oxyaminations, SOMO catalysis, 2:680-681
  • reductions, samarium diiodide, synthetic applications, 2:857-860
  • α-vinylations, SOMO catalysis, 2:681-682
  • aldimines cyclizations, vinyl radicals, 2:720-721
  • aldols, stereoselective synthesis, 2:661-662
  • aldol-type reactions
  • aldehydes
  • aziridinyl ketones, samarium diiodide-mediated, 2:888
  • oxiranyl ketones, samarium diiodide-mediated, 2:888
  • aziridinyl ketones, aldehydes samarium diiodide-mediated, 2:888
  • cyclizations, conjugated reductions, samarium diiodide-mediated 2:888-889
  • manganese-catalyzed, 2:1014
  • oxiranyl ketones, aldehydes samarium diiodide-mediated, 2:888
  • samarium diiodide-mechated synthetic applications, 2:884,887-889
  • aldosterone, Barton's synthesis, hydrogen atom migration, 1:131,132,133-134
  • aliphatic amine radical canons, hyperconjugative stabilization, 1:308
  • aliphatic amines, 2-iodobenzyl protected, iron-catalyzed arylations, 2:1013
  • aliphatic azides
  • aminyl radical generation, 2:1032
  • cyclizations
  • acyl radicals, 2:1022
  • alkyl radicals, 2:1021
  • lactam synthesis, 2:1023-1024
  • iminyl radical generation, 2:1032
  • light-induced reactions, allenylindium dichloride, 2:1027
  • as radical acceptors
  • carbon radicals, 2:1020-1023
  • heteroatom-centered radicals, 2:1023-1027
  • reductions
  • dichlorindium bromide 2:1026
  • stannylaminyl radicals, 2:1023
  • tris(trimethylsilyl)silane, 2:1026
  • aliphatic cations
  • ionic liquids, ionization, 1:437
  • room-temperature ionic liquids, 1:434,444
  • aliphatic N-cyclopropylamme radical cations, cyclopropane ring opening, 1:307-308
  • aliphatic free radicals, discovery 1:6-7
  • aliphatic ketyl radical anions, cyclopropylcarbinyl→homoallyl-type rearrangements, 1:303-306
  • aliphatic nitroso compounds, spin trapping, 4:2002,2005
  • aliphatic radicals, history, 1:6-9
  • aliphatic substrates, SRN1 reactions, 1:348-361
  • alkali-metal-monosubstituted silyl radicals, stable anion radicals, 4:2137-2138
  • alkali metals SRN1 reaction initiation, 1:335
  • alkali metal substituted aggregated silyl radicals, persistent and stable, 4:2138-2140
  • alkaloids
  • indolizidine, synthesis, Barton ester photochemical cleavage, 2:1236-1237
  • pentacyclic, synthesis, tris(trimethylsilyl)silane, 2:580
  • synthesis, nitrite ester remote functionalizations photochemical, 2:1232
  • alkanes, carbonylations, flow microreactor experiments, 2:1254-1255
  • alkene radical cation/carboxyl anion pairs, radical rearrangements by fragmentation/recombination, 1:126-127
  • alkenes
  • addition-cyclizations, manganese(III) acetate-mediated, 2:913
  • additions
  • alkyl iodides, 2:947
  • azindinyl radicals, 2:773-774
  • α-bromo esters 2:953
  • carboxylic acids, γ-lactone synthesis, 2:904-906
  • β-dicarbonyl compounds, 2:907-918
  • diethylthiophosphite, 2:604
  • β-keto esters, 2:902
  • kinetics, 1:121-122
  • organoboranes, 2:603-604
  • samarium diiodide-mediated, 2:877-879
  • tertiary amines, 1:291-292
  • 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-l-oxyl-malonate, 2:1247
  • thiols, 4:2018-2019
  • xanthates, 2:976
  • aminomethylations, xanthates, 2:975
  • atmospheric ozone reactions, 1:516,525
  • carboaminoxylations, flow microreactor experiments, 2:1247,1249
  • carbodiazenylations, aryldiazonium salts, 2:747-748
  • conjugate additions, B-alkylcatecholboranes, 2:612
  • [2+2] cycloadchtions, ruthenium-mediated photocatalysis, 2:1223-1224
  • electron-deficient, reductions, samarium diiodide, 2:863
  • hydrosilylations, tris(tnmethylsilyl)silane, 2:566-568
  • intermolecular additions, epoxide radicals, 2:993-995
  • ketone-bearing, reductive cyclizations, electrochemically initiated, 2:1206-1207
  • photoinduced electron transfer, 1:291-292
  • photosensitized alkylation, 1:288-289
  • reductive coupling, ethyl 2-(benzenesulfonylammo)acrylate, 2:613
  • silicon surface attachment, self-assembled monolayers, 4:2085-2086
  • substitutions, 4-exo-trig cyclizations, 2:699-700
  • victual hydroxysulfones, xanthate Barton-McCombie deoxygenations, 2:971
  • alkenylations, organoboranes, 2:606-607
  • alkenylboron derivatives, radical trapping, 2:622-623
  • alkenylindium, stereospecific styrylations, 2:606
  • alkenyl isothiocyanates, cyclizations, tin radical-mediated, 2:1050
  • alkenyl substituted 1,3-diketones, reductive cyclizations, 2:1207-1208
  • β-alkoxyacrylates, cyclizations, tris(trimethylsilyl)silane, 2:575,577
  • alkoxyamines
  • C-ON bond homolysis, 4:1829-1831
  • C-ON bond reformation, 4:1831-1833
  • CO-N bond homolysis, 4:1833
  • homolysis, nitroxides, 2:1102-1103
  • nitroxide-mechated polymerization, 4:1813,1828-1837
  • calculations, 4:1836-1837
  • chain length effect, 4:1835
  • penultimate unit effect, 4:1834-1835
  • reaction pathway, 4:1836-1837
  • side reactions 4:1833-1834
  • persistent radical effect, 4:1816
  • preparation, 4:1828-1829
  • structures, 4:1814-1815
  • synthesis, oxoammonium cation/olefin additions, 2:1096
  • N-alkoxyamines, synthesis, tris(trimethylsilyl)silane-mediated, 2:586-587
  • alkoxyamines, thermolysis, 1:42,4:1834
  • alkoxy-base anions, room-temperature ionic liquids, 1:440
  • N-alkoxy compounds, N-O bonds, photoinduced α-cleavage, 1:279-280
  • alkoxyl radical fragmentations (ARF)
  • carbohydrates, 2:1165-1169
  • oxidative conditions, 2:1166-1168
  • reductive conditions, 2:1168-1169
  • alkoxyl radicals, protein radicals, 3:1431-1432
  • alkoxyl radicals
  • Brook rearrangements, 2:785-787
  • 3-exo-trig cyclizations, 2:717-718
  • enthalpies of formation, 1:91-93
  • formation, RO-X compounds, 2:781-782
  • fragmentations, hydroazulenone synthesis, 2:734-735
  • generation, photo-irrachation of thiazole-2[3H]-thione derivatives, 2:1238
  • 1,5-hydrogen abstraction, 1:131-134
  • hydrogen atom transfers, 2:782-783
  • β-scission, 2:783-785
  • α-alkoxy radicals, stereoselective reductions, 2:656
  • alkylated imidazolium cations, room-temperature ionic liquids, 1:433-434
  • alkylations
  • benzothiazole, alkyl bromides, nickel catalyzed, 2:1007
  • cobalt-catalyzed, styrene, 2:1010-1011
  • ethyl pyruvate, 2:613
  • nickel-catalyzed, benzothiazole alkyl bromides, 2:1007
  • pyrroles, synthetic applications, 2:1078
  • reductive, stereoselective, chiral Lewis acids, 2:672-676
  • styrene, cobalt-catalyzed, 2:1010-1011
  • titanium-catalyzed, styrene, 2:1014-1015
  • α-alkylations
  • asymmetric, aldehydes, 2:1224-1225
  • ketones, N-sdoxyenamine, 2:606
  • alkyl azides, additions, acyl/alkyl radicals, 2:770
  • alkyl-base anions, room-temperature ionic liquids, 1:440
  • 9-alkyl-9-borabicyclo[3.3.1]nonanes, cross-coupling, alkyl iodides, 2:1004-1005
  • alkylborane radical traps, 2:624
  • alkyl bromides
  • benzothiazole alkylations, 2:1007
  • nickel-catalyzed cross coupling, 2:1006-1007
  • reduction by tin hydride, radical chain reaction steps, 1:108
  • tin hydride-mediated radical generation, 2:543-544
  • alkylcatecholboranes additions, nitroxides, carbon radical generation, 2:1097
  • B-alkylcatecholboranes, 2:610-616
  • additions, tetranitromethane, 2:615
  • allylations, 2:613
  • cascade addition-allylations 2:613
  • chalcogenattons 2:613-616
  • conjugate additions, 2:610-612
  • cyanations, 2:614
  • formylations, 2:614
  • β-fragmentations, 2:612-613
  • halogenations, 2:613-616
  • modified, 2:616
  • oxygenations, 2:613-616
  • radical reactions, 2:610-613
  • tandem enannoselective conjugate addition-radical alkoxyaminations 2:615
  • vinylations, 2:614
  • alkyl halides
  • allylations
  • cobalt-catalyzed, 2:1008-1009
  • silver-catalyzed, 2:1014
  • arylations, cobalt-catalyzed, 2:1009
  • benzylations
  • cobalt-catalyzed, 2:1008-1009
  • silver-catalyzed, 2:1014
  • carbonylations, high pressure carbon monoxide gas, 2:1246-1248
  • cross coupling
  • cobalt-catalyzed, 2:1008-1009
  • iron-catalyzed, 2:1012-1013
  • nickel-catalyzed, 2:1006-1008
  • fullerene additions, 4:2189
  • high gas pressure carbonylanons, alkyl halides, 2:1246-1248
  • Mizoroki-Heck reactions, cobalt-catalyzed, 2:1010-1011
  • photocatalytic reductions, ruthenium-mediated, 2:1225-1226
  • reductions
  • nickel-mediated, electrochemically initiated, 2:1208-1211
  • ruthenium-mediated photocatalysis, 2:1225-1226
  • samarium diiodide, synthetic applications, 2:856-857
  • tris(trimethylsilyl)silane-mediated, flow microreactor experiments, 2:1244-1246
  • reductive cleavage, tris(trimethylsilyl)silane 2:569-570
  • SRN1 reactions, 1:333,348-354
  • styrene double alkylations, titanium-catalyzed, 2:1014-1015
  • alkyl iodides
  • atom transfer radical additions, 2:946-947
  • atom transfer radical cyclizations, 2:948
  • cross-coupling, 9-alkyl-9-borabicyclo[3.3.1]nonanes, 2:1004-1005
  • hydroxymethylations, organoboranes, 2:621
  • radical generation, un hydride mediated, 2:544-545
  • alkyl monolayers on silicon, radical chain propagation, 4:2084-2089
  • alkyloxy radicals, fullerene reactions, 4:2180-2182
  • alkyl radicals
  • additions
  • alkyl azides, 2:770
  • isothiocyanates, 2:1049-1050
  • alkyl radicals (continued) unsaturated carbohydrates, α-C-glycosides synthesis, 2:1137-1139
  • arylations, protonated pyridines, relative rates, 2:1076
  • azidations pyrrolidinone synthesis, 2:804
  • clocks, 1:114,115,116
  • cyclizations aliphatic azides, 2:1021
  • cyclopentane derivative synthesis, 2:1152-1153
  • generation, thiol desulfurations, 2:1047
  • hydrogen abstraction, 1:139,141
  • matrix isolation spectroscopy, 1:210-214
  • reductions, tin-hydride mediated, 2:542
  • scavengers, persistent radical effect modeling, 4:1816,1817
  • stability, 1:454-463
  • sulfinate ring-closures, 2:637
  • sultine synthesis, 2:638
  • alkyl selenides, arylations, whitasomnine synthesis, 2:1066
  • alkyl substituted benzenes, biaryl compound synthesis, 2:1184-1195
  • alkyl substrates, SRN1 reactions, 1:354-355
  • alkylthio radicals, fullerene reactions, 4:2180-2181
  • alkyne derivatives, ketone-bearing reductive cyclizations, 2:1206-1207
  • alkyne radicals 1,2-thiophosphinoylations phosphorus-centered radicals 2:793-794
  • alkynes
  • additions
  • organoboranes, 2:603-604
  • samarium diiodide-mediated, 2:877-879
  • carbotellurations, 2:958-959
  • hydrositylations, tris(trimethylsilyl)silane, 2:567-568,570-571
  • photoinduced additions silylated tertiary amines, 2:1218-1219
  • radical thiol addition reactions, mechanism, 4:2018,2019-2020
  • silicon surface attachment self-assembled monolayers, 4:2086-2087
  • alkynyl isonitriles, cyclizations, indole synthesis, 2:1045-1046
  • allenylindium dichloride, light-induced reactions, aliphatic azides, 2:1027
  • (-) alliacol A, synthesis, 2:1182
  • (-)-allo muscarine, synthesis, oxygen-centered radicals, 2:790
  • all-trans compounds, lipid isomerization, 3:1603
  • allylations
  • B-alkylcatecholboranes, 2:613
  • alkyl halides, silver catalyzed, 2:1014
  • allyl alcohol denvates, xanthates, 2:983
  • allylindium dichloride, alkyl azides 2:769
  • cross-coupling, alkyl halides cobalt-catalyzed, 2:1008-1009
  • cyclohexannone, SOMO catalysis, 2:684
  • diastereoselective, 2:660-661
  • enantioselective
  • cerium(IV) ammonium nitrate mediated, 2:906-907
  • SOMO catalysis, 2:680-681
  • α-halo carbonyl compounds, zirconium-catalyzed, 2:1015-1016
  • 1,3-inductions, 2:656-657
  • malonyl radicals, chiral auxiliaries, 2:660,662
  • organoboranes, 2:606-607
  • silver-catalyzed, alkyl halides, 2:1014
  • SOMO catalysis, cyclohexannone, 2:684
  • sulfonamidyl radicals, 2:1028
  • tris(trunethylsilyl)silane-mediated, 2:584-585
  • xanthates, 2:981-982
  • zirconium-catalyzed α-halo carbonyl compounds, 2:1015-1016
  • C-allylations, stereocontrol, hydrogen bonding, 2:657
  • allylboron derivatives, additions, α-iodoesters, 2:622
  • allyl derivatives, activated, SRN1 reactions 1:361
  • C-allyl glycosides synthesis, glycos-1-y1 radical intermolecular trapping allystannanes, 2:1133-1134
  • allylic alcohols
  • allylations, xanthates, 2:983
  • synthesis, β-hydroxyepoxide deoxygenations, 2:989-990
  • tertiary oxidative rearrangements, oxoammonium salts, 2:1110
  • allylic C-N bonds, thiol-mediated cleavage, 2:798
  • allylic stannanes, fullerene additions, 4:2189-2190
  • allytic O-stannylketyl radicals 2,3-disubstiluted indole synthesis, 2:553-554
  • allyl iodoacetate
  • 5-exo cyclizations, 2:950
  • oligomenzation/deoligomerization, 2:952
  • allylpinacolborane, xanthate transfers, 2:623
  • allyl radicals
  • 3-exo-trig cyclizations, 2:696
  • matrix isolation spectroscopy, 1:218
  • stability, 1:454
  • allylsilane enol ethers, oxidations, electrochemically initiated, 2:1176-1177
  • allylsilyloximes cascade reactions, haloesters, 2:741-742
  • allylsulfones, B-alkylcatecholborane allylations, 2:613
  • N-allylsulfonyl compounds, nitrogen centered radical generation, 2:773
  • allyltributylstannane
  • C-glycoside synthesis, 2:1132-1133
  • C-ketoside synthesis, 2:1141-1142
  • α-functionalized polymers, nitroxide-mediated polymerization, 4:1840
  • α-particles, 1:395
  • alternating copolymers
  • atom transfer radical polymerization, 4:1871
  • industrial radical polymerization, 4:1714
  • organoheteroatom-mediated tactical living polymerization, 4:1943,1944-1945,1949
  • alternating current (AC), second harmonic voltammetry 1:255
  • aluminosilicates (zeolites)
  • radiation-induced radicals, 1:421-423
  • radical reactions inside framework, 1:245
  • aluminum-centered radicals, electron patamagnetic resonance, 1:161,162
  • amide bonds, stepping stones, electron transfer in peptides/proteins, 3:1490-1493
  • amides
  • benzoic acid derivatives, silane-mediated synthesis, 2:594-595
  • reductions, samarium diiodide, 2:860
  • amiltyl radicals
  • cascade reactions, indolizidine/pyrrolizidine skeleton synthesis, 2:730-731
  • formation
  • copper(I) mediated, 2:774
  • N-O bond cleavage, 2:776
  • spontaneous homolytic cleavage, 2:774-775
  • tin hydride-mediated, 2:554-556
  • xanthates, 2:976-977
  • hydrogen atom migration, 1:131,132
  • trapping, xanthates, 2:976-977
  • amine-bearing electron-rich olefins, oxidations, 2:1177-1178
  • amine-bearing thioenol ethers, cyclizations, 2:1177-1178
  • amine radical cations, cyclopropane ring opening, 1:307-308
  • amines
  • addition to fullerenes, 4:2186-2189
  • cyclic, synthesis, tris(trimethylsilyl)silane, 2:576-577
  • enthalpies of formation, 1:95-97
  • polymerization, reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer, 4:1906
  • secondary, synthesis, tris(trimethylsilyl)silane, 2:565
  • tandem racemizations, sulfur-centered radicals, 2:798
  • aminium cation-radical salts, organic electron donor activations, 2:842-844
  • aminium radical cations, hydrogen atom extraction, 1:135,137
  • amino acids
  • electron transfer to guanosyl radicals, non enzymatic DNA repair, time resolved chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization studies, 1:196-197
  • functionalized peptides, radical thiol addition click reactions, 4:2022,2024-2025,2026,2027,2028
  • oxidant reaction rates, 3:1426,1427
  • oxidation products, 3:1432,1433-1436
  • oxidations α-keto acid synthesis, Fremy's salt 2:1123
  • radical reactions, 3:1428
  • residues, electron transfer in proteins and peptides, 3:1477-1478,1479-1487
  • selenium-containing, radical reactions, 3:1459,1460,1461,1466-1467,1472
  • spin labels, 4:1967
  • sulfur-containing, radical reactions, 3:1459-1474
  • thioethers/selenothioethers, 3:1467-1472
  • thiols/selenols, 3:1460-1467
  • α-aminoalkyl radicals photochemical synthesis of metal nanostructures, 4:2197,2200,2203
  • α-aminoamides, radical Strecker synthesis, 2:747-748
  • 2-amino-1-hydroxyalkyl radicals water/ammonia elimination reactions, 3:1509,1510
  • aminomethylations, alkenes, xanthates, 2:975
  • ammomutases
  • coenzyme B12-dependent, 3:1508,1513-1514,1516,1526
  • SAM-dependent, 3:1513-1514,1515-1516,1526
  • aminopyrene (APy), DNA conjugation, excess election transfer, 3:1419,1420-1421
  • amino-substituted bis(silyl) silicon-centered radicals persistent and stable, 4:2134
  • aminosugars, synthesis, sulfur-centered radicals, 2:800
  • aminoxyl-mediated polymerization
  • use of term, 4:1726,1799
  • see also nitroxide-mediated polymerization
  • aminoxyl radical-mediated reactions, electrochemically initiated, 2:1202-1203
  • aminoxyl radicals, see also nitroxides
  • α-(aminyloxy)ketones, synthesis, radical adchtion-alkoxy aminations, 2:614
  • aminyl radicals
  • cyclizations, sp-hybridized carbons, 2:717-718
  • formation, 2:768,769-770
  • copper(I)-mediated, 2:774
  • N-C bond cleavage, 2:778-779
  • N-O bond cleavage, 2:776
  • organic azides, 2:1020
  • tin hydride-mediated, 2:554-556
  • ammonia, radiation-induced radicals in gaseous systems, 1:398
  • (-)-amphidinolide K, core tetrahydrofuran synthesis, relay cyclizations, 2:736
  • anellated tetrahydrofurans synthesis, oxygen centered radicals, 2:788-789
  • Anelli oxidations, alcohols, 2:1113-1114
  • angiotensin ieceptor agonists, selenium-containing, 2:643-644
  • anhydroalditols, synthesis, 2:1155-1156
  • anhydrovinblastine, synthesis, epoxide deoxygenations, 2:989-990
  • anilides, hydrogen abstraction, 1:139
  • anilinamides, oxidations, IBX-mediated, 2:779
  • animal studies, lipid peroxidation, 3:1589
  • anionic/anionic sequences, carbon-carbon bond sequential formation, 2:895
  • anionic polymerization systems, RAFT, 4:1901-1902
  • anionic radicals
  • cation/neutral radical comparison, 1:301-3332
  • cyclopropylcarbinyl→homoallyl-type rearrangements, 1:302-306
  • DNA, ionizing radiation formation, 3:1371-1372
  • from ketones, 1:302-306
  • fullerenes, 4:2186-2190
  • ring opening, 1:302-304
  • room-temperature ionic liquids, 1:433,434,438-444
  • silyl anion radicals, persistent and stable, 4:2135-2138
  • SRN1 reactions, 1:333,334,335
  • sulfur-containing amino acids, 3:1460,1461,1467
  • anionic/radical sequences, carbon-carbon bond sequential formation, 2:895
  • anions, organic, room-temperature ionic liquids, 1:440-442
  • anisole, anodic coupling, veratrol, triphenylene core synthesis, 2:1191-1192
  • anisole derivatives, enol-ether, cyclizations, 2:1183
  • anisotropic hyperfine interactions, DNA radicals, 3:1375,1376-1381
  • [3+2] annulations
  • chastereoselectivity, 2:658,660
  • pyrrolidine synthesis, 2:605
  • [4+1] annotations
  • iminyl radicals, isonitriles, 2:1043-1044
  • vinyl radicals, isonitriles, 2:1043
  • annotations
  • aryl radicals, isothiocyanates, 2:1050-1051
  • iodomethylaziridine derivatives, pyrrolidine derivative synthesis, 2:604
  • isothiocyanates, aryl radicals, 2:1050-1051
  • malonates, 2:947
  • malononitriles, 2:947
  • anodic oxidations
  • carboxylic acids, 2:1196-1202
  • substrate substitution patterns, 2:1196
  • coupling, 2:1205-1207
  • protected dicarboxylic acids, 2:1197
  • anodic processes, electrochemically initiated reactions, 2:1176-1206
  • anomeric effect radical rearrangements, 1:128,129
  • anomeric radicals, chastereoselective hydrogen quenching, 2:1156-1157
  • Antarctic ozone hole, 1:511-513,517-518,525
  • anthracene
  • photocatalytic chmenzation, 1:388,389
  • photocatalytic oxygenation via radical ion coupling, 1:370-372
  • anlibonding species, hydrogen transfer kinetics, 1:101-102
  • antiferromagnetic ordering versus spin-gap formation, thiazyl radicals, 4:2151-2152
  • anti-Markovnikov addition
  • peroxide effect, 4:1851,1852
  • radical thiols to unsaturated compounds, 4:2018,2019
  • antimony, organostibine-mechated living radical polymerization, 4:1932-1958,1960
  • antimony-based nucleophiles SRN1 reactions, 1:339-340
  • antioxidant responsive elements (AREs), 3:1627
  • antioxidants, 3:1623-1677
  • biological defences, 3:1425
  • chase-breaking, 3:1623,1627-1672
  • antioxidants (continued)
  • definition, 3:1623
  • enzymes and proteins, 3:1625-1627
  • hydroxyl reaction rate constants, 3:1426
  • indirect antioxidants, 3:1623,1626-1627
  • lipid isomerization inhibition, 3:1616-1617
  • lipid peroxidation inhibition, 3:1578,1583-1584,1589,1593,1594
  • natural products, 3:1669-1672,1673
  • nitrogen-containing, 3:1661-1665,1673
  • phenolic compounds, 3:1627-1661
  • preventive antioxidants, 3:1623,1624-1626
  • protein-derived radicals, 3:1448-1449
  • reactive oxygen species defence, 3:1277
  • small molecules, 3:1624-1625,1627
  • sulfur-containing, 3:1625,1665-1667,1673
  • superoxide dismutases, 3:1626
  • synergism and cooperativity, 3:1667-1669
  • vitamins, 3:1669-1672,1673
  • see also radical scavengers
  • anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy, combustion engine research, 1:479
  • (-)-aphanophine, synthesis, carbamoyl diethyldithiocarbamate cyclizations, 2:1235
  • apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins, the metabolic syndrome, 3:1685
  • aqueous dispersed media
  • industrial polymerization, 4:1722-1723
  • nitroxide-mediated polymerization, 4:1821,1822,1840
  • see also emulsion...;microemulsion...;miniemulsion...
  • aqueous environments, photochemical radical-mediated metal nanostructure synthesis, 4:2197,2198,2200,2209
  • aqueous-phase oxidants, troposphere, 1:504,519
  • aqueous solutions, radiation-induced radical reactions, 1:400-410
  • arachidonic acid/arachidonates
  • enzymatic lipid peroxidation, 3:1579,1580
  • free-radical-mediated lipid peroxidation, 3:1582-1583
  • arenediazonium salts
  • aryl radical generation, 2:824
  • oxidations,tetrathiafulvalenes, 2:819-826
  • reductions, tetrakisdimethylaminoethene, 2:828
  • arenes
  • additions, aryl radicals, spirocyclic cyclohexadienone synthesis, 2:1063-1064
  • borylations, 2:1086-1087
  • phosphonations, 2:1086-1087
  • AREs see antioxidant responsive elements
  • ARF see alkoxyl radical fragmentations
  • ARGET see activators regenerated by electron transfer
  • argon
  • matrix isolation, 1:207
  • radiation-induced radicals in gaseous systems, 1:399
  • A ring construction, 1,22-dihydroxynitiane nitiol analogs, Norrish reactions, 2:1228
  • aromatic aldehydes, photocatalytic oxygenation of aromatic compounds, 1:374-375
  • aromatic amines, antioxidant action, 3:1661-1663
  • aromatic amino acids, relay stations in electron transfer, 3:1481-1484
  • aromatic anions, room-temperature ionic liquids, 1:442-444
  • aromatic azides
  • additions, aryl radicals, 2:770-771
  • cyclizations, dichlorindium bromide, 2:1026-1027
  • cyclohexadieniminyl radical formation, 2:1033-1034
  • as radical acceptors
  • carbon radicals, 2:1020-1023
  • heteroatom-centered radicals, 2:1023-1027
  • reductions
  • dichlorindium bromide, 2:1026
  • stannylaminyl radicals, 2:1023
  • triethylsilane, 2:1025-1026
  • tris(trimethylsilyl)silane, 2:1026
  • spirocyclic azidocyclohexadienyl radical formation, 2:1032-1033
  • aromatic cations
  • ionic liquids, ionization, 1:437,438
  • room-temperature ionic liquids, 1:434,444-446
  • aromatic α-chloroacetamides, photoinduced mesolytic cleavage, 1:295
  • aromatic compounds
  • photocatalytic oxygenation to aromatic aldehydes, 1:374-375
  • reduction, radical enzymes, 3:1534-1536
  • SRN1 reactions, 1:333,336-347
  • synthesis, xanthates, 2:978-981
  • aromatic ethers/esters, C-O bonds, photoinduced α-cleavage, 1:280-281
  • aromatic homolytic substitutions, cascade reactions with cyclizations, 2:737
  • aromatic ketyl radical anions, cyclopropylcarbinyl→homoallyl-type rearrangements, 1:302-303,305
  • aromatic nitroso compounds, spin trapping, 4:2002,2005
  • aromatic radical cations, one-electron oxidation, guanine, 3:1295-1297
  • aromatic rings
  • 3-exo-trig cyclizations, 2:697
  • electron-rich, oxidations, electrochemically initiated, 2:1180-1183
  • aromatic substitutions
  • free-radicals, history, 1:28-29
  • homolytic, tris(trimethylsilyl)silane-mediated, 2:586-587
  • aromatic thiols
  • coupling, anodic oxidations, 2:1205-1207
  • radical addition to unsaturated compounds, 4:2018
  • aromatizations
  • cyclohexadienyl radicals, isonitriles, 2:1044
  • nitroxide-mediated, Hantzsch 1,4-dihydropyridines, 2:1105-1106
  • photochemical, Hantzsch 1,4-dihydropyridines, nitroxide-mediated, 2:1105-1106
  • arrested growth, radical-mediated metal nanostructure synthesis, 4:2204
  • Arrhenius activation energies, 1:81
  • bond dissociation enthalpy measurement, 1:82-83
  • arsenic-based nucleophiles, SRN1 reactions, 1:339-340
  • artificial DNA structures, charge transfer, 3:1397-1398,1407-1411,1412-1413
  • artificial nucleobases, charge transfer effects, 3:1397,1398
  • arylations
  • alkyl radicals, protonated pyridines, relative rates, 2:1076
  • aryl radicals
  • cyclizations, 2:1082-1086
  • olefin additions, 2:1066-1067,1080-1082
  • axanthate, organoboranes, 2:607
  • borylations, synthetic strategies, 2:1086-1087
  • carbon-centered radicals, 2:1059-1069,1074-1079
  • cobalt-catalyzed, alkyl halides, 2:1009
  • β-dicarbonyl compounds, 2:910
  • homolytic aromatic substitutions
  • carbon-centered radicals, 2:1059-1069,1074-1079
  • intermolecular, 2:1074-1079
  • intramolecular, 2:1059-1074
  • radical aryl migrations, 2:1069-1074
  • synthetic strategies, 2:1059-1080
  • tris(trimethylsilyl)silane-mediated, 2:586-587
  • ipso substitutions, 2:1079
  • iron-catalyzed, benzene, 2:1013-1014
  • organoboranes, 2:607
  • phosphonations, 2:1086-1087
  • radical, axanthate, organoboranes, 2:607
  • synthetic strategies, 2:1059-1093
  • α-arylations
  • cerium(IV) ammonium nitrate-mediated, 2:924-927
  • iron(III) salt-mediated, 2:924-927
  • SOMO catalysis, enantioselective, 2:680-681
  • arylative cyclizations, 2:1008-1009,1082-1086
  • arylboronic acids, biaryl synthesis, 2:616
  • aryl bromides, radical generation, tin hydride-mediated, 2:544
  • arylcyclopropanes, ring expansions, 1:308-309
  • aryldiazonium salts, carbodiazenylations, alkenes, 2:747-748
  • aryl esters, samarium diiodide mediated reactions, 2:860
  • aryl ethers
  • anodic coupling, biaryl synthesis, 2:1191
  • hydrogen abstraction, 1:138
  • aryl iodides, chiral radical generation, tin hydride-mediated, 2:544-545
  • arylmethyl radicals, history, 1:2-6
  • aryl migrations
  • homolytic aromatic substitutions, 2:1069-1074
  • intramolecular tin to carbon, 2:948
  • aryl nitroxides, nitroxide-mediated polymerization, 4:1827-1828
  • aryloxyl radicals, phenolic antioxidant action, 3:1628,1643,1651,1655-1657
  • aryloxy radicals, history, 1:14-15
  • aryl radicals
  • additions
  • arenes, spirocyclic cyclohexadienone synthesis, 2:1063-1064
  • aromatic azides, 2:770-771
  • olefins, synthetic applications, 2:1066-1067,1080-1082
  • annulations, isothiocyanates, 2:1050-1051
  • arylations, synthetic strategies, 2:1080-1087
  • clocks, 1:116
  • 5-endo-trig cyclizations, 2:705-706
  • cyclizations
  • aldimines, 2:721
  • cyclic alcohol effects, 2:714
  • ketimines, 2:721
  • organic azides, 2:1020
  • synthetic strategies, 2:1082-1086
  • tris(trimethylsilyl)silane, 2:579
  • unusual pathways, 2:713-714
  • endocyclic closure, 2:713-714
  • fullerene reactions, 4:2179-2180
  • generation
  • arenediazonium salts, 2:824
  • aryl iodides, tin hydride-mediated, 2:544-545
  • hydrogen abstraction, 1:137,141,142
  • matrix isolation spectroscopy, 1:218-225
  • ring-closures, at sulfur, 2:636-637
  • sulfinamide ring-closures, 2:637
  • sulfinate ring-closures, 2:637
  • trapping, nitroxides, 2:1101-1102
  • aryl rings, addition-cyclizations, 2:911-913
  • 2-arylsulfinylcyclopentenones, additions, trialkylboranes, 2:609
  • aryltelluro groups, atom transfer radical additions/cyclizations, 2:958-961
  • ascorbic acid/ascorbate (vitamin C)
  • antioxidant action, 3:1623,1669-1670
  • coantioxidant, 3:1668
  • radical scavenging, 3:1268,1271,1277
  • related compounds, antioxidant action, 3:1670
  • α-tocopherol synergism, 3:1667,1669
  • (±)-aspidospermine, synthesis, organic electron donors, 2:819,822
  • astrobiology (exobiology), atmospheric chemistry, 1:480
  • astrochemistry (interstellar chemistry), low temperature studies, 1:481-482,496-497
  • asymmetric α-alkylations, aldehydes, 2:1224-1225
  • asymmetric atom transfer radical cyclizations, bromine atoms, 2:954
  • asymmetric conformation, chiral methylthiofullerenes, 4:2181
  • asymmetric electron transfers
  • chiral ligand-assisted, 2:686-689
  • samarium-mediated, 2:686-687
  • titanium-mediated, 2:687-688
  • asymmetric reductions, ketones, samarium diiodide, synthetic applications, 2:859
  • A-tensor, anisotropic hyperfine interactions, DNA radicals, 3:1378-1380
  • atherosclerosis, lipid peroxidation, 3:1577
  • atmospheric chemistry, 1:480,503-528
  • anthropogenic effects, 1:504-505,513-514,515-516,523
  • condensed phase processes, 1:503-504,519
  • CRESU, 1:497
  • extraterrestrial bodies, 1:480
  • matrix isolation spectroscopy, 1:212
  • oxygen, evolution of life, 3:1261
  • ozone depletion mechanisms, 1:506,508-509,510-513
  • photochemical reaction rates, 1:503,505-506
  • pollutants, oxidative cleansing mechanisms, 1:514-525
  • radical families, 1:505
  • stratosphere, 1:505,506-513
  • troposphere, 1:505,513-525
  • vertical layers, 1:504-505
  • atmospheric effects, radical-mediated metal nanostructure synthesis, 4:2205-2206
  • atom abstraction rates, substituent effects, 1:102-103
  • atom transfer processes
  • iodoalkane carbonylations, flow microreactor experiments, 2:1254
  • organoheteroatom-mediated living radical polymerization, 4:1932-1960
  • radical chain reactions, 1:65-66,75-76
  • sequential radical addition/cyclization, 4:1882-1884
  • atom transfer radical addition (ATRA), 4:1851-1894
  • alkenes
  • alkyl iodides, 2:947
  • α-bromo esters, 2:953
  • alkyl iodides, 2:946
  • alkenes, 2:947
  • carbon monoxide, 2:946
  • applications, 4:1879-1887
  • aryltelluro groups, 2:958-961
  • bromine atoms, 2:952-954
  • α-bromo esters, alkenes, 2:953
  • carbon monoxide, alkyl iodides, 2:946
  • catalyst regeneration processes, 4:1880-1887
  • chain reactions, 1:66,75
  • chalcogens, 2:943-963
  • atom transfer radical addition (ATRA) (continued)
  • copper-catalyzed, 2:955-956
  • enanuoselective, iodine atoms, 2:952
  • fundamentals, 4:1851-1854
  • halogens, 2:943-963
  • α-heteroatom-stabilized radicals 2:957
  • ICAR/ARGET processes, 4:1879-1880
  • iodine atoms 2:945-947
  • Kharasch-type, 2:1003-1004
  • Lewis-acid catalyzed, bromines, 2:953
  • mechanisms, 2:943-945
  • nitrogen-centered radicals, 2:774-775
  • non-transitionmetal-catalyzed, 4:1851,1852
  • organic ttansformations, 4:1884-1887
  • perfluoroalkyl iodides, 2:946
  • peroxide effect, 4:1851,1852
  • phenylseleno groups, 2:956-958
  • ruthenium-catalyzed, 2:955-956
  • sequential processes, 4:1882-1887
  • stereoselective, organoselerudes, 2:958
  • transition metal-catalyzed, 2:1003-1004,4:1851,1853-1854,1879-1880
  • atom transfer radical cyclization (ATRC), 4:1854
  • alkyl iodides, 2:948
  • applications, 4:1879-1885
  • aryltelluro groups, 2:958-961
  • asymmetric, bromine atoms, 2:954
  • bromine atoms, 2:954
  • catalyst regeneration processes, 4:1880-1887
  • chain reactions, 1:65,66
  • chalcogens, 2:943-963
  • chlorine atoms, 2:954-956
  • copper-catalyzed, 2:955-956
  • halogens 2:943-963
  • ICAR/ARGET processes, 4:1879-1880
  • iodine atoms, 2:947-952
  • α-iodoesters, 2:949
  • ketones, 2:949
  • malonyl radicals, 2:949
  • organic transformations, 4:1884-1887
  • phenylseleno groups, 2:956-958
  • ruthenium-catalyzed, 2:955-956
  • sequential processes, 4:1882-1887
  • stereoselective, organoselerndes, 2:958
  • transition metal catalyzed, 4:1854,1880-1382
  • atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), 4:1802-1805,1854-1879
  • activation rate constants, 4:1864-1865
  • activators generated by electron transfer, 4:1862
  • activatois regenerated by electron transfer, 4:1862-1863
  • additives, 4:1860
  • advantages/limitations, 4:1807
  • alternating copolymers, 4:1871
  • applications, 4:1878-1879
  • alchitecture control, 4:1804-1805
  • block copolymers, 4:1871-1872 1878
  • chain end functionality, 4:1794-1797
  • chain reactions, 1:76
  • complexing ligands, 4:1856-1857,1858
  • components, 4:1855-1860
  • composition control, 4:1869-1873
  • control of topology/composition/functionality, 4:1804-1805,1855,1869-1878
  • copolymers, 4:1870-1873,1874-1875
  • applications, 4:1878-1879
  • copper catalysts, 4:1854-1855,1856-1857,1853,1861,1862-1863
  • deactivation rate constants, 4:1865-1866
  • equilibrium constants, 4:1864
  • flow microleactor expenments, 2:1248-1250
  • fullerenes, 4:2180
  • functional polymers, 4:1794-1797,1877-1878,1879
  • gradient copolymers, 4:1871
  • homopolymers, 4:1869-1870
  • industrial processes, 4:1726,1729-1730
  • initiation, 4:1860-1861
  • initiators, 4:1794-1797,1804,1856
  • initiators for continuous activator regeneration, 4:1863
  • iron complexes, 4:1858-1860
  • kinetics, 4:1861,1863-1864
  • linear segmented copolymers, 4:1871-1872
  • mechanistic features, 4:1863-1869
  • monomers, 4:1803,1855-1856
  • non-copper transition metal catalysts, 4:1857-1860
  • outer-sphere versus inner-sphere electron transfer, 4:1869
  • peisistent radical effect, 4:1786,1787,1797-1799
  • radical nature of propagating species, 4:1868-1869
  • redox potential/equilibrium constant correlation, 4:1866-1868
  • reverse process 4:1861-1862
  • reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer combination, 4:1902
  • reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer comparison, 4:1902,1903
  • ruthenium complexes, 4:1859,1860
  • SFRP comparison, 4:1802
  • statistical copolymers, 4:1871
  • stereoblock copolymers, 4:1873
  • thermodynamics, 4:1863-1864
  • topology, 4:1804-1805,1873-1877
  • transition metal-catalyzed, 2:1004,4:1854-1855,1856-1860
  • transition metal complex-catalysts, 4:1803-1804
  • ATRA see atom transfer radical addition
  • (±)-atractyligenin, synthesis ketone reductions, 2:858
  • ATRC see atom transfer radical cyclization
  • ATRP see atom transfer radical polymerization
  • Au3+ ions, photochemical radical-mediated metal nanostructure synthesis, 4:2202,2203
  • AuCl4- ions, photochemical radical mediated metal nanostructure synthesis, 4:2202,2203
  • autoinitiation, industrial radical polymenzation, 4:1706
  • autoxidations
  • antioxidants, 3:1623
  • β-carotene, 3:1670-1671
  • chain reactions, 1:73-74
  • glucose, 3:1681
  • heme proteins, reactive oxygen species generation, 3:1264-1265,1266
  • lipid isomenzation, 3:1616
  • nitroxide-mediated, synthetic applications, 2:1123
  • organoboranes, 2:602
  • tris(trimethylsilyl)silane, 2:568-569
  • see also inhibited autoxidation
  • axanthate, radical arylations, organoboranes, 2:607
  • 2-azabenzonorobornanes, synthesis, tris(trimethylsilyl)silane-mediated, 2:589-590
  • azabicyclic N-oxyl radicals, menthol oxidations, electrochemically initiated, 2:1203
  • azachrachtin, AB ring synthesis, stereoselective radical cascade, 2:730
  • 6 azaindoles, synthesis, xanthates, 2:979,981
  • 6-azaindolines, synthesis, xanthates, 2:979,981
  • azeotropic composition, copolymerization, 4:1715
  • azethoxyl nitroxides, spin labels and spin probes, 4:1967
  • azidations
  • aldehydes, iodine azide, 2:1035
  • alkyl radicals, pyrrolidinone synthesis, 2:804
  • benzyl ethers, iodine azule, 2:1034
  • carbon compounds, iodine azide, 2:1034-1035
  • cyclic acetals, iodine azide, 2:1034-1035
  • hydrocarbons, azidolodinanes, 2:1035-1036
  • azide-alkyne click reactions, nucleic acid spin labeling, 4:1971,1972
  • azides
  • cyclizations, acyl/alkyl radicals, 2:1021
  • inorganic, 2:1034-1036
  • nitrogen-centered radical formation, 2:767-771
  • organic, 2:1020-1034
  • as radical acceptors, 2:1019-1036
  • reductions, tris(trimethylsilyl)silane, 2:1026
  • α-azidoalkyl radicals, iminyl radical generation, 2:1032
  • azido groups, transfers, organic azides, 2:1028
  • azidolodinanes, azidatons, hydrocarbons, 2:1035-1036
  • azidonitriles cyclizations, dichlorindium bromide, 2:1026-1027
  • azidoselenations, exo-glycals, C-ketoside synthesis, 2:1141-1142
  • azidosulfonylations, 1,6-dienes/1-en-6-ynes, organic azides, 2:1030-1031
  • azido-transfers, organic azides, sulfonyl radicals, 2:1028
  • azindmes, opening, N-tosylamino radical formation, 2:778
  • azindinyl ketones aldol reactions, aldehydes, samarium diiodide-mediated, 2:888
  • azindinyl radicals, 2:773-774
  • azo(bisisobutyrate), fullerene reactions, 4:2179
  • azo(bisisobutyronitrile) radicals, fullerene inactions, 4:2179
  • azo compounds
  • free-radical sources, history, 1:25-26
  • initiators, industrial radical polymenzation, 4:1706-1707,1708
  • thermolysis, 1:39-40
  • azurin biomolecular rectifiers, 3:1495
  • backbiting, polymerization kinetics, 4:1779
  • backside mechanisms, intramolecular homolytic substitutions, 2:629-631
  • bacteria, lipid isomenzation, 3:1617-1619
  • Baldwin's rules of ring closure, radical chain cyclizations, 1:71,2:693
  • Barbier conditions, C-chsaccharide synthesis, 2:1140
  • Barbier reactions, samarium diiodide-mediated, 2:879-884
  • Barton carbonates, C-centered radical conversion, 2:611
  • Barton decarboxylations, radical chain reactions, 1:67-68
  • Barton esters, 1:110,113-114
  • decarboxylations, photochemical cleavage, 2:1235-1237
  • photochemical cleavage
  • disulfide trapping, 2:1236-1237
  • platensimycin synthesis, 2:1235-1236
  • preparation, tin hydride-mediated, 2:547
  • PTOC esters, radical chain reaction initiation, 1:110,113-114
  • PTOC thiol method, 1:112-113
  • radical chain reactions, 1:68,76-77
  • reductive decarboxylations, cyclopropanes, tin hydride-mediated, 2:547
  • Barton-McCombie deoxygenations
  • alcohols, 2:621
  • alkene formation, vicinal hydroxysulfones, 2:971
  • carbohydrate synthesis, 2:1158-1160
  • flow mtcroreactor experiments, 2:1244-1246
  • mechanism, 2:965-967
  • radical chain reactions, 1:67
  • synthetic variations, 2:970-972
  • tin-free modifications, 2:967-970
  • tributyltin hydride-mediated, 2:549-550
  • xanthates, 2:549-550,965-967
  • Barton-McCombie intermediates, xanthate derived, neophilic rearrangements, 2:971
  • Barton reactions
  • aldosterone synthesis, hydrogen atom migration, 1:131,132,133-134
  • nonchain reaction sequences, 1:109
  • "base off, his-on" mutases, 3:1506,1507-1508,1511-1514
  • "base on" eliminases, 3:1505-1506,1507,1509-1511
  • base-pair disruption, DNA hole transfer, 3:1409-1411
  • base stacking, DNA charge transfer effects, 3:1398
  • batch reactors, industrial radical polymerization, 4:1724-1725
  • batteries
  • conventional, 4:2163
  • flexible, 4:2163,2167,2169
  • polyrachcal, 4:2163-2170
  • radical polymers, 4:2164,2165-2168
  • charge transport and storage, 4:2165-2166
  • configuration, 4:2166-2168
  • rechargeable
  • conventional, 4:2163-2169
  • organic, 4:2163-2169
  • types and materials, 4:2163
  • BBDTA salts, ferromagnetism, crystal solvent evaporation, 4:2155-2156
  • BDE see bond dissociation energy
  • (BDTA)2[Co(mnt)2]
  • charge transfer phase transitions, 4:2152-2154
  • crystal structine, 4:2153
  • BDTA see 1,3,2-benzodithiazolyl
  • BDTDA, photoconductivity, 4:2159
  • BEBO see bond energy-bond order
  • bengamide E, total synthesis, nitroxide-mediated, 2:1114
  • Benson's group additivity scheme, enthalpies of formation estimation, 1:84,88
  • benzaldehydes, coupling samarium dnodide, 2:854-855
  • benzazepines, synthesis, electrochemically initiated, 2:1193
  • benzene, arylations, iron-catalyzed, 2:1013-1014
  • 1,4-benzene chradical trapping, nitroxides, enediyne Bergman cyclizations, 2:1101-1102
  • benzeneselenol
  • polarity reversal catalysis, tin hydride mediated alkyl radical reductions, 2:542
  • radical mediator, 2:809-810
  • benzoates, synthesis, phenol conversions, 2:697
  • benzochazepinone synthesis, homolytic aromatic substitutions, 2:1066
  • 1,3,2-benzochthiazolyl (BDTA), 4:2151-2152
  • benzoic acids, slime mediated reactions, 2:594-595
  • benzophenone-initiated photoadditions, branched chain sugar synthesis, 2:1142-1143
  • benzophenones, steroid remote functionalizations, 2:1229-1231
  • benzophenone triplet state (3BP), hydrogen abstraction, 1:48-49
  • benzoquinones synthesis, phenol oxidations, Fremy's salt, 2:1122
  • benzo[b]tellurophenes, synthesis, 2:638-639,643-644
  • benzothiazole, alkylations, alkyl bromides, 2:1007
  • benzylamine, photocatalytic oxygenation, 1:380
  • benzylations, alkyl halides, 2:1008-1009,1014
  • α-benzylations, aldehydes, SOMO catalysis, 2:682-683
  • N-benzyl-N-cyclopropylamine radical cations, mechanistic inhibitors in SET enzymes, 1:310
  • benzyl derivatives, activated, SRN1 reactions, 1:355-358
  • benzyl ethers, azidations, iodine azide, 2:1034
  • benzyl halides, activated, SRN1 reactions, 1:355-358
  • benzyl methacrylate, polymerizations, flow microreactor experiments, 2:1247,1249
  • 1-benzyloxy-9,10-anthraquinones, photochemical isomerizations, 2:698
  • benzyl radicals
  • addition to fullerenes, 4:2172,2173
  • clocks, 1:114-115
  • matrix isolation spectroscopy, 1:222-223
  • stability, 1:454,458
  • synthesis, 10-exo-trig closures, 2:714-715
  • 4-benzylseleno-β-lactams, intramolecular homolytic substitutions, 2:640
  • benzylsuccinate synthase, theoretical studies, 3:1566-1568
  • Bergman cyclizations
  • 5-endo-dig cyclization terminations, 2:709
  • enediynes, 2:1101-1102
  • Bergman cycloaromatizations, 2:710-711
  • Bethe equations, 1:395-396
  • BGBC see bottom-gate bottom-contact
  • BGTC see bottom-gate top-contact
  • BHJ see bulk heterojunction
  • BHT see 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol
  • biaryls
  • synthesis
  • electrochemically initiated, 2:1184-1195
  • Mn(III)-assisted, 2:616
  • bicompetent systems
  • nitroxide-mediated polymerization, 4:1821-1822
  • persistent radical effect, 4:1816,1817
  • bicyclic ketones, cis-fused, synthesis, 2:787-788
  • bimolecular reactions, gas phase radicals, 1:479,495-497,498
  • bimolecular routes, photochemical radical-mediated metal nanostructure synthesis, 4:2200-2201
  • biofuels, combustion research, 1:478,479
  • biologically relevant radicals, 3:1502
  • biological samples
  • lipidomics, cis-trans isomerization, 3:1612-1615
  • lipid peroxidation products, 3:1583,1588-1589,1590
  • biological systems
  • electron transfer, 3:1475,1476-1477
  • lipid isomerization, environmental effects, 3:1615-1619
  • oxidants
  • defensive systems, 3:1425
  • interconversion, 3:1425-1426
  • proteins, 3:1426-1450
  • reaction rate constants, 3:1425-1426,1427
  • sources, 3:1425,1426
  • reactive oxygen species, 3:1259-1281
  • defence, 3:1277
  • generation, 3:1261-1266
  • oxidant sources, 3:1425,1426
  • properties, 3:1266-1273
  • protein damage, 3:1425-1457
  • targets, 3:1273-1277
  • repair/removal of damaged proteins, 3:1448-1450
  • see also membranes
  • biomacromolecular interactions, time resolved chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization studies, 1:197-198
  • biomarkers
  • free-radical stress, trans-isomers of fatty acids, 3:1601,1613
  • oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation products, 3:1577-1578,1590-1593
  • biomedical applications, DNA hole transfer, 3:1411-1412
  • biomimetics
  • factors affecting lipid isomerization, 3:1615
  • liposomes, lipid isomerization, 3:1609-1610,1611,1619
  • S-containing amino acid damage, lipid isomerization, 3:1606
  • tandem desulfurization/isomerization, 3:1607
  • see also membrane models
  • biomolecular electronic devices, 3:1495-1497
  • DNA nanoscale electronic wiring, 3:1397,1412,1413
  • biomolecular reactions, matrix isolated radicals, 1:210,220
  • bioorganic molecule synthesis, radical thiol-X click chemistry, 4:2021-2033
  • biotechnological applications, radical enzymes, 3:1539-1540
  • biotin synthase, 5'-deoxyadenosine radical, 3:1501
  • Birch reduction, electron transfer, history, 1:19-20
  • BIRP see bismuthine-mediated living radical polymerization
  • Bi-S see thiobismuthine
  • bisadditions, nitroxides, ketene, 2:1104
  • bisallylic hydrogen abstraction, free-radical-mediated lipid peroxidation, 3:1581
  • bismuthine-mediated living radical polymerization (BIRP), 4:1932-1958,1960
  • bisnitroxides, nitroxide-mediated polymerization, 4:1828
  • bisphosphino ligands, P-chiral, Kolbe electrolysis synthesis, 2:1201-1202
  • bis(silyl) silicon-centered radicals
  • EPR, 4:2133
  • persistent and stable, 4:2132-2135
  • bis-sulfoxides, optically active, synthesis, nitroxide radical trapping, 2:1100-1101
  • (+)-bistramide, multistep synthesis, oxygen-centered radical remote functionalizations, 2:1233
  • bistriflimide anions, room-temperature ionic liquids, 1:434,442
  • bis(triphenylmethyl) peroxide
  • history, 1:2,3-4
  • rearrangements, 1:13
  • structure, 1:3-4
  • bis-xanthates, radical generation, tin hydride-mediated, 2:550-551
  • BlocBuilder[R] (Arkema), controlled reversible-deactivation radical polymerization, 4:1728-1729,1731
  • block copolymers
  • atom transfer radical polymerization, 4:1803,1804,1805,1871-1872,1878
  • controlled/living RP, 4:1787,1788,1794
  • controlled reversible-deactivation radical polymerization, 4:1726,1728,1729
  • industrial radical polymerization, 4:1714,1726,1728,1729
  • nitroxide-mediated polymerization, 4:1840,1843,1844
  • organoheteroatom-mediated radical living polymerization, 4:1945-1949,1958
  • radical thiol-X click chemistry, 4:2033,2041
  • reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer polymerization, 4:1805,1806,1807,1906-1916
  • convergent pathways, 4:1906,1912-1916
  • divergent pathways, 4:1906,1907-1912
  • thermosensitive micelles, 4:1958
  • blood plasma, lipid peroxidation products, 3:1583,1586,1589,1590-1593
  • Bohr magneton, EPR spectra, 1:148
  • bond dissociation energy (BDE), 1:81-106
  • ab initio values, 1:84
  • alkoxyamines, nitroxide-mediated polymerization, 4:1836
  • electron paramagnetic resonance, 1:169-170
  • experimental measurements, 1:84
  • Hess's Law, 1:81-82
  • literature values, 1:85-87
  • measurements, 1:82-83
  • phenolic antioxidant O-H bonds, 3:1641-1642
  • radical instability scales, 1:98-99
  • radical stability, 1:58-59,450,453
  • radical stability tables, 1:455-456,459-462,465,466-468,470
  • radical stabilization energies, 1:97-98
  • substituent effects, 1:102-103
  • thermolysis, 1:38
  • bond dissociation energy(B-H), radical stability tables, 1:470
  • bond dissociation energy(C-H), radical stability tables, 1:455-456,459-462,465
  • bond dissociation energy(N-H), radical stability tables, 1:468
  • bond dissociation energy(O-H), radical stability tables, 1:467
  • bond dissociation energy(S-H), radical stability tables, 1:466
  • bond energy-bond order (BEBO) method, hydrogen transfer kinetics, 1:100
  • bonding/antibonding energies, reaction rate prediction, 1:100
  • borane-catechol systems, synthetic strategies, 2:621-622
  • borinium cation (B(OH)2+), vertical neutralization to boryl radical, gas phase, 1:489-490
  • borohydride, reductive processes, 2:621
  • boron-containing radicals, 2:622-624
  • electron paramagnetic resonance, 1:161,162
  • stability measurement, 1:469-470,471
  • boron enolates, radical generation, 2:615
  • boron trichloride-mediated reactions, methanol synthesis, methane conversions, 2:620
  • borylations, arenes, synthetic strategies, 2:1086-1087
  • α-boryl radicals, generation, 2:624
  • bottom-gate bottom-contact(BGBC), organic-based field-effect transistors, 4:2058
  • bottom-gate top-contact (BGTC), organic-based field-effect transistors, 4:2058
  • 3BP see benzophenone triplet state
  • branched-chain sugar synthesis
  • intermolecular carbon-carbon bond formation, 2:1142-1143
  • intramolecular carbon-carbon bond formation, 2:1146-1149
  • sequential radical cyclization-intermolecular trapping, 2:1146-1147
  • branched polymers
  • atom transfer radical polymerization, 4:1875,1878
  • thiol addition to unsaturated compounds, 4:2039,2041
  • C-2 branched pyranosides, synthesis, sequential additions, 2:1147-1148
  • "bremsstrahlung", charged particles interacting with matter, 1:395,396
  • bridged halides, SRN1 reactions, 1:349-351
  • bridging mechanism, coenzyme B12-dependent eliminases, 3:1509-1510
  • brominations
  • fullerenes, 4:2185-2186
  • photocatalytic, 1:383-386
  • photoinduced, cycloalkanes, 2:1253
  • sugars, 2:1165-1166
  • bromine, intramolecular homolytic substitutions, 2:630
  • bromine atom transfer
  • organoboranes, 2:605
  • radical additions, 2:952-954
  • radical cyclizations, 2:954
  • bromine-carbon bonds
  • formation, carbohydrate synthesis, 2:1165-1166
  • reductive cleavage, ruthenium-mediated photocatalysis, 2:1225-1226
  • bromoalkynes, cyclizations, triethylamine, 2:1252-1253
  • α-bromo esters, atom transfer radical additions, alkenes, 2:953
  • α-bromoketones, coupling, tetrakisdimethylaminoethene-mediated, 2:828
  • N-bromosuccinimide, free-radical bromination, history, 1:18-19
  • bromouracil (BrU), electron acceptor, DNA charge transfer, 3:1415-1416,1417,1418
  • Bronsted acid-mediated reactions, additions, enantioselective, 2:685
  • Brook rearrangements, alkoxy radicals, 2:785-787
  • Brown conjugate additions, trialkylboranes, 2:607-608
  • BrOx radicals
  • atmospheric, 1:507-509,510-511,512,517-518,525
  • stratosphere, 1:507-509,510-511,512,525
  • troposphere, 1:517-518
  • BrU (bromouracil), electron acceptor, DNA charge transfer, 3:1415-1416,1417,1418
  • brush copolymers
  • atom transfer radical polymerization, 4:1875
  • see also macromolecular bottle brush polymers
  • bulge DNA structures, hole transfer, 3:1409
  • bulk heterojunction (BHJ), polymer-based solar cells, 4:2059,2060,2067-2068
  • bulk polymerization
  • industrial processes, 4:1720
  • initiation stage, nitroxide-mediated polymerization, 4:1820-1821
  • methyl methacrylate, controlled/living radical polymerization, 4:1789-1791,1792,1793
  • butadienes, 2-phenylselenated, synthesis, 2:808
  • N-tert-butyl-N-2-methyl-1-phenylpropyl nitroxide (TIPNO), nitroxide-mediated polymerization, 4:1729,1827,1838
  • N-tert-butylsulfinyl imines, heteropinacol coupling, samarium diiodide, 2:869-870
  • butyrylCoA dehydrogenase, electron bifurcation, 3:1531,1532
  • C2'-oxidized abasic sites (C2-AP), 3:1361
  • C4'-oxidized abasic sites (C4-AP),
  • DNA lesions, 3:1354-1356
  • analytical detection/quantification, 3:1356
  • caged C4-AP in oligonucleotides, 3:1354-1355
  • repair, 3:1356
  • C60
  • additions, scandine, 2:1217-1218
  • C70 radical addition comparison, 4:2173
  • see also fullerenes; fullerite
  • caged electrons, reducing radicals, photochemical nanoparticle synthesis, 4:2200
  • cage effects
  • azoinitiators, industrial radical polymerization, 4:1706-1707
  • C4'-oxidized abasic sites, oligonucleotides, 3:1354-1355
  • history, 1:27
  • matrix isolation of radical pairs, 1:207
  • radical initiators in solution, 1:42
  • spin cages, 4:1999-2000
  • calixarenes, nitroxide spin labels, 4:1995-1998
  • calorimetry, bond dissociation enthalpy measurement, 1:83
  • calothrixin B, synthesis, radical cascade steps, 2:743-744
  • calothrixin derivatives, synthesis, homolytic aromatic substitutions, 2:1065
  • camptothecins
  • synthesis
  • hexamethylditin photochemical cleavage, 2:1238-1239
  • isonitrile annulations, 2:1043
  • CAN see cerium(IV) ammonium nitrate
  • captodative interactions, radical stability, 1:462
  • capture, high-energy neutral particles interacting with atomic nuclei, 1:395,396
  • carbamotelluroates, additions, acetylenes, 2:961
  • carbamoyl diethyldithiocarbamate, (-)-aphanophine synthesis, 2:1235
  • carbamoylmethyl radicals, γ-lactam synthesis, 5-endo-trig cyclizations, 2:703-704
  • α-carbamoyl radicals, Lewis acid-promoted cyclizations, 2:951
  • carbanion nucleophiles, SRN1 reaction, 1:336-338
  • carbapyranoses, synthesis, 2:1154
  • carbene-catalyzed oxidations, aldehyde conversions, carboxylic esters, 2:1105-1106
  • carboaminohydroxylations, olefins, 2:1081-1082
  • carboaminoxylations, alkenes, flow microreactor experiments, 2:1247,1249
  • carboazidations
  • lepadiformine total synthesis, 2:746
  • methylenecyclohexanes, sulfonyl azides, 2:1030-1031
  • carbocationic polymerization, controlled/living radical polymerization, 4:1786
  • carbocycles
  • synthesis
  • acylic sugar derivatives, 2:1149-1155
  • tris(trimethylsilyl)silane, 2:574-575
  • carbodiazenylations, olefins, 2:1081-1082
  • carbofuranoses, synthesis, acylic sugar derivatives, 2:1149-1153
  • carbohydrate-derived chiral auxiliaries, stereoselective reactions, 2:661-662
  • carbohydrates
  • alkoxyl radical fragmentations, 2:1165-1169
  • intermolecular carbon-carbon bond formation, 2:1131-1143
  • oxidations, 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl, electrochemically initiated, 2:1202-1203
  • synthesis
  • Barton-McCombie deoxygenations, 2:1158-1160
  • carbon-hydrogen bond formation, 2:1155-1160
  • carbon-nitrogen bond formations, 2:1160-1162
  • carbon-oxygen bond formation, 2:1162-1164
  • carbon-phosphorus bond formation, 2:1162
  • carbon-selenium bond formation, 2:1164-1165
  • carbon-sulfur bond formation, 2:1164-1165
  • intramolecular carbon-carbon bond formation, 2:1143-1155
  • non-anomeric alcohol deoxygenations, 2:1158-1160
  • nonanomeric C-radical reductions, 2:1158-1160
  • radical thiol additions, 4:2022,2023,2024
  • stereoselective, 2:1156-1158
  • strategies and applications, 2:1131-1174
  • carbon-13 labelling, carboxylic acids, isonitriles, 2:1042-1043
  • carbonate radical anions
  • additions, 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine radical cation, 3:1310-131.
  • DNA damage, one-electron oxidation, 3:1294-1295
  • guanine oxidation, 3:1294-1295
  • guanine radical reactions, 3:1307-1308
  • inflammatory response, 3:1288,1289-1290
  • carbonate radicals, methionine reactions, 3:1471-1472
  • carbon-bromine bonds
  • formation, carbohydrate synthesis, 2:1165-1166
  • reductive cleavage, ruthenium-mediated photocatalysis, 2:1225-1226
  • carbon-carbon bonds
  • carbon-centered radicals, 1:57,58
  • cleavage
  • fullerene dimers, 4:2172
  • fullerene reduction, 4:2190
  • photoinduced homolytic α-cleavage, 1:281-283
  • photoinduced mesolytic cleavage, 1:293-294
  • radical generation, tin-hydride mediated, 2:547
  • radical stabilization energy characterization, 1:451
  • thermolysis, 1:38,40
  • formation
  • fullerene additions, 4:2173,2189
  • intermolecular
  • branched-chain sugar synthesis, 2:1142-1143
  • C-disaccharide synthesis, 2:1139-1141
  • C-ketoside synthesis, 2:1141-1142
  • tris(trimethylsilyl)silane-mediated, 2:583-585
  • intramolecular
  • branched-chain sugar synthesis, 2:1146-1149
  • carbohydrate synthesis, 2:1143-1155
  • C-glycoside synthesis, 2:1143-1144
  • C-ketoside synthesis, 2:1144-1145
  • SAM radical enzymes, 3:1524
  • sequential, samarium diiodide-mediated, 2:890-895
  • SRN1 reactions, 1:333,336-338
  • intermolecular, carbohydrate synthesis, 2:1131-1143
  • photoinduced cleavage, 1:281-283,293-294
  • samarium diiodide-mediated sequential formation
  • anionic/anionic sequences, 2:895
  • anionic/radical sequences, 2:895
  • radical/anionic sequences, 2:891-894
  • radical/radical sequences, 2:890-891
  • thermolysis, 1:38,40
  • carbon-carbon coupling, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons/soot formation, combustion, 1:479
  • carbon=carbon double bonds
  • additions
  • primary amidyl radicals, 2:772
  • radical thiol mechanism, 4:2018-2019
  • carbon-centered radicals, 1:57,58
  • unsaturated fatty acids, lipid isomerization, 3:1599-1622
  • carbon-carbon multiple bonds
  • fluoroalkyl radical additions, tris(trimethylsilyl)silane-mediated, 2:585-586
  • radical thiol addition reactions
  • click chemistry, 4:2017,2021-2053
  • mechanisms, 4:2017,2018-2020
  • carbon≡carbon triple bonds
  • carbon-centered radicals, 1:57,58
  • radical thiol addition reaction mechanism, 4:2018,2019-2020
  • carbon-centered radicals
  • acceptors
  • organic azides, 2:1020-1023
  • sulfonyl azides, 2:1027-1031
  • addition to fullerenes, 4:2171-2180
  • arylations, synthetic strategies, 2:1059-1069,1074-1079
  • bent structures, 1:57,58
  • α-carbon radicals from proteins, 3:1428-1429
  • carbonylations, cascade reactions, 2:745-746
  • chain reactions, 1:57-79
  • clocks, 1:114-117,118
  • calibration methods, 1:112-114
  • conversions, Barton carbonate, 2:611
  • 4-exo-trig cyclizations, 2:699
  • 5-endo-dig cyclizations, 2:707-708
  • cysteine residue reactions, 3:1461-1464
  • direct trapping, nitroxides, 2:1095-1097
  • DNA sugar moieties, 3:1346-1366
  • double ligand/double bond structures, 1:57,58
  • electron paramagnetic resonance, 1:156-157
  • electrophilic, arylations, 2:1068-1069,1076-1079
  • enthalpies of formation, 1:88-91
  • ester interactions, 1:125-126
  • generation
  • alkylcatecholborane nitroxide additions, 2:1097
  • phenylselenium leaving groups, 2:805-806
  • photochemical processes, 1:275-300
  • tin hydride-mediated, 2:543-554
  • geometries at Cα, electron paramagnetic resonance, 1:156-157
  • homolytic substitutions, selenium-centered radicals, 2:806-807
  • linear structures, 1:57, 58
  • nitrophilic cyclizations, 2:719-722
  • nucleophilic, arylations, 2:1059-1067,1074-1076
  • organoboranes, 2:607-616
  • oxophilic reactions, cyclizations, 2:722-724
  • planar structures, 1:57,58
  • protein side chains, 3:1430
  • radical enzymes, 3:1502
  • single ligand/triple bond structures, 1:57,58
  • stability, 1:57-59,454-465
  • definitions, 1:449-453
  • di-/trisubstituted C-centered radicals, 1:457-463
  • monosubstituted radicals, 1:454-457
  • σ-type, 1:463-465
  • silyl substitution, 4:2117
  • value tables, 1:455-456,459-462,465
  • structures, 1:57,58,156-157
  • trapping, nitroxides, 2:1095-1102
  • trialkylborane reactivity, 2:602
  • triple ligand/single bond structures, 1:57,58
  • carbon-cobalt bonds
  • homolysis
  • coenzyme B12-dependent enzymes, 3:1549-1551
  • radical generation by enzymes, 3:1502,1506,1509
  • carbon compounds, azidations, iodine azide, 2:1034-1035
  • carbon filament synthesis, atom transfer radical polymerization, 4:1876,1877
  • carbon-halogen bonds
  • cleavage
  • photoinduced homolytic α-cleavage, 1:275-278
  • photoinduced mesolytic cleavage, 1:294-296
  • tin hydride-mediated radical generation, 2:543-546
  • carbon-heteroatom bonds
  • formation
  • carbohydrate synthesis, 2:1160-1165
  • SRN1 reactions, 1:333
  • tris(trimethylsilyl)silane, 2:566-568
  • carbon-hydrogen bonds
  • activation, silicon surfaces, functionalized monolayers, 4:2101-2104
  • carbonylations, flow microreactor experiments, 2:1254-1255
  • formation, carbohydrate synthesis, 2:1155-1160
  • functionalizations
  • indoles, ruthenium-mediated photocatalysis, 2:1226-1227
  • remote, hydrogen atom migration, 1:135,136
  • hydroxyalkylations, 2:619
  • photoinduced mesolytic cleavage, 1:291-292
  • carbon-metal bonds, thermolysis, 1:41
  • carbon monoxide (CO)
  • atmospheric reactions, 1:515,519-520
  • NOx, radical effects, 1:520
  • high gas pressure carbonylations, alkyl halides, 2:1246-1248
  • photochemically-induced extrusions, cyclic ketones, 2:1231
  • carbon nanotubes, thiol-ene functionalization, 4:2045,2047
  • carbon-nitrogen bonds
  • cleavage
  • nitrogen-centered radical formation, 2:778-779
  • photoinduced homolysis of azo compounds, 1:283
  • radical generation, tin-hydride mediated, 2:548-549
  • formation, carbohydrate synthesis, 2:1160-1162
  • carbon-ON bonds
  • bond dissociation energies, alkoxyamines, nitroxide-mediated polymerization, 4:1836
  • homolysis, alkoxyamines, nitroxide-mediated polymerization, 4:1829-1831
  • reformation, alkoxyamines, nitroxide-mediated polymerization, 4:1831-1833
  • carbon-oxygen bonds
  • cleavage
  • photoinduced homolysis of aromatic ethers/esters, 1:280-281
  • radical generation, tin-hydride mediated, 2:549-550
  • formation, carbohydrate synthesis, 2:1162-1164
  • carbon-phosphorus bonds
  • formation
  • carbohydrate synthesis, 2:1162
  • tris(trimethylsilyl)silane-mediated, 2:587-588
  • carbon-selenium bonds
  • cleavage
  • photoinduced mesolytic, 1:296
  • radical generation, tin-hydride mediated, 2:550-551
  • formation, carbohydrate synthesis, 2:1164-1165
  • carbon-silicon bonds
  • formation, tris(trimethylsilyl)silane, 2:566-568
  • photoinduced mesolytic cleavage, 1:292-293
  • self-assembled monolayers, 4:2081,2084-2089
  • carbon-skeleton rearrangements
  • class I mutases, 3:1548,1551-1552
  • coenzyme B12-dependent mutases, 3:1511-1513
  • carbon-sulfur bonds
  • cleavage
  • isocyanide triggered, 2:803
  • photoinduced homolysis of thioethers, 1:283
  • radical generation, fin-hydride mediated, 2:550-551
  • formation, carbohydrate synthesis, 2:1164-1165
  • carbon=X double bonds, reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer agents, 4:1896,1897,1905-1906
  • carbonyl-alkene coupling
  • heterocycle synthesis, samarium diiodide, 2:874-875
  • intermolecular, samarium diiodide, 2:871-872
  • intramolecular, samarium diiodide, 2:872-876
  • natural product synthesis, samarium diiodide, 2:874-875
  • samarium diiodide, 2:870-877
  • carbonyl-alkene cyclizations, samarium diiodide, 2:874-875
  • carbonyl-arene cyclizations, samarium diiodide, 2:875-876
  • carbonylations
  • alkanes, flow microreactor experiments, 2:1254-1255
  • cascade reactions, carbon-centered radicals, 2:745-746
  • high gas pressure, alkyl halides, carbon monoxide, 2:1246-1248
  • iodoalkanes, flow microreactor experiments, 2:1254
  • photoinduced, flow microreactor experiments, 2:1253-1256
  • carbonylative cyclizations, palladium-catalyzed, 2:1005
  • carbonyl compounds
  • pinacol coupling, samarium diiodide, 2:864-870
  • reductions, samarium diiodide, reaction mechanisms, 2:853-856
  • carbonyl groups
  • additions, N-stannylaminyl radicals, 2:768-769
  • cyclizations, stannylaminyl radicals, 2:1023-1024
  • reductive cyclizations, electrochemically initiated, 2:1206-1208
  • carbonyl reductions, electron transfer, history, 1:19
  • carbotellurations
  • alkynes, 2:958-959
  • isonitriles, 2:959
  • carboxylic acids
  • additions, alkenes, γ-lactone synthesis, 2:904-906
  • anodic oxidations, substrate substitution patterns, 2:1196
  • 13C-labelling, isonitriles, 2:1042-1043
  • cyclizations, metal-dependent, 2:918-919
  • electrolysis, α-heteroatom effects, 2:1200
  • primary aliphatic, Kolbe dimerizations, 2:1199-1200
  • reductions, samarium diiodide, synthetic applications, 2:860
  • silicon surfaces, functionalized monolayers, 4:2104,2105
  • carboxyl radicals, 1,5-hydrogen atom abstractions, 1:136
  • carboxyl shift, acyloxy radical rearrangements, 1:126
  • β-carotene
  • antioxidant action, 3:1670-1672,1673
  • autoxidation, 3:1670,1671
  • pro-oxidant action, 3:1670,1671,1672
  • carrier doping for Mott phase, 1,3,5-trithia2,4,6-triazapentalenyl, 4:2156-2157
  • cascade reactions
  • addition-allylations, B-allcylcatecholboranes, 2:613
  • allylsilyloximes, haloesters, 2:741-742
  • carbonylations, carbon-centered radicals, 2:745-746
  • cerium complex-catalyzed, 2:757-758
  • chain radical synthetic strategies, 2:729-746
  • copper complex-catalyzed, 2:754-755
  • cyclization/aromatic homolytic substitutions
  • fortucine pentacycle core synthesis, 2:737
  • luotonin A synthesis, 2:737
  • 7-exo/6-exo cyclizations, acyl radicals, 2:732
  • cyclizations, 1:72
  • with fragmentations, 2:732-735
  • with homolytic substitutions, 2:737-739
  • with translocations, 2:735-737
  • cycloadditions, SOMO catalysis, 2:683-684
  • five-membered ring synthesis, 2:739-742
  • fragmentations, with cyclizations, 2:732-735
  • haloesters, allylsilyloximes, 2:741-742
  • homolytic substitutions, with cyclizations, 2:737-739
  • hydrophosphinations, phosphorus-centered radicals, 2:794-795
  • intermolecular chain radical processes, 2:746
  • intramolecular chain radical processes, 2:729-739
  • iron complex-catalyzed, 2:752-754
  • manganese complex-catalyzed, 2:749-752
  • polycyclizations, 2:729-732
  • redox processes, 2:746-763
  • samarium complex-catalyzed, 2:759-760
  • silver complex-catalyzed, 2:756-757
  • six-membered ring synthesis, 2:742-745
  • titanium complex-catalyzed, 2:746-749
  • translocations, with cyclizations, 2:735-737
  • tris(trimethylsilyl)silane-mediated, 2:587-593
  • visible light-catalyzed, 2:761-763
  • zinc complex-catalyzed, 2:755-756
  • catalase, antioxidant action, 3:1626
  • catalyst regeneration
  • atom transfer radical addition/cyclization, 4:1880-1887
  • see also activators regenerated by electron transfer; initiators for continuous activator regeneration
  • catalysts
  • atom transfer radical addition/cyclization, 4:1851,1853-1854,1879-1880
  • atom transfer radical polymerization, 4:1854-1855,1856-1860,1862-1863
  • radical-catalyzed odd-oxygen destruction in stratosphere, 1:507-509
  • radical chain reactions, 1:75-76
  • catecholboranes, additions, nitroxides, 2:1097
  • catechols
  • antioxidant action, 3:1657-1659
  • coupling, anodic oxidations, 2:1205-1207
  • hydrogen abstractions, TEMPO-mediated, 2:1121-1122
  • catenanes, mechanical interlocking, 1:239, 241
  • cathodic processes, electrochemically initiated reactions, 2:1206-1212
  • cationic radicals
  • anion/neutral radical comparison, 1:301-333
  • deprotonations, 1:326-329
  • hydrogen atom transfer comparison, 1:329-330
  • kinetics, 1:327-329
  • thermodynamics, 1:326-327
  • electron transfer, history, 1:20-21
  • fragmentation, mesolytic cleavage, 1:291
  • fullerenes, 4:2186,2191
  • generation by LFP, electron transfer in peptides, 3:1480
  • guanine radicals, one-electron oxidation of DNA, 3:1300-1302
  • initiation, silicon surfaces, experimental models, 4:2099-2100
  • room-temperature ionic liquids, 1:433-434,436-437,438,444-446
  • sulfur-containing amino acids, 3:1467,1468,1469
  • trapping, tetrathiafulvalenes, synthetic applications, 2:820-824
  • see also DNA radicals
  • cationic ring-opening polymerization, controlled/living radical polymerization, 4:1786
  • cations, organic, room-temperature ionic liquids, 1:433,434
  • CCl3 radical
  • Kharasch reaction, 1:62-63
  • metal-catalyzed chain reactions, 1:75-76
  • CDs see cyclodextrins
  • ceiling temperature, monomers, radical polymerization, 4:1714
  • cellular processes
  • inflammation, DNA damage by reactive species, 3:1283-1312
  • phase-separated antioxidants, 3:1668-1669
  • reactive oxygen species generation, 3:1261-1266
  • see also membranes
  • cellular signaling
  • lipid peroxidation products, 3:1594
  • radical modification of enzymes, 3:1459
  • reactive oxygen species, 3:1262,1264,1274
  • (-)-cephalotaxine, synthesis, cascade cyclizations, 2:1081-1082
  • cerium(IV) ammonium nitrate (CAN)-mediated reactions
  • addition-cyclizations, aryl rings, 2:911-913
  • additions
  • aldehydes, ketones, 2:906-907
  • alkenes, β-dicarbonyl compounds, 2:907-918
  • glycals, malonates, 2:1142
  • aerobic oxidation of alcohols, 2:1113
  • α-arylations, 2:924-927
  • dihydrofuran synthesis, 2:907-910
  • dimerizations, enol ethers, 2:916
  • enantioselective allylations, aldehydes, 2:906-907
  • intermolecular arylations, β-dicarbonyl compounds, 2:910
  • organic electron donor activations, 2:834-837
  • ring opening, 2:932-935
  • α-thioketone synthesis, 2:916
  • cerium complex-catalyzed reaction cascades, 2:757-758
  • chain-breaking antioxidants, 3:1623,1627-1672
  • chain-breaking reactions, radical polymerization, 4:1785,1786
  • chain capping agents, controlled/living radical polymerization, 4:1788
  • chain end functionality (CEF)
  • nitroxide-mediated polymerization, 4:1840-1843
  • preservation
  • controlled/living radical polymerization, 4:1788-1797
  • chain length-dependent termination, 4:1793-1794
  • dead chain fraction, 4:1788-1793
  • minimal polymerization time, 4:1789
  • radical initiators, 4:1794-1797
  • chain-length-dependent termination (CLDT)
  • controlled/living radical polymerization, 4:1787,1793-1794
  • polymerization kinetics, 4:1740,1745-1748,1771-1775
  • chain-length distribution (CLD), polymerization kinetics, 4:1744,1745,1746
  • chain length effect, nitroxide-mediated polymerization, 4:1835
  • chain-length-independent propagation, polymerization kinetics, 4:1740
  • chain-length-independent termination (CLIT), polymerization kinetics, 4:1741,1743,1745-1746,1747,1753
  • chain length magnitude, SRN1 reactions, 1:334-335
  • chain propagation cycle, SRN1 reactions, 1:334-335
  • chain reactions
  • atmospheric CO/CH4 oxidation, 1:519-522
  • atom transfer processes, 1:65-66,75-76
  • autoxidations, 1:73-74
  • catalysts, 1:75-76
  • discrete processes, 1:59-63
  • group transfer processes, 1:65-66,76-78
  • halogenations, 1:74-75
  • initiation stage, 1:59,60,62,63,108,110
  • initiators, 1:40
  • intermolecular radical additions to multiple bonds, 1:69-71
  • intermolecular radical processes, 2:746
  • intramolecular radical processes, 2:729-739
  • introduction of functional groups, 1:73-75
  • iodine atom transfers, 2:617-619
  • iodoaldehydes, triethylborane, 2:617
  • Kharasch reaction, 1:62-63,66,75-76
  • lipid peroxidation, 3:1580,1581,1583-1584
  • non-reductive processes, 1:73-78
  • organoboranes, 2:616-620
  • propagation, self-assembled monolayers on silicon surfaces, 4:2084-2089
  • propagation stage, 1:59-63
  • protein oxidative damage, 3:1429
  • radical kinetics, 1:109-110
  • radical mediators, 1:63-65
  • lipid peroxidation, 3:1580,1581,1583-1584
  • reductive mediators, 1:66-73
  • radical processes, 1:57-79
  • reactive oxygen species, 3:1268
  • reductive dehalogenation of organohalides, 1:64
  • reductive removal of functional groups, 1:66-69
  • selectivity, 1:75-76
  • silane-mediated consecutive radical reactions, 2:574-595
  • silylated cyclohexadienes, 2:571,573
  • steps, 1:108
  • synthesis, 1:66-78
  • termination, 1:60,62
  • thiocarbonyl organosilanes, 2:571
  • thiol radical addition to unsaturated compounds, 4:2018-2020
  • tri(organo)tin hydride mediators, 1:63-65
  • versus nonchain reactions, radical kinetics, 1:108-110
  • xanthates, 2:619
  • see also cascade reactions
  • chain termination, industrial radical polymerization, 4:1717-1719
  • chain transfer agents (CTAs)
  • industrial radical polymerization, 4:1716
  • organoheteroatom-mediated radical living polymerization, 4:1933-1935,1937,1938
  • chain transfer reactions
  • degradative chain transfer, polymerization, 4:1738,1739,1779
  • enandoselective reactions, 2:666-667
  • iodoaldehydes, triethylborane, 2:617
  • organoboranes, 2:616-620
  • polymerization
  • industrial, 4:1715-1717
  • reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer, 4:1895-1929
  • radical polymerization, 4:1738
  • kinetics, 4:1739,1777-1778
  • radical thiol addition to unsaturated compounds, 4:2018,2019
  • reversible chain transfer-catalyzed polymerization, 4:1933-1937,1939-1944,1949,1960
  • via hydrogen atoms, 2:619-620
  • via iodine atoms, 2:617-619
  • via xanthates, 2:619
  • chain transfer to polymer (CTP), radical polymerization kinetics, 4:1779-1780
  • chalcogenations, B-alkylcatecholboranes, 2:613-616
  • chalcogens
  • intramolecular homolytic substitutions, 2:630-631
  • reductive cleavage, tris(trimethylsilyl)silane, 2:562-564
  • transfer reactions, 2:943-963
  • Chapman mechanism, stratospheric oxygen/ozone reactions, 1:506-507
  • charge delocalization, versus spin delocalization, radical anion ring opening, 1:305
  • charged particles, high-energy radiation interactions with matter, 1:395,396
  • charge separation, photocatalytic reactions of radical ions, 1:365-393
  • charge storage
  • radical polymers, 4:2165-2166
  • see also batteries
  • charge transfer
  • DNA, 3:1397-1424
  • isonitriles, electrophilic attack, 2:1040
  • peptides/proteins, 3:1489-1490
  • phase transitions, BDTACo, 4:2152-2154
  • radical polymers for batteries, 4:2164,2166,2169
  • room-temperature ionic liquids, 1:436,437,440
  • charge transport
  • radical polymers, 4:2165-2166
  • see also batteries
  • chelation
  • samarium(III), 2:873-874,883
  • transition metals, 3:1273
  • chemically induced dynamic electron polarization (CIDEP), 1:175,176,199-203
  • principles, 1:199-200
  • radical ions and follow-up products, 1:202-203
  • radical polymerization, 1:200-202
  • see also time-resolved electron paramagnetic resonance
  • chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization (CIDNP), 1:175-199
  • cyclic reactions
  • degenerate electron exchange, 1:185-187
  • deprotonation, 1:187
  • kinetics, 1:185
  • examples, 1:187-198
  • field dependence, 1:198-199
  • hyperfine coupling constant, 1:177,184-185
  • kinetics, 1:180-182,185
  • phenomenological description, 1:177
  • photoinitiators, 1:189-190
  • radical pairs, 1:175-179
  • radical polymerization, 1:189-190
  • scope, 1:176-177
  • solid-state, 1:199
  • steady-state, organic radicals/radical ions, 1:187-188
  • see also photochemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization; time resolved chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization
  • chemical methods, gas phase isolated radical generation, 1:485-486
  • chemical models, radical enzymes, 3:1547
  • chemical passivation, silicon-carbon bonds, 4:2084
  • chemical switching, molecular machines, 1:241-244
  • chemical tracers, atmospheric radicals, 1:515-516
  • chemiluminescence, photocatalytic oxygenation of tetraphenylethylene to 1,2-dioxetane, 1:372
  • chemoselective oxidations, alcohols, oxoammonium salts, 2:1108-1117
  • chimera bonds, 1:81,102
  • chiral allylsilanes, carboazidations, sulfonyl radicals, 2:1029-1030
  • chiral auxiliaries, stereoselective reactions, 2:659-662
  • P-chiral bisphosphino ligands synthesis, Kolbe electrolysis, 2:1201-1202
  • chiral Bronsted acid-mediated reactions, enantioselective additions, 2:685
  • chiral chain-transfer reagents, enantioselective reactions, 2:666-667
  • chirality transfer, aryl radical generation, tin hydride-mediated, 2:544-545
  • chiral Lewis acids
  • enantioselective reactions, 2:668-679
  • fragmentations, 2:676-678
  • halogen atom transfers, reactions, 2:670-672
  • hydrogen atom transfers, 2:668-670
  • quaternary centre synthesis, 2:677-678
  • reductive alkylations, 2:672-677
  • tandem conjugate addition-fragmentation reactions, 2:678-679
  • template effects, reductive alkylations, 2:673-674
  • chiral ligand-assisted asymmetric electron transfers, synthetic strategies, 2:686-689
  • chiral oxazolidinone auxiliaries, Lewis acid-mediated reactions, 2:664-665
  • chiral quaternary center synthesis, 2:677-678
  • chiral spiroketals, anodic coupling, triphenylene core synthesis, 2:1191-1192
  • chiral sulfoxides, ring-closures, 2:636
  • chiral tin hydrides, preparation, 2:536,538-540
  • chiral zinc complex-catalyzed cyclizations, 2:742-743
  • chlorinations
  • fullerenes, 4:2185
  • photoinduced, 2:1250-1252
  • chlorine atom transfer
  • intramolecular homolytic substitutions, 2:630
  • organoboranes, 2:605
  • radical additions, 2:954-956
  • radical cyclizations, 2:954-956
  • chlorine-centered radicals, atmospheric, 1:507-509,510-511,512-513,516-518,525
  • chlorine compounds, ClOOCl photolysis, stratospheric ozone depletion, 1:512-513
  • chlorine-hydrogen gas mixture, radiation-induced radicals in gaseous systems, 1:398
  • chloroaromatics, photoinduced electron transfer followed by mesolytic cleavage, 1:296
  • cholesterol, oxidation, 2:1116,3:1586-1588,1591,1592
  • chorismate synthase, ketyl radicals, 3:1533-1534
  • chronic inflammation, oxidative stress, DNA damage, 3:1283-1312
  • CIDEP see chemically induced dynamic electron polarization
  • CIDNP see chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization
  • Cinetique de Reaction en Ecoulement Supersonique Uniforme (CRESU), low temperature gas-phase studies, 1:482,496-497
  • CIS see Criegee biradical intermediates
  • cis-fatty acids, natural biosynthesis, 3:1599
  • cis-fused bicyclic ketones, synthesis, 2:787-788
  • cis/trans fatty acids
  • lipid isomerization, 3:1599-1622
  • relative stability, 3:1599
  • cis-trans isomerase (Cti), bacteria, 3:1618-1619
  • 13C-labelling, carboxylic acids, isonitriles, 2:1042-1043
  • (+)-cladantholide, synthesis, tin hydride reduction step, 2:541
  • classic hydrogen atom transfer, 1:323
  • class I mutases, coenzyme B12-dependent enzymes, 3:1548,1551-1552
  • class II eliminases, coenzyme B12-dependent enzymes, 3:1556-1561
  • class III aminomutases, coenzyme B12-dependent enzymes, 3:1561-1562
  • class I ribonucleotide reductases, 3:1503
  • class II ribonucleotide reductases, 3:1503
  • class III ribonucleotide reductases, 3:1503-1504
  • CLD see chain-length distribution
  • CLDT see chain-length-dependent termination
  • cleavage
  • allylic C-N bonds, thiol-mediated, 2:798
  • C-C bonds, radical generation, tin-hydride mediated, 2:547
  • C-halogen bonds, radical generation, tin-hydride mediated, 2:543-546
  • C-N bonds, radical generation, tin-hydride mediated, 2:548-549
  • C-O bonds, radical generation, tin-hydride mediated, 2:549-550
  • C-S bonds, radical generation, tin-hydride mediated, 2:550-551
  • C-Se bonds, radical generation, tin-hydride mediated, 2:550-551
  • electrochemically initiated, thioesters, 2:1209-1210
  • esters, silicon surfaces, functionalized monolayers, 4:2104-2106
  • isonitriles, tin-hydride mediated, 2:548
  • nickel-mediated, thioesters, electrochemically initiated, 2:1209-1210
  • olefins, sulfur-centered radicals, 2:801-802
  • photochemical
  • Barton esters, platensimycin synthesis, 2:1235-1236
  • carbamoyl diethyldithiocarbamate, (-)-aphanophine synthesis, 2:1235
  • photoinduced
  • hexamethylditin, 2:1238-1239
  • homolytic, 1:275-283
  • reductive
  • C-Br bonds, ruthenium-mediated photocatalysis, 2:1225-1226
  • chalcogens, tris(trimethylsilyl)silane, 2:562-564
  • thioesters, nickel-mediated, electrochemically initiated, 2:1209-1210
  • thiol-mediated, allylic C-N bonds, 2:798
  • α-cleavage (homolytic)
  • photoinduced
  • C-C bonds, 1:281-283
  • C-halogen bonds, 1:275-278
  • C-N bonds, 1:283
  • C-O bonds, 1:280-281
  • C-S bonds, 1:283
  • N-O bonds, 1:279-280
  • O-I bonds, 1:278-279
  • cleavage quantum yields, photolysis, 1:43,44-45
  • click chemistry
  • branched polymer synthesis, 4:2039,2041-2045
  • dendrimer synthesis, 4:2028,2030-2033
  • features, 4:2017
  • functionalized monolayers on silicon surfaces, 4:2111-2112,2113
  • functional polymer synthesis, 4:2033,2035-2039,2040
  • nucleic acid spin labeling, 4:1971,1972
  • radical thiol addition to unsaturated compounds, 4:2017-2056
  • applications, 4:2021-2053
  • colloidal particles, 4:2045-2048
  • dendrimer synthesis, 4:2028,2030-2033
  • functional polymer synthesis, 4:2033,2035-2039,2040
  • macromolecular chemistry, 4:2033-2045
  • mechanisms, 4:2018-2020
  • organic chemistry applications, 4:2021-2033
  • surface chemistry, 4:2045,2048-2052
  • reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer polymerization, 4:1905,1913,1916
  • CLIT see chain-length-independent termination
  • ClOOCl photolysis, stratospheric ozone depletion, 1:512-513
  • clouds
  • atmospheric condensed phase processes, 1:503-504
  • see also polar stratospheric cloud
  • ClOx radicals
  • atmospheric, 1:507-509,510-511,512-513,516-518,525
  • stratosphere, 1:507-509,510-511,512-513,525
  • troposphere, 1:516-518
  • clustered DNA oxidative damage, adjacent nucleobases, 3:1335
  • CMC see critical micelle concentration
  • CO see carbon monoxide
  • coatings, UV-curing, industrial radical polymerization, 4:1711-1712
  • cobalamins, radical enzymes, 3:1504
  • cobalt60, radiolysis source, 1:396
  • cobalt-carbon bonds, homolysis, coenzyme B12-dependent enzymes, 3:1549-1551
  • cobalt-carbon σ bonds, homolytic fission, radical generation by enzymes, 3:1502,1506,1509
  • cobalt-mediated reactions
  • alkylations, styrene, 2:1010-1011
  • arylations, alkyl halides, 2:1009
  • arylative cyclizations, 2:1008-1009
  • cross-coupling allylations, alkyl halides, 2:1008-1009
  • cross-coupling benzylations, alkyl halides, 2:1008-1009
  • cyclopropyl benzene synthesis, electrochemically initiated, 2:1210-1211
  • electrochemically initiated, cyclopropyl benzene synthesis, 2:1210-1211
  • Mizoroki-Heck reactions, 2:1010-1011
  • oxidative additions, 2:1008-1012
  • ring expansions, cyclopentane-1,3-diones, 2:1210-1211
  • tandem radical cyclization/cross-coupling arylations, 6-halo-1-hexene derivatives, 2:1008-1009
  • tetrahydrofuran synthesis, 2:789
  • cocatalysts, organoheteroatom-mediated radical living polymerization, 4:1935-1937,1956-1958
  • coefficient of transfer (C1r), RAFT polymerization, 4:1899,1900
  • coenzyme B12
  • ribonucleotide reductases, 3:1504-1505
  • SAM comparison, 3:1502
  • structure, 3:1504,1549
  • coenzyme B12-dependent enzymes, 3:1505-1514
  • aminomutases, 3:1513-1514
  • "base-on"versus"base-off, his-on", 3:1505-1506,1507-1508
  • biotechnological applications, 3:1539
  • carbon-skeleton mutases, 3:1511-1513
  • class I mutases, 3:1548,1551-1552
  • class II eliminases, 3:1548,1556-1561
  • class III aminomutases, 3:1561-1562
  • eliminases, 3:1505-1506,1507,1509-1511
  • mechanisms, 3:1501,1502,1506,1508-1509
  • mutases, 3:1506,1507-1508,1511-1514
  • reactivases, 3:1514
  • theoretical studies, 3:1548-1562
  • co-inhibited autoxidation studies, antioxidants in homogenous media, 3:1667-1668
  • colloidal nanoparticles, spontaneous self assembly, radical-mediated photochemical method, 4:2197-2210
  • colloidal particles, radical thiol addition click chemistry, 4:2045-2048
  • colored radicals, history, 1:1,2
  • color of polymers, industrial radical polymerization, 4:1731
  • comb copolymers, atom transfer radical polymerization, 4:1874-1875
  • combination reactions
  • polymerization, 4:1738
  • kinetics, 4:1739-1740,1776-1777
  • combustion research, gas phase radicals, 1:478-480
  • commercial applications
  • conducting polymers, 4:2075-2077
  • see also industrial radical polymerization
  • Commonwealth Scientific and Research Organization (CSIRO), reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer, 4:1895
  • compartmentalization
  • emulsion polymerization, 4:1722
  • phase-separated antioxidants, 3:1668-1669
  • reactive oxygen species, 3:1275-1277
  • compensation effect, hydrogen transfer kinetics, 1:102
  • competition kinetics
  • kinetic expressions, 1:111-112
  • overview, 1:110-111
  • radical clocks, 1:107-108,110-114
  • competitive q method, redox potential determination, 1:253-255
  • complementary circuits, polymer-based field-effect transistors, 4:2075-2076
  • complex I (NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase), reactive oxygen species generation, 3:1261-1262
  • complexing ligands, copper-catalyzed atom transfer radical polymerization, 4:1856-1857,1858
  • Compton effect
  • DNA ionization, 3:1374
  • electromagnetic radiation, 1:395,396
  • computational methods
  • DNA radical molecular orbital calculations, 3:1371
  • phenolic antioxidant mechanistic considerations, 3:1653-1654
  • computational methods (continued)
  • phenolic antioxidant thermodynamics, 3:1644-1645
  • radical enzyme modeling, 3:1547,1548,1550-1551,1555,1557-1558
  • redox potential determination, 1:258
  • CO-N bonds
  • bond dissociation energies, alkoxyamines, nitroxide-mediated polymerization, 4:1836
  • homolysis, alkoxyamines, nitroxide-mediated polymerization, 4:1833
  • concentration effects, radical polymerization, 4:1785
  • concentration measurements, kinetic EPR spectroscopy, 1:165-167
  • concerted steps, radical chain reactions, 1:60
  • condensed phase processes, atmospheric radical chemistry, 1:503-504,519
  • conducting polymers, 4:2057-2080
  • commercial applications, 4:2075-2077
  • polymer-based field-effect transistors, 4:2058-2059,2061-2067,2075-2076
  • polymer-based light emitting diodes, 4:2057
  • polymer-based solar cells, 4:2059-2061,2067-2075,2076-2077
  • δ-coneceine, synthesis, Hofmann-Loffler-Freytag reaction, 1:131
  • conformational analysis
  • electron paramagnetic resonance, 1:157-159
  • stable silyl radicals in solution, 4:2131-2132
  • conformational energies, DNA radicals, 3:1381-1383
  • confusarin synthesis, intramolecular homolytic aromatic substitutions, 2:1061
  • conjugate additions
  • B-alkylcatecholboranes, 2:610-612
  • 5-endo-trig cyclizations, 2:703-705
  • diastereoselective, chiral oxazolidinone auxiliaries, 2:664-665
  • trialkylboranes, 2:607-609
  • conjugated acyclic triynes, cascade reactions, polycycle synthesis, 2:743-744
  • conjugated enones, endocyclic, benzophenone-initiated photoadditions, methanol, 2:1142-1143
  • conjugated polymers, conducting electricity, 4:2057
  • conjugate reduction/aldol cyclizations, samarium diiodide-mediated, 2:888-889
  • conjugation effects, imidoyl radicals, 2:1041
  • conjugation protocols, block copolymers, reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer polymerization, 4:1908,1912-1916
  • consecutive radical reactions
  • silane-mediated, 2:574-595
  • see also chain reactions
  • contact-molding lithography, radical thiol-ene process, 4:2048,2049
  • continuous reactors, industrial radical polymerization, 4:1725
  • continuous wave (CW) EPR, 1:147-148,150
  • controlled/living radical polymerization (CRP), 4:1785-1812
  • atom transfer radical polymerization, 4:1854-1855
  • chain end functionality, 4:1788-1797
  • chain length-dependent termination, 4:1787,1793-1794
  • conventional radical polymerization comparison, 4:1786,1787-1788
  • conversion, dead chain fraction effects, 4:1789-1790
  • dead chain fraction, 4:1788-1795
  • degenerative transfer processes, 4:1786,1787,1794-1795,1805-1806,1807
  • fullerenes, 4:2180,2181
  • history, 4:1725
  • industrial processes, 4:1727-1731
  • initial monomer concentration, 4:1791-1792
  • mechanisms, 4:1786-1787,1931,1932,1953-1956
  • minimal polymerization time, 4:1789,1792-1793
  • organoheteroatom-mediated, 4:1931-1963
  • persistent radical effect, 4:1786-1787,1797-1799
  • reaction rates, 4:1787,1788-1797
  • reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer, 4:1895,1896
  • techniques, 4:1726-1727
  • use of terms, 4:1725,1786
  • see also atom transfer radical polymerization; living radical polymerization; nitroxide-mediated polymerization; organometallic radical polymerization; reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer polymerization; stable free radical polymerization
  • controlled molecular weight radical polymerization, reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer, 4:1896,1901-1903
  • controlled reversible-deactivation radical polymerization (CRDRP)
  • concepts, 4:1786-1787
  • history, 4:1725
  • industrial applications, 4:1727-1731
  • techniques, 4:1726-1727
  • use of terms, 4:1725,1786
  • see also controlled/living radical polymerization
  • conventional radical polymerization
  • controlled/living radical polymerization comparison, 4:1786,1787-1788
  • industrial processes, 4:1704-1725,1731
  • limitations, 4:1785
  • convergent synthesis, block copolymers, reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer polymerization, 4:1906,1912-1916
  • conversions
  • alcohols, thiols, Barton-McCombie deoxygenations, 2:971-972
  • controlled/living radical polymerization, dead chain fraction effects, 4:1789-1790
  • iodides, lactames, homolytic aromatic substitutions, 2:1062
  • coordination polymers, TITA.Cu(hfac)2, 4:2154-2155
  • Cape-type eliminations, nitroxide-mediated polymerization, 4:1818,1825,1833-1834
  • copolymerizations
  • conventional versus controlled/living radical polymerization, 4:1786,1788
  • industrial radical polymerization, 4:1714-1715
  • kinetics, 4:1749-1752,1766-1770,1775-1776
  • nitroxide-mediated polymerization, 4:1826-1827,1840,1843,1844
  • parameters, 4:1715
  • propagation
  • kinetics, 4:1766-1770
  • monomer reactivity ratios, 4:1766-1768
  • radical reactivity ratios, 4:1768-1770
  • copolymers
  • alternating, organoheteroatom-mediated radical living polymerization, 4:1943,1944-1945,1949
  • atom transfer radical polymerization, 4:1854-1855,1870-1873
  • applications, 4:1878-1879
  • industrial emulsion polymerization, 4:1723
  • organoheteroatom-mediated radical living polymerization, 4:1943-1949
  • polymer-based field-effect transistors, 4:2063,2065,2066,2067
  • polymer-based solar cells, 4:2068-2070,2073,2074
  • random, organoheteroatom-mediated radical living polymerization, 4:1943-1944
  • synthesis, radical thiol-X click chemistry, 4:2033,2036,2037,2041
  • see also alternating copolymers; block copolymers; brush copolymers; comb copolymers; gradient copolymers; graft copolymers
  • copper(II) acetate monohydrate-mediated radical reactions, fullerenes, 4:2177-2178
  • copper-catalyzed reactions
  • aerobic oxidations, alcohols, nitroxide-mediated, 2:1119-1121
  • atom transfer radical additions, 2:955-956,4:1853-1854,1880
  • atom transfer radical cyclizations, 2:955-956
  • atom transfer radical polymerization, 4:1854-1855,1856-1857,1858
  • copper complex-catalyzed reactions, cascades, 2:754-755
  • copper(I)-mediated reactions, amidyl/arninyl radical formation, 2:774
  • copper nanoparticles, radical-mediated photochemical synthesis, 4:2198,2202,2205,2206
  • copper reagents, organic electron donor activations, 2:840-841
  • coptodative radicals, carbon-centered radicals, 1:58
  • coriolin, synthesis, carbon-carbon bond sequential formation, samarium diiodide-mediated, 2:890
  • corrinoids, structure, 3:1504
  • costs, commercial applications, conducting polymers, 4:2075-2077
  • connterion influence, radical-mediated metal nanostructure synthesis, 4:2205
  • coupling
  • acetophenones, samarium diiodide, 2:854-855
  • anisole-veratrol, triphenylene core synthesis, 2:1191-1192
  • aromatic thiols, anodic oxidations, 2:1205-1207
  • arylethers, electrochemically initiated, 2:1191-1192
  • benzaldehydes, samarium diiodide, 2:854-855
  • α-bromoketones, tetrakisdimethylaminoethene-mediated, 2:828
  • carbonyl-alkene, samarium diiodide, synthetic applications, 2:870-877
  • carbonyl compounds, samarium diiodide, synthetic applications, 2:864-870
  • cerium(IV) ammonium nitrate-mediated, 2:917-918
  • 2,6-di-tert-buty/phenol, electrochemically initiated, 2:1188
  • 2,6-dihalogenated phenols, electrochemically initiated, 2:1190-1191
  • electrochemically initiated,
  • anisole-veratrol, 2:1191-1192
  • arylethers, 2:1191-1192
  • chiral spiroketals, 2:1191-1192
  • ketone reductions, 2:1211-1212
  • veratrol-anisole, 2:1191-1192
  • with electrophiles, following reduction, photoinduced electron-transfer, 1:289
  • enolates, 2:924,926
  • Grignard reagents, nitroxide-mediated, 2:1105
  • iron(III) salt-mediated, 2:917-918,924
  • manganese(III) acetate-mediated, 2:917-918
  • metal-dependent, 2:917-918,924,926
  • 4-methylguaiacol, electrochemically initiated, 2:1188-1189
  • with nucleophiles, following oxidation, photoinduced electron-transfer, 1:288-289
  • phenoxides, 2:926
  • pinacols, samarium diiodide, synthetic applications, 2:864-870
  • radical chain reaction termination, 1:60,62
  • reductive, imines, samarium diiodide, 2:876
  • three-component, tris(trimethylsilyl)silane-mediated, 2:588-589
  • veratrol-anisole, 2:1191-1192
  • COX see cyclooxygenase
  • CPR see controlled/living radical polymerization
  • CRDRP see controlled reversible-deactivation radical polymerization
  • CRESU see Cinetique de Reaction en Ecoulement Supersonique Uniforme
  • Criegee biradical intermediates (CIs), ozone/isoprene reactions in troposphere, 1:525
  • critical micelle concentration (CMC), emulsion polymerization, 4:1721
  • cross-coupling
  • alkyl halides, 2:1006-1008
  • cobalt-catalyzed, allylations/benzylations, 2:1008-1009
  • electrochemically initiated, 2:1184-1195
  • iron-catalyzed, 2:1012-1013
  • nickel-catalyzed, 2:1006-1008
  • palladium-catalyzed, 2:1004-1005
  • crossed-beam techniques, bimolecular reactions, gas phase radicals, 1:497
  • cross-experiments, ketene dithioacetal cyclizations, electrochemically initiated, 2:1179
  • cross linking, UV-curing of coatings/inks/adhesives, 4:1711-1712
  • cross-links
  • DNA-protein, oxidation damage, 3:1338
  • interstrand DNA lesions, oxidation damage, 3:1335-1336
  • intrastrand DNA lesions, oxidation damage, 3:1292-1293,1335-1336
  • crown-ethers, nitroxide spin labels, 4:1990,1991
  • cryogenics, matrix isolation, 1:207-228
  • cryostats, matrix isolation, 1:208,210
  • cryptands, nitroxide spin labels, 4:1990,1991
  • crystal solvent evaporation, BBDTA salts, ferromagnetism, 4:2155-2156
  • CSIRO see Commonwealth Scientific and Research Organization CTAs see chain transfer agents
  • CTP see chain transfer to polymer
  • cucurbiturils
  • encapsulation, radical stabilization, 1:236-237
  • nitroxide spin labels, 4:1998-1999
  • paramagnetic rotaxanes, 1:244
  • cumulative molar masses, polymerization kinetics, 4:1748
  • cumyl radicals, persistent radical effect, 4:1816
  • curcumin, antioxidant action, 3:1625
  • curing, polymerizable coatings/inks/adhesives, 4:1711-1712
  • CV see cyclic voltammetry
  • CW see continuous wave
  • cyanamides, additions, N-stannylaminyl radicals, 2:768
  • cyanations
  • B-alkylcatecholboranes, 2:614
  • isonitriles, 2:1042
  • tris(trimethylsilyl)silane-mediated, 2:584-585
  • cyanocobalamin, structure, 3:1504
  • cyano groups, cyclizations, stannylaminyl radicals, 2:1024
  • cyclic acetals, azidations, 2:1034-1035
  • cyclic alkoxysilanes, synthesis, 2:646
  • cyclic amines, synthesis, tris(trimethylsilyl)silane, 2:576-577
  • cyclic aminyl radical generation, 2:769
  • cyclic diols, synthesis, 2:623
  • cyclic ethers, synthesis, tris(trimethylsilyl)silane, 2:575,577
  • cyclic ketene acetals, nitroxide-mediated polymerization, 4:1839
  • cyclic ketones
  • photochemically-induced extrusions, 2:1231
  • synthesis, tris(trimethylsilyl)silane-mediated tandem reactions, 2:588-589
  • cyclic monomers, radical ring opening, industrial radical polymerization, 4:1713
  • cyclic nitrones, spin trapping, 4:2002,2004-2005
  • cyclic nitroxides, nitroxide-mediated polymerization, 4:1727-1728,1827,1838
  • cyclic oligopeptides, synthesis, radical thiol additions, 4:2025,2028,2029
  • cyclic polymers, atom transfer radical polymerization, 4:1876
  • cyclic radicals, stereoselective reactions, 2:658-661
  • cyclic reactions
  • chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization, 1:185-187
  • degenerate electron exchange, 1:185-187
  • deprotonation, 1:187
  • kinetics, 1:185
  • cyclic selenocarbonates, synthesis, 2:642
  • cyclic transition states
  • acyloxy rearrangements, 1:126,127
  • hydrogen atom migration, 1:130,133
  • cyclic voltammetry (CV), redox potential determination, 1:250-253
  • cyclindricines, synthesis, cascade endo-cyclizations, 2:731-732
  • cyclization-rearrangements, Ugi products, metal-dependent, 2:912
  • exo versus endo cyclizations, Δ-5-hexenyl radical, 1:317-318
  • exo cyclizations, radical chain reactions, 1:71-72
  • 3-exo cyclizations
  • titanocene-mediated
  • aldehydes, 2:995-997
  • ketones, 2:995-997
  • 3-exo-tet cyclizations, 2:698
  • 3-exo-trig cyclizations
  • alkoxy radicals, 2:717-718
  • aromatic rings, 2:697
  • exothermic β-scission trapping, 2:696-697
  • kinetics, 2:694-698
  • 4-exo cyclizations
  • titanocene-mediated
  • aldehydes, 2:995-997
  • ketones, 2:995-997
  • 4-exo-trig cyclizations
  • alkene substitutions, 2:699-700
  • kinetics, 2:698-702
  • nitrogen substituent effects, 2:701
  • olefin substituent effects, 2:701
  • regioselectivity, 2:698-702
  • 5-endo-dig cyclizations
  • Bergman cycloaromatizations, 2:709
  • carbon-centered radicals, kinetics, 2:707-708
  • cascades, 2:730
  • dynamics, 2:706-709
  • phosphorous ylide flash vacuum pyrolysis, 2:706-707
  • 5-endo-trig cyclizations
  • aryl radicals, 2:705-706
  • 1,5-H atom transfers, 2:703-704
  • cascades, 2:730-731
  • kinetics/thermodynamics, 2:704
  • radical conjugate additions, 2:703-705
  • silylmethyl radicals, 2:705-706
  • stereoelectronics, 2:703-706
  • tertiary carbon radicals, 2:705
  • 5-exo/6-endo cyclizations
  • cascades, 2:730-731
  • manganese complex-catalyzed reactions, 2:749
  • 5-exo/6-exo cyclizations, then SRN1 reaction, 1:344
  • 5-exo cyclizations
  • allyl iodoacetate, 2:950
  • carbofuranose synthesis, 2:1149-1153
  • diastereoselectivity, 2:658-659
  • titanocene-mediated, epoxide ring opening, 2:997-998
  • 5-exo-trig cyclizations
  • cascades, 2:730
  • cyclobutylcarbinyl radical trapping, strained systems, 2:699-700
  • iminyl radicals, 2:717-718
  • Kolbe electrolysis, 2:1199
  • with nitroxide radical trapping, synthetic applications, 2:1100-1101
  • 6-endo cyclizations
  • cascades, 2:730-731
  • titanocene-mediated, epoxide ring opening, 2:998-999
  • 6-endo-trig cyclizations, cascades, 2:731
  • 6-exo-cyclizations, diastereoselectivity, 2:658,660
  • 6-exo-trig cyclizations
  • carbapyranose synthesis, 2:1153-1154
  • cascades, 2:732
  • isodasycarpidone synthesis, 2:806
  • 7-endo-trig cyclizations, cascades, 2:731
  • 7-exo-trig cyclizations
  • cascades, 2:732
  • unusual pathways, 2:714-715
  • cyclizations, 1:65,66,71-72,77
  • acyl radicals
  • aliphatic azides, 2:1022
  • electrophilic nitrogen effects, 2:713
  • aldehydes, metal-dependent, 2:919
  • aldimines
  • aryl radicals, 2:721
  • vinyl radicals, 2:720-721
  • alkyl halides, tris(trimethylsilyl)silane-mediated, polyimide film microreactors, 2:1244-1246
  • alkyl radicals, aliphatic azides, 2:1021
  • alkynyl isonitriles, indole synthesis, 2:1045-1046
  • amide bond distortions, 2:712
  • aminyl radicals, sp-hybridized carbons, 2:717-718
  • aromatic azides, dichlorindium bromide, 2:1026-1027
  • arylativecobalt-catalyzed, 2:1008-1009
  • aryl radicals
  • organic azides, 2:1020
  • synthetic strategies, 2:1082-1086
  • tris(trimethylsilyl)silane, 2:579
  • at germanium, 2:650-653
  • at oxygen, 2:644-645
  • at selenium, 2:637-644
  • at silicon, 2:645-650
  • at sulfur, 2:635-637
  • at tellurium, 2:637-641
  • at tin, 2:650-653
  • azidonitriles, dichlorindium bromide, 2:1026-1027
  • carbapyranose synthesis, 2:1154
  • carbofuranose synthesis, 2:1149-1153
  • carbon-centered radicals
  • nitrophilic reactions, 2:719-722
  • oxophilic reactions, 2:722-724
  • carbonylative, palladium-catalyzed, 5-iodo-1-pentene derivatives, 2:1005
  • carbonyl groups, stannylaminyl radicals, 2:1023-1024
  • carboxylic acids, metal-dependent, 2:918-919
  • cascade reactions
  • with aromatic homolytic substitutions, 2:737
  • with β-eliminations, fused polycyclic cyclopropane synthesis, 2:735
  • five-membered ring synthesis, 2:739-742
  • with fragmentations, 2:732-735
  • with homolytic substitutions, synthetic strategies, 2:737-739
  • six-membered ring synthesis, 2:742-745
  • with translocations, synthetic strategies, 2:735-737
  • chiral Lewis acid-mediated, enantioselective, 2:671-672
  • chiral zinc complex-catalyzed, 2:742-743
  • cyano groups, stannylaminyl radicals, 2:1024
  • cyclic diol synthesis, 2:623
  • cycloaromatizations, 2:709-711
  • 5-cyclodecynone, oxygen-centered radicals, 2:788
  • cyclopentane derivative synthesis, 2:1149-1153
  • dichlorindium bromide
  • aromatic azides, 2:1026-1027
  • azidonitriles, 2:1026-1027
  • dienes, silylated cyclohexadienes, 2:594
  • β-diketones, manganese(III) acetate-mediated, 2:924
  • dithiocarbonyl radicals, organic azides, 2:1020-1021
  • electrochemically initiated
  • carbonyl groups, 2:1206-1208
  • enol-ether anisole derivatives, 2:1183
  • enol-ether furan derivatives, 2:1181-1182
  • ketene dithioacetals, 2:1178
  • methoxylated phenanthrene synthesis, 2:1192-1193
  • enantioselective, chiral Lewis acid-mediated, 2:671-672
  • energetics, 1:89
  • enol-ether anisole derivatives, 2:1183
  • enol-ether furan derivatives, 2:1181-1182
  • entropy, 2:711-712
  • epoxides, titanocene-catalyzed/mediated, 2:995-999
  • epoxypolyenes, titanocene-mediated, 2:998-999
  • five-membered rings
  • stereoelectronically disfavoured, 2:703-709
  • unusual synthesis pathways, 2:709-711
  • followed by SRN1 reaction, 1:344
  • α-haloamides, tin hydride-mediated, 2:545
  • Δ-5-hexenyl radicals, 1:317-323
  • history, 1:5,8,9,14,29
  • iminyl radicals, unusual bond formation, 2:717-718
  • intramolecular, 2:1176
  • intramolecular homolytic substitutions, 2:645-653
  • 2β-iodo glucopyranosides, branched-chain sugar synthesis, 2:1147-1148
  • iron(III) salt-mediated, malonates, 2:922-923
  • ketene dithioacetals, 2:1179
  • o-ketenimino-substituted benzylic radicals, 2:1052
  • α-ketenyl alkyl radicals, 2:1052
  • ketimines
  • aryl radicals, 2:721
  • vinyl radicals, 2:720-721
  • β-ketoesters, metal-dependent, 2:919-921
  • ketones, metal-dependent, 2:919
  • Kolbe electrolysis, 2:1198-1199
  • leaving groups, 2:634-635
  • Lewis acid-catalyzed, α-carbamoyl radicals, 2:951
  • Lewis acid-promoted, α-ester radicals, 2:950
  • malonates, metal-dependent, 2:921-924
  • manganese(III) acetate-mediated
  • β-diketones, 2:924
  • β-ketoesters, 2:919-921
  • malonates, 2:921-924
  • memory of chirality, 2:668
  • metal-dependent, 2:918-932
  • aldehydes, 2:919
  • carboxylic acids, 2:918-919
  • higher order, 2:928-932
  • β-ketoesters, 2:919-921
  • ketones, 2:919
  • silyl enol ethers, 2:928-929
  • methyl-substituted silyl enol ethers, stannylaminyl radicals, 2:1025
  • nitrogen-centered radicals, unusual bond formation, 2:716-717
  • with nitroxide carbon radical trapping, 2:1099-1101
  • oxidations, cyclopropane synthesis, 2:903-904
  • oxygen-centered radicals, unusual bond formation, 2:717-719
  • oxyl radicals, tin hydride-mediated, 2:556
  • palladium-catalyzed, 6-iodo-1-hexene derivatives, 2:1005-1006
  • phenyl-substituted silyl enol ethers, stannylaminyl radicals, 2:1025
  • photoinduced, bromoalkynes, triethylamine, 2:1252-1253
  • polyfunctionalized cyclohexane analog synthesis, 2:1154
  • radical
  • at germanium, 2:650-653
  • at oxygen, 2:644-645
  • at selenium, 2:637-644
  • at silicon, 2:645-650
  • at sulfur, 2:635-637
  • at tellurium, 2:637-641
  • at tin, 2:650-653
  • cyclic diol synthesis, 2:623
  • leaving groups, 2:634-635
  • radical chain reactions, 1:71-73
  • atom transfer radical cyclizations, 1:65,66
  • radical clocks, 1:89,111,113,114,116-117
  • reductive
  • iron-catalyzed, 6-halo-1-hexene, 2:1012
  • silanes, 2:602
  • regioselectivity
  • aryl radicals, 2:721
  • ring size effects, 2:712
  • selenoesters, isodasycarpidone synthesis, 2:806
  • sequential bond formation, carbon-carbon bonds, samarium diiodide-mediated, 2:890-894
  • silyl enol ethers
  • metal-dependent, 2:928-929
  • stannylaminyl radicals, 2:1024-1025
  • silylheptadienes, 2:739-740
  • six-membered ring synthesis, unusual pathways, 2:709-711
  • small cycle synthesis, 2:694-702
  • spirocyclic azidocyclohexadienyl radical formation, aromatic azides, 2:1032-1033
  • stannylaminyl radicals
  • carbonyl groups, 2:1023-1024
  • cyano groups, 2:1024
  • methyl-substituted silyl enol ethers, 2:1025
  • phenyl-substituted silyl enol ethers, 2:1025
  • silyl enol ethers, 2:1024-1025
  • stereoelectronics, 2:693
  • stereoselective, vinyl iodides, Lewis acid effects, 2:665-666
  • stereoselective reactions, 2:657-659
  • tandem, tris(trimethylsilyl)silane-mediated, 2:590-592
  • tetrahydrofuran synthesis, 2:644-645
  • tetrathiafulvalene electron donation, diazonium salts, 2:819-820,825
  • thermodynamics, 2:693
  • thiol-mediated, natural product synthesis, 2:798-799
  • thionocarbonates, 2:970
  • three-membered ring synthesis, 2:694-698
  • tin hydride-mediated, oxyl radicals, 2:556
  • titanocene-catalyzed, epoxypolyenes, 2:748-749
  • tris(trimethylsilyl)silane-mediated, alkyl halides, polyimide film microreactors, 2:1244-1246
  • unusual, 2:693-728
  • bond formations, 2:715-724
  • cyclizations (continued)
  • five-membered rings, 2:703-709
  • four-membered rings, 2:698-702
  • iminyl radicals, 2:717-718
  • nitrogen-centered radicals, 2:716-717
  • oxygen-centered radicals, 2:717-719
  • small cycle synthesis, 2:694-702
  • vinyl iodides, Lewis acid effects, 2:665-666
  • vinyl radicals
  • at silicon, 2:648
  • organic azides, 2:1022
  • xanthate transfers, 2:976-981
  • [2+2] cycloadditions
  • alkenes, ruthenium-mediated photocatalysis, 2:1223-1224
  • enones, ruthenium-mediated photocatalysis, 2:1221-1222
  • ruthenium-mediated photocatalysis, 2:1221-1222,1223-1224
  • cycloadditions
  • cascades, SOMO catalysis, 2:683-684
  • fullerenes with 3,4-fused pyrroleo-3-sulfolenes, 4:2180
  • cycloalkanes
  • photoinduced brominations, flow microreactor experiments, 2:1253
  • photoinduced chlorinations, flow microreactor experiments, 2:1250-1252
  • cycloalkylacyl radicals, conformation, EPR, 1:158,159
  • cycloalkyl halides, SRN1 reactions, 1:348-349
  • cycloalkylmethyl radicals, conformation, EPR, 1:158,159
  • cycloaromatizations
  • concepts, 2:709-711
  • 5-endo-dig cyclization terminations, 2:709
  • five/six membered ring synthesis, 2:709-711
  • cyclobutanes, synthesis, Knoevenaget adduct paired electrolysis, 2:1184
  • cyclobutanols, synthesis, titanocene-mediated, 2:996-997
  • cyclobutanones, synthesis, titanocene-mediated, 2:996-997
  • cyclobutylcarbinyl radical trapping, strained system, 5-exo-trig cyclizations, 2:699-700
  • 5-cyclodecynone, oxidative cyclizations, oxygen-centered radicals, 2:788
  • (5'S)-5',8-cyclo-2'-cleoxyadenosine, synthesis, tris(trimethylsilyl)silane, 2:580-581
  • cyclodextrins (CDs)
  • nitroxide inclusion, 4:1991-1995
  • paramagnetic rotaxanes, 1:244
  • radical complexes, EPR studies, 1:233-234,235-236
  • cyclohexadieniminyl radicals, formation, aromatic azides, 2:1033-1034
  • cyclohexadienyl radical derivatives, matrix isolation spectroscopy, 1:222
  • cyclohexadienyl radicals
  • aromatizations, isonitriles, 2:1044
  • homolytic aromatic substitutions, synthetic applications, 2:1067
  • cyclohexane derivatives, synthesis, 2:1153-1154
  • cyclohexanes, synthesis, titanocene-mediated 6-endo cyclizations, 2:998-999
  • cyclohexannone, allylations, SOMO catalysis, 2:684
  • cycloketones, one-carbon ring expansions, tris(trimethylsilyl)silane, 2:581-582
  • 5',8-cyclonucleosides, DNA oxidation, 3:1338,1340
  • cyclonucleosides, synthesis, tris(trimethylsilyl)silane-mediated, 2:590
  • cyclooxygenase (COX), lipid peroxidation, 3:1578,1579-1580
  • cyclopentanes
  • synthesis
  • enol ether oxidations, electrochemically initiated, 2:1176-1177
  • ketene dithioacetal oxidations, electrochemically initiated, 2:1179
  • polyfunctionalized analogs, acylic sugar derivatives, 2:1149-1153
  • cyclopropanations, haloalkenes, electrochemically initiated, 2:1209
  • cyclopropane
  • radical cation/anion comparison, 1:301-317
  • ring opening
  • N-cyclopropylaniline radical cations, 1:311-312
  • cyclopropylarene radical cations, 1:313-316
  • radical anions, 1:303-304
  • radical cation, 1:307-308
  • synthesis, 2:903-904
  • cyclopropane substituted radicals
  • cations, ring opening, 1:307-316
  • neutral/cation/anion trends comparison, 1:316-317
  • cyclopropanols
  • β-scission, alkoxy radicals, 2:785
  • synthesis, titanocene-mediated, 2:996-997
  • cyclopropanol silyl ethers, ring opening, metal-dependent, 2:934
  • cyclopropylacyl radicals, 2:976-977
  • cyclopropylamine radical cation, ring opening, 1:309
  • N-cyclopropylaniline radical cations, 1:311-312
  • cyclopropylarene radical cations, cyclopropane ring opening in chemical systems, 1:313-316
  • cyclopropyl benzene, synthesis, cobalt-mediated styrene transformations, 2:1210-1211
  • N-cyclopropylbenzylamine radical cation, ring opening, SET, 1:310
  • cyclopropylcarbinyl→homoallyl-type rearrangements, 1:301-307
  • aliphatic ketyl radical anions, 1:303-306
  • probes/clocks, 1:301
  • radical anions from aliphatic ketones, 1:303-306
  • radical anions from aromatic ketones, 1:302-303,305
  • structure/reactivity trends, neutral radicals versus radical anions from ketones, 1:305-307
  • unimolecular rearrangement, 1:301
  • cyclopropylcarbonyl radical fragmentation, rate constants, 1:122
  • cyclopropyl radicals, matrix isolation spectroscopy, 1:218,219
  • 5',8-cyclopurines
  • C5' sugar radical, anaerobic conditions, 3:1348-1351
  • DNA lesions, repair and mutagenicity studies, 3:1351-1352
  • ribonucleosides, 3:1352
  • cyclo[8]pyrrole, synthesis, electrochemically initiated, 2:1194-1195
  • cyclorearomatizations, concepts, 2:711
  • cyclotetrasilenyl sily radicals, persistent and stable, 4:2125-2126
  • cylopropanes, vinyl/siloxy substituted, ring opening, 1:309-310
  • N-cylopropyl ring opening, arylcyclopropane ring expansions, 1:308-309
  • cysteine (Cys)
  • carbon-centered radical reactions, 3:1461-1464
  • cellular function, 3:1459
  • ionization, 3:1460
  • model, relay stations in electron transfer, 3:1487
  • NO/NO2 radical reactions, 3:1465
  • oxidant reaction rates, 3:1426,1427
  • proteins, radical reactions, 3:1467
  • radical reactions, 3:1460-1467
  • relay stations in electron transfer, 3:1484-1485
  • residues, spin labeling, MTSL, 4:1967,1969,1970
  • structure, 3:1461
  • superoxide radical reactions, 3:1464-1465
  • thiyl radicals
  • enzymatic processes, 3:1460
  • formation and properties, 3:1460-1461
  • molecular oxygen reactions, 3:1466
  • tyrosyl radical reactions, 3:1465-1466
  • cytochrome P450s, inhibition, N-benzyl-N-cyclopropylamine radical cations, 1:310
  • cytoprotective effects, lipid peroxidation products, 3:1578,1593-1594
  • cytosine (C)
  • hydroxyl radical reactions, 3:1292
  • one-electron oxidation, thermodynamics, 3:1293-1294
  • one-electron oxidized G:C, intra-base pair proton transfer, 3:1385-1386
  • oxidation
  • adducts arising from C4' radicals, 3:1338,1339
  • hydroxyl radicals, 3:1324-1326
  • one-electron transfer, 3:1330
  • reduction, DNA charge transfer, 3:1398
  • see also 5-hydroxycytosine; 5-methylcytosine
  • cytotoxic effects, lipid peroxidation products, 3:1578,1593-1594
  • D-A see donor-acceptor dyads
  • DADTFs see dithiadiazafulvalenes
  • DBNO see di-tert-butyl-N-oxyl
  • DCF see dead chain fraction
  • DDH see diol dehydratase
  • DEA see dissociative electron attachment
  • deactivation/activation mechanisms, persistent radical effect, controlled/living radical polymerization, 4:1786-1787,1953-1956
  • deactivation of polymer-end radicals, cocatalysts, organoheteroatom-mediated radical living polymerization, 4:1956,1957-1958
  • deactivation rate constants, atom transfer radical polymerization, 4:1865-1866
  • dead chain fraction (DCF), controlled/living radical polymerization, 4:1788-1795
  • dead chains
  • conventional versus controlled/living radical polymerization, 4:1786,1787
  • instantaneous molar mass distributions, polymerization kinetics, 4:1743-1744
  • dead-end polymerization, kinetics, 4:1742
  • deaminations
  • disaccharides, tin-hydride mediated, 2:548
  • isonitriles, 2:1042
  • dearomatizations, iodobenzene, meso-tetraol synthesis, 2:810-811
  • decarbonylations, acyl derivatives, tris(trimethylsilyl)silane, 2:563-565
  • decarboxylations
  • Barton esters, photochemical cleavage, 2:1235-1237
  • radical chain reactions, 1:67-68
  • tin-hydride mediated, radical generation, 2:547
  • decatungstate catalysis, fullerene radical reactions, 4:2173-2174,2175
  • decomposition rate coefficients, initiation, polymerization kinetics, 4:1756-1757
  • decomposition rates, thermolysis, 1:38,39
  • defunctionalizations
  • electrochemically initiated, 2:1212
  • silicon hydrides, 2:571-572
  • degenerate electron exchange, cyclic reactions, chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization, 1:185-187
  • degenerate-transfer radical polymerization (DTRP), industrial processes, 4:1726,1727,1730-1731
  • degenerative transfer (DT) processes
  • controlled/living radical polymerization, 4:1786,1787,1805-1806
  • advantages and limitations, 4:1807
  • organoheteroatom-mediated, 4:1953-1956
  • radical initiators, chain end functionality, 4:1794-1795
  • xanthates, 2:972-983
  • mechanisms, 2:972-974
  • see also reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer
  • degradable ("green") polymers, industrial radical polymerization, 4:1731
  • degradative chain transfer
  • polymerization, 4:1738
  • kinetics, 4:1739,1779
  • degradative processes, sulfur-containing compounds, lipid isomerization, 3:1605
  • degree of polymerization (DP)
  • controlled/living radical polymerization, 4:1791
  • conventional radical polymerization, 4:1785
  • reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer polymerization, 4:1900,1901
  • see also targeted degree of polymerization
  • degree of pyramidality
  • silyl radicals, 4:2121
  • bis(silyl) silicon-centered radicals, 4:2132,2133,2134
  • tris(silyl) substituted silyl radicals, 4:2123,2126,2127
  • dehalogenations, tris(trimethylsilyl)silane, 2:562-563
  • dehydrogenases, 2-oxoacids, pseudo radical enzymes, 3:1538
  • demethyl calamenene, synthesis, organic electron donors, 2:837
  • dendrimer investigation
  • nitroxide spin probes, 4:1988-1991
  • covelent/non-covelent approaches, 4:1988
  • dendrimer synthesis, radical thiol additions, 4:2028,2030-2033,2034
  • dendritic structures, atom transfer radical polymerization, 4:1875-1876
  • denitrations, tetracyclic nitro compounds, tin-hydride mediated, 2:548-549
  • density functional theory (DFT)
  • benzylsuccinate synthase, 3:1567
  • coenzyme B12-dependent enzymes, 3:1548,1550,1551
  • DNA radicals, 3:1376,1380-1381
  • methyl-coenzyme M reductase, 3:1573
  • radical stability determination, 1:453-454
  • ribonucleotide reductase, 3:1568
  • see also time dependent density functional theory
  • deoligomerizations, allyl iodoacetate, 2:952
  • (5'S)-5,8-cyclo-2'-deoxyadenosine, synthesis, tris(trimethylsilyl)silane, 2:580-581
  • 5'-deoxyadenosylcobalamin (AdoCb1) see coenzyme B12
  • 5'-deoxyadenosyl radicals
  • radical enzyme mechanisms, 3:1501,1502
  • SAM radical enzymes, 3:1501,1514
  • structure, 3:1504
  • 2-deoxy-α-D-arabino-hexopyranosyl chloride, C-glycoside synthesis, 2:1137
  • deoxygenations
  • Barton-McCombie-type
  • synthetic variations, 2:970-972
  • tin-free modifications, 2:967-970
  • tributyltin hydride-mediated, 2:549-550
  • xanthates, 2:549-550,965-967
  • epoxides, titanocene-mediated, 2:989-990
  • deoxygenations (continued)
  • β-hydroxyepoxides, allylic alcohol synthesis, 2:989-990
  • non-anomeric alcohols, carbohydrate synthesis, 2:1158-1160
  • radical chain reactions, 1:67
  • titanocene-mediated, epoxides, 2:989-990
  • 2-deoxy glycosyl phosphate, rearrangement of phosphate esters, 1:128-129,130
  • 2'-deoxyguanosine, oxidation, 3:1320-1321,1333
  • 2'-deoxynucleotides, conversion from ribonucleotides, ribonucleotide reductase mechanism, 3:1568-1570
  • 2-deoxypentos-4-ulose lesion, C4' DNA sugar radicals, 3:1353-1354
  • 2-deoxyribonolactone (L) lesion
  • biochemical studies, 3:1364-1365
  • generation in duplex DNA, 3:1362-1364
  • generation in oligonucleotides, 3:1364
  • 2'-deoxyribonucleotides, generation, ribonucleotide reductases, 3:1503-1505
  • 2-deoxyribose sugar moiety
  • hydrogen abstraction, 3:1345-1346
  • oxidation, 3:1338,1345-1370
  • radicals, 3:1345-1370,1372
  • C1', 3:1362-1365,1367
  • C2', 3:1359-1362,1367
  • C3', 3:1357-1359,1366
  • C4', 3:1352-1356,1366
  • C5', 3:1346-1352,1366
  • (±)-13-deoxyserratine, synthesis, tin hydride-mediated, 2:555
  • 2-deoxy sugars
  • preparation
  • acyloxy shift, 1:128,129
  • 1,2-ester rearrangements, 2:1158
  • deprotonations
  • cyclic reactions, chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization, 1:187
  • hydrogen atom transfer comparison, 1:329-330
  • radical cations, 1:326-329
  • kinetics, 1:327-329
  • thermodynamics, 1:326-327
  • radical dications, ionization of ionic liquids, 1:436,437
  • DEs see destabilization energies
  • "design concept", supramolecular systems, 4:1987
  • destabilization energies (DEs), radical instability scales, 1:98-99
  • desulfurated sequences, peptides/proteins, 3:1606-1607
  • desulfurizations
  • phosphine sulfides, tris(trimethylsilyl)silane, 2:565-566
  • proteins, lipid isomerization combination, radical damage, 3:1607-1609
  • thiols, alkyl radical generation, 2:1047
  • desymmetrization, oxoammonium salt-mediated, synthetic applications, 2:1117-1118
  • DET see dissociative electron transfer
  • DFT see density functional theory
  • DFT, quantum mechanical models, isotropic electron paramagnetic resonance parameters, 1:155-156
  • diabetes type-2, 3:1679,1680-1684
  • diabetic complications
  • free radicals, 3:1692-1694
  • lipid peroxidation, 3:1693-1694
  • reactive oxygen species, 3:1693
  • diacetoxyiodobenzene, oxygen-centered radical remote functionalizations, 2:1233-1234
  • diacetyl peroxide, Kharasch reaction initiation, 1:62,63
  • diacylperoxides
  • history, 1:16
  • matrix isolation, 1:208
  • dialkylanilines, electrochemical conversions, 2:1193
  • dialkyldiazenes, azoinitiators, industrial radical polymerization, 4:1706
  • N,N-dialkyl-1,7-dibromo-3,4,9,10-perylene diimide and dithienothiophene copolymer (P(PDI2OD-DD)), 4:2066-2067
  • dialkyl nitroxides, main reactions, 2:1096
  • dialkyl phosphites, oxidative phosphonations, 2:1086
  • diamagnetic behavior, thiazyl radicals, 4:2149,2150,2151
  • diamagnetic dimers, fullerenyl radicals, 4:2171-2172
  • diastereoselective reactions, 2:655-666
  • [3+2] annulations, 2:658,660
  • 5-exo-cyclizations, 2:658-659
  • 6-exo-cyclizations, 2:658,660
  • hydrogen quenching, anomeric radicals, 2:1156-1157
  • Lewis acid-mediated, 2:662-666
  • tetrahydrofuran synthesis, 2:1180
  • diazenes, free-radical sources, history, 1:25-26
  • diazonamide A, synthesis, heteropinacol coupling, 2:868
  • diazonium salts
  • monolayer generation on silicon surfaces, 4:2092-2093
  • oxidations, tetrathiafulvalenes, synthetic applications, 2:819-826
  • dibenzothiophenes, synthesis, homolytic substitutions at sulfur, 2:804
  • diblock copolymers
  • nitroxide-mediated polymerization, 4:1843
  • thermosensitive micelles, organoheteroatom-mediated radical living polymerization, 4:1958
  • diboron radical traps, 2:624
  • 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol (BHT), antioxidant activity, 3:1628
  • di-tert-butyl-N-oxyl (DBNO) radical
  • nitroxide-mediated polymerization, 4:1827,1838
  • structure, 4:1814
  • 2,6-di-tert-butylphenol, anodic oxidations, 2:1188
  • 1,4-dicarbonyl compounds, synthesis, SOMO catalysis, 2:681-682
  • β-dicarbonyl compounds
  • additions
  • alkenes, 2:907-918
  • enamines, pyrrole synthesis, 2:915
  • dicarboxylic acids, protected, anodic oxidations, 2:1197
  • dichlorindium bromide, organic azide reductions, 2:1026
  • dicyanamide anions, room-temperature ionic liquids, 1:434
  • 1,5-dienes, hydroxysulfenations, endoperoxide synthesis, 2:800-801
  • 1,6-dienes, azidosulfonylations, organic azides, 2:1030-1031
  • dienes
  • azidosulfonylation/5-exo-trig cyclizations, 2:739-740
  • cyclizations, silylated cyclohexadienes, 2:594
  • hydrosilylations, silylated cyclohexadienes, 2:594
  • nitroxide-mediated polymerization, 4:1838
  • 1,3-diesters, reductions, samarium diiodide, 2:860
  • dietary antioxidants
  • effectiveness, 3:1277
  • radical formation, 3:1266
  • supplements, 3:1672,1673
  • diethylthiophosphite, alkene additions, 2:604
  • differential oxygen uptake apparatus, inhibited autoxidation kinetic studies, 3:1630-1631
  • diffusion, reactive oxygen species, 3:1275-1277
  • diffusion distances, reactive oxygen species, 3:1276-1277
  • 2,6-dihalogenated phenols, electrochemical coupling, 2:1190-1191
  • diheteroatom compounds, cocatalysts, organoheteroatom-mediated radical living polymerization, 4:1935-1937,1956-1958
  • dihydrobenzo[b]tellurophenes, synthesis, 2:638-639
  • dihydrodeoxyepiallocernuine, synthesis, photochemical Hofmann-LOffler-Freytag reactions, 2:1234
  • dihydrofurans(DHF)
  • additions, α-xanthate-α-fluoroacetate, 2:606
  • synthesis, 2:907-910
  • dihydro-imidazopyrimidinoes, synthesis, xanthate radical cyclizations, 2:979,982
  • dihydronaphthalenes, synthesis, addition-rearrangement-cyclizations, 2:912-913
  • 2,3-dihydroselenolo[2,3-b]pyridines, synthesis, 2:640
  • 1,2-dihydroxyalkyl radicals, water/ammonia elimination reactions, possible bridging mechanism, 3:1509, 1510
  • 1,22-dihydroxynitiane nitiol analogs, A ring construction, Norrish reactions, 2:1228
  • diisobutyryl peroxide, photolysis, matrix isolation, 1:213,214
  • 1,3-diketones, alkenyl substituted, reductive cyclizations, 2:1207-1208
  • α-diketones, synthesis, 1,2-dial oxidations, oxoammonium salts, 2:1111
  • β-diketones, cyclizations, manganese(III) acetate-mediated, 2:924
  • dilauroyl peroxide (DLP)
  • branched-chain sugar synthesis, 2:1142
  • homolytic aromatic substitutions, 2:1066
  • neophyl-type rearrangements, 2:1070-1071
  • dimerizations
  • alkyl substituted arenes, 2:1184-1195
  • cerium(IV) ammonium nitrate-mediated, 2:916
  • electrochemically initiated, 2:1184-1195
  • enol ethers, metal-dependent, 2:916
  • radicals, combustion, 1:478,479
  • tris(silyl)-substituted silyl radicals, 4:2127-2130
  • vindoline, 2:1194
  • 9,10-dimethylanthracene (DMA)
  • photocatalytic dimerization, 1:388,389
  • photocatalytic oxygenation, 1:371
  • dimethyl azo(bisisobutyrate) (DMAIB), fullerene reactions, 4:2179
  • dimethyllepidopterene, photocatalytic formation, 1:388,389
  • 5,5-dimethyl-oxazolidine-N-oxyl nitroxides, spin labels and spin probes, 4:1967
  • 4,6-dimethylphenol, anodic oxidations, spirolactone synthesis, 2:1189
  • 2,5-dimethylpyrroline carboxamide, stereoselective reactions, 2:660-661
  • dimethylsulflde (DMS), atmospheric, 1:518,519
  • dimethylzinc-mediated reactions, polar crossovers, 2:657-658
  • diol dehydratases (DDHs), 3:1506,1507
  • active-site structure, 3:1558
  • mechanism, 3:1509-1510,1511
  • RNR comparison, 3:1505
  • theoretical studies, 3:1556-1558
  • dioleoyl phosphatidyl chane (DOPC), liposome formation, 3:1609
  • 1,2-diols
  • oxidations, a-diketone formation, 2:1111
  • reductions by tris(trimethylsilyBsilane, 2:563-564
  • synthesis
  • epoxide ring opening, 2:991-992
  • vinylsilane epoxide-olefin additions, 2:995
  • 1,2-dioxetane, photocatalytic oxygenation of tetraphenylethylene, 1:372-374
  • 1,3-dioxolanes, ferric perchlorate-mediated fullerene fusion, 4:2182
  • dipeptides (His-Tyr/Tyr-His), intramolecular electron transfer, 1:195-196
  • diphenylacelylene (DPA), DNA conjugation, excess electron transfer, 3:1420-1421
  • diphenyl diselenide, O-trityl oximes closure, 2:809-810
  • 2,2-diphenyl-3-phenylimino-2,3-dihydroindo1-1-yloxyl (DPAIO) radical
  • nitroxide-mediated polymerization, 4:1827-1828
  • structure, 4:1814
  • 2,2-dipheny1-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH)
  • free-radical inhibition, history, 1:27-28
  • phenolic antioxidant kinetic measurements, 3:1640-1641
  • dipolar hyperfine interactions, DNA radicals, 3:1376-1377
  • dipole moments, electron transfer in peptides/proteins, 3:1487-1489
  • diradicals
  • aliphatic rearrangements, 1:7-8
  • history, 1:7-8,11-12
  • silyl radicals, 4:2139,2144
  • direct effects of ionizing radiation
  • DNA radical formation, 3:1371-1372
  • on solvents, 1:396,401-402
  • direct (type 1) photo-oxidation, proteins, 3:1444-1445
  • direct radical substitutions, radical chain reactions, 1:60-61
  • direct trapping, carbon radicals, nitroxides, 2:1095-1097
  • disaccharides
  • deaminations, tin-hydride mediated, 2:548
  • synthesis, radical thiol additions, 4:2022
  • C-disaccharides
  • synthesis
  • Barbier conditions, 2:1140
  • intermolecular carbon-carbon bond formation, 2:1139-1141
  • intermolecular samariations, 2:1139-1141
  • samarium diiodide reductions, 2:1140
  • discovery of free radicals, history, 1:1-19
  • disease
  • lipid peroxidation, 3:1577
  • the metabolic syndrome, 3:1679-1700
  • diselenide radical anions, amino acids, 3:1467
  • disilenes, stable anion radicals, 4:2135-2136
  • disilynes, stable anion radicals, 4:2136-2137
  • dispersion polymerization.
  • industrial processes, 4:1703,1722-1723,1724
  • reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer, 4:1923
  • dispersion spectrum, electron paramagnetic resonance, 1:149
  • dispersity, polymerization kinetics, 4:1747-1748
  • disproportionation reactions
  • epoxides, hydrogen atom abstractions, 2:989-990
  • polymerization, 4:1738,1739-1740
  • disproportionation-to-combination ratio, polymerization kinetics, 4:1776-1777
  • dissociative electron attachment (DEA), room-temperature ionic liquids, 1:441,442,446
  • dissociative electron transfer (DET), radical anion ring opening, 1:307
  • dissociative photoionization, gas phase radicals, 1:490-491
  • distance dependence, single-step electron transfer, 3:1477,1478
  • distance measurements in the nanometer range (1:5-8nm), spin labels and spin probes, 4:1971
  • disubstituted alkyl radicals, stability, 1:457-463,464
  • α,β-disubstituted enoyls, reductive alkylations, chiral Lewis acid-mediated, 2:674-675
  • 1,2-disubstituted epoxides, reductive opening, 2:991-992
  • 2,3-disubstituted indoles, synthesis, allylic O-stannylketyl radicals, tin hydride-mediated, 2:553-554
  • disubstituted ketones, synthesis, ring opening, 2:934
  • disubstitutions, SRN1 reactions, 1:335,336-337,339,361
  • disulfide radical anions, amino acids, 3:1460,1461,1467
  • disulfides, thermolysis, 1:41
  • dithiadiazafulvalenes (DADTFs), spontaneous electron transfers, 2:826-831
  • dithienothiophene and N,N-dialkyl-1,7-dibromo-3,4,9,10-perylene diimide copolymer, 4:2066-2067
  • dithiocarbamates, sequential cyclization/group transfers, 2:741-742
  • dithiocarbonates
  • Barton-McCombie deoxygenations, 2:965-967
  • as precursors, 2:965-987
  • tin-free modifications, 2:967-970
  • see also xanthates
  • dithiocarbonyl radicals, cyclizations, organic azides, 2:1020-1021
  • dithioesters, reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer polymerization agents, 4:1896,1902,1903,1904,1913-1914,1918
  • dityrosine-class natural products, synthesis, 2,6-dihalogenated phenol electrochemical coupling, 2:1190-1191
  • divergent synthesis, block copolymers, reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer polymerization, 4:1906,1907-1912
  • DLP see dilauroyl peroxide
  • DMA see 9,10-dimethylanthracene
  • DMAIB see dimethyl azo(bisisobutyrate)
  • DMS see dimethylsulfide
  • DNA
  • artificial nanostructures, charge transfer, 3:1397-1398,1407-1411,1412-1413
  • charge transfer, 3:1397-1424
  • damage and repair, 3:1401,1411-1412
  • excess electron transfer, 3:1413-1422
  • hole transfer, 3:1399-1413
  • cleavage, photocatalytic oxygenation, 1:380-383
  • electrical conduction, 3:1397,1399
  • electron transfer hopping, 3:1414-1416,1478-1479
  • excess electron transfer, 3:1413-1422
  • hopping mechanism, 3:1414-1416
  • injection, 3:1416-1421
  • tunneling mechanism, 3:1414
  • higher order structures, hole transfer, 3:1407-1411
  • hole transfer, 3:1399-1413
  • applications, 3:1411-1413
  • hopping mechanism, 3:1403-1407
  • tunneling mechanism, 3:1399-1403
  • unusual structures, 3:1407-1411
  • intercalation, electron donors/acceptors, hole tunneling study, 3:1399-1401
  • intrastrand pyrimidine-purine cross-links, 3:1292-1293,1335-1336
  • mismatched base pairs, hole transfer effects, 3:1409-1411,1412
  • nanoscale electronic wiring, 3:1397,1412,1413
  • oxidation, 3:1319-1344
  • complex lesions, 3:1338-1340
  • hydroperoxyl radicals, 3:1336-1338
  • hydroxyl radicals, 3:1319,1321-1328,1336,1337
  • interstrand cross-links, 3:1338
  • intrastrand cross-links, 3:1335-1336
  • long range hole transfer, 3:1401,1411-1412
  • nucleobase modifications, 3:1319-1344
  • one-electron transfer, 3:1293-1300,1319-1320,1328-1333
  • photocatalytic oxygenation, 1:380-383
  • secondary lesions, 3:1333-1335
  • single-base damage, 3:1320-1335
  • sugar radical formation, 3:1345-1370
  • C1' position, 3:1362-1365,1367
  • tandem base lesions, 3:1335-1338
  • oxidation and reduction, 3:1397,1398-1399
  • photocatalytic oxygenation, 1:380-383
  • profluorescent spin labels and spin probes, 4:1987
  • sequence, oxidation potential effects, 3:1398
  • small reactive species, reaction kinetics, 3:1290-1311
  • spin labels and spin probes, 4:1970-1971,1987
  • sugar moieties
  • hydrogen abstraction, 3:1345-1346
  • oxidative radical formation, 3:1345-1370,1372
  • DNA damage, 3:1345,1397
  • C4-AP lesions, 3:1354-1356
  • charge transfer, 3:1401,1411-1412
  • chronic inflammation, 3:1283-1312
  • complex lesions, 3:1338-1340
  • 5',8-cyclopurine lesions, repair and mutagenicity studies, 3:1351-1352
  • 2-deoxyribonolactone lesion, 3:1362-1365
  • DNA radicals, ESR/theoretical studies, 3:1371-1396
  • double strand breaks, 3:1371,1390
  • guanine lesions
  • aromatic radical cations, 3:1295-1297
  • base-sequence effects, 3:1294
  • carbonate radicals, 3:1294-1295
  • effects of oxidant charge and solvent exposure, 3:1297-1298
  • hydroxyl radicals
  • products, 3:1291-1292
  • reaction kinetics, 3:1290-1291
  • tandem lesions, 3:1292-1293
  • inflammatory response, 3:1283-1312
  • intrastrand pyrimidine-purine cross-links, 3:1292-1293,1335-1336
  • lipid peroxidation products, 3:1577,1588
  • low-energy electrons
  • ESR studies, 3:1390-1392
  • theoretical studies, 3:1392-1393
  • one-electron oxidation, 3:1293-1300
  • aromatic radical cations, 3:1295-1297
  • base-sequence effects, 3:1294
  • carbonate radical reaction kinetics, 3:1294-1295
  • end products of guanine reactions, 3:1300-1311
  • thermodynamics, 3:1293-1294
  • oxidation, 3:1319-1344
  • oxidative, long range hole transfer, 3:1401,1411-1412
  • photocatalytic oxygenation, 1:380-383
  • single-base lesions, 3:1320-1335
  • single strand breaks, 3:1373,1390-1391
  • small reactive species reactions, 3:1283-1317
  • sugar radical formation, 3:1345-1370
  • tandem base lesions, 3:1335-1338
  • tandem lesions, hydroxyl radicals, 3:1292-1293
  • DNA hairpins
  • excess electron transfer, 3:1415,1417,1418,1420-1421
  • hole transfer, 3:1401,1402,1404-1406
  • DNA photocleaver, synthesis, Pschorr reactions, 2:1060
  • DNA photolase
  • electron transfer, 3:1482,1483
  • ketyl radicals, 3:1531-1533
  • DNA-protein cross-links, oxidative lesions, 3:1338
  • DNA radicals
  • anions
  • ionizing radiation formation, 3:1371-1372
  • low-energy electron effects, 3:1390
  • salvation effects, 3:1383
  • anisotropic hyperfine interactions, 3:1375,1376-1381
  • cations
  • hole transfer, 3:1389-1390
  • intra-base pair proton transport, 3:1385
  • ionizing radiation formation, 3:1371-1372
  • low-energy electron formation, 3:1390
  • solvation effects, 3:1383
  • electron spin resonance spectroscopy, 3:1371,1373-1374,1375-1380,1381-1392
  • ESR study/theoretical understanding, 3:1371-1396
  • formation, 3:1371-1375
  • ground state properties, 3:1381-1388
  • conformation, 3:1381-1383
  • intra-base pair proton transfer in one-electron oxidized G:C, 3:1385-1386
  • protonation states of one-electron oxidized guanine monomers, 3:1384-1385
  • solvation/hydration effects, 3:1383-1384
  • hyperfine coupling constant, 3:1375-1376,1380-1381
  • hyperfine interactions, ESR/theory, 3:1375-1376
  • ionizing radiation formation pathway, 3:1371-1374
  • neutral, formation, 3:1372,1375,1388
  • oxidative (electron-loss) formation pathway, 3:1373,1374-1375
  • reductive (electron-loss) formation pathway, 3:1373,1375
  • structures, 3:1372
  • sugar radicals, 3:1345-1370
  • electron spin resonance spectroscopy, 3:1374
  • formation, 3:1345-1370,1372
  • oxidation of C1' position, 3:1362-1365,1367
  • oxidation of C2' position, 3:1359-1362,1367
  • oxidation of C3' position, 3:1357-1359,1366
  • oxidation of C4' position, 3:1352-1356,1366
  • oxidation of C5' position, 3:1346-1352,1366
  • theoretical prediction of properties, 3:1371,1380-1381
  • DNA repair
  • C4-AP lesions, 3:1356
  • complex oxidative lesions, 3:1338
  • 5',8-cyclopurine lesions, 3:1351-1352
  • non-enzymatic, time resolved chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization studies, 1:196-197
  • DNA studies, spin labels and spin probes, 4:1970-1971,1987
  • DNP see dynamic nuclear polarization
  • domino reactions, tris(trimethylsilyl)silane-mediated, 2:592-593
  • donor-acceptor dyads (D-A)
  • electron transfer reactions of charge separated state, 1:365-366
  • 9-mesityl-10-methylacridinium ion, photocatalytic charge separation, 1:366-370
  • donor-acceptor interactions, radical stability, 1:458,462
  • "doped" polymers, conducting electricity, 4:2057
  • Doppler spectroscopy, unimolecular reactions, gas phase radicals, 1:494
  • dormant radical species
  • controlled/living radical polymerization, 4:1786-1787,1931,1932
  • activation/deactivation mechanisms, 4:1953-1956,1957-1958
  • nitroxide-mediated polymerization, 4:1813,1816
  • double alkylations, titanium-catalyzed, styrene, 2:1014-1015
  • double bonds
  • electron-rich, intramolecular anodic coupling, nucleophiles, 2:1176
  • reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer agents, 4:1896,1897,1905-1906
  • unsaturated fatty acids, lipid isomerization, 3:1599-1622
  • see also carbon=carbon double bonds
  • double chalcogenations, isonitriles, 2:1047-1048
  • double melting, thiazyl radicals, 4:2152
  • double quantum coherence EPR, nanometer distance measurements, spin labels, 4:1971
  • double strand breaks (DSBs), DNA damage, 3:1371,1390
  • double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), oxidative lesions, 3:1323,1325,1332-1333,1335-1338
  • doubly charged radicals, ionization of ions, room-temperature ionic liquids, 1:436-437
  • doxyl nitroxides, spin labels and spin probes, 4:1967
  • DP see degree of polymerization
  • DPAIO see 2,2-dipheny1-3-phenylimino-2,3-dihydroindo1-1-yloxyl
  • DPPH see 2,2-diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl radical
  • DPT see targeted degree of polymerization
  • driving force, electron transfer rate, 3:1475,1477
  • drugs/xenobiotics, reactive oxygen species generation, 3:1265-1266
  • dry electrons, radiolysis of ionic liquids, 1:418-419
  • dry products, industrial emulsion polymerization, 4:1723
  • DS see stilbene diether
  • DSBs see double strand breaks
  • DT see degenerative transfer processes
  • DTRP see degenerate-transfer radical polymerization
  • dynamic equilibrium, propagating radical/dormant species, controlled/living radical polymerization, 4:1786
  • dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP), spin probes, 4:1974-1975
  • dynamics, 5-endo-dig cyclizations, 2:706-709
  • EAL see ethanolamine ammonia lyase
  • early evolution
  • radical enzymes, 3:1540
  • reactive oxygen species, 3:1261
  • E.Coll (Escherichia coli), ribonucleotide reductases, 3:1503,1504,1505
  • EDEad see adiabatic electron detachment energies
  • EDTA see ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid
  • EET see epoxyeicosatrienoic acid
  • egg lecithin liposomes, lipid isomerization, 3:1610-1611
  • eicosanoids, enzymatic lipid peroxidation products, 3:1579
  • eight-membered carbocycles, synthesis, 2:1154-1155
  • elastic collisions/scattering, high-energy charged particles interacting with matter, 1:395,396
  • electrical discharge methods, gas phase isolated radical generation, 1:485
  • electrically excited oxygen (O('D)), atmospheric photolysis of oxygen species, 1:506,514
  • electrical transport, nonlinear, thiazyl radicals, 4:2157-2159
  • electrochemical evaluation techniques, redox potentials, 1:249,250-255
  • electrochemically initiated reactions
  • aminoxyl radical-mediated, 2:1202-1203
  • anodic processes, 2:1176-1206
  • biaryl compound synthesis, 2:1184-1195
  • cathodic processes, 2:1206-1212
  • coupling, biaryl compound synthesis, 2:1184-1195
  • cyclizations
  • amine-bearing thioenol ethers, 2:1177-1178
  • four-membered ring synthesis, 2:1183-1184
  • ketene dithioacetals, 2:1178
  • defunctionalizations, 2:1212
  • functionalizations, 2:1203-1205
  • halide-mediated, 2:1203
  • Hofer-Moest reactions, 2:1195-1196
  • Kolbe-type, 2:1195-1202
  • nickel-mediated, 2:1206-1211
  • electrochemically initiated reactions (continued)
  • oxidations
  • amine-bearing electron-rich olefins, 2:1177-1178
  • electron-rich aromatic rings, 2:1180-1183
  • enol ethers, 2:1176-1177
  • ketene dithioacetals, 2:1177-1180
  • radical generation, room-temperature ionic liquids, 1:433,434,437,444,445
  • radical initiation, 1:51
  • reductive cyclizations, 2:1206-1211
  • SRN1 reactions, 1:335
  • synthetic strategies, 2:1175-1215
  • electrochemical switching, molecular machines, 1:241,242
  • electrochemistry
  • computational, 1:258
  • fundamentals, 1:250
  • see also redox…
  • electrolysis, 2,6-dihalogenated phenols, 2:1190-1191
  • electromagnetic radiation
  • DNA radiolysis, 3:1414
  • high-energy interactions with matter, 1:395,396
  • see also light...; photo…
  • electron affinities
  • definition, 1:249
  • photoionization of gas phase radicals, 1:489-490
  • electron bifurcation, ketyl radicals, radical enzymes, 3:1531,1532
  • electron-deficient alkenes, reductions, samarium diiodide, 2:863
  • electron detachment energies, anions, room-temperature ionic liquids, 1:441
  • electron donors/acceptors
  • DNA excess electron transfer study, 3:1415-1416,1420-1421
  • DNA hole tunneling study, 3:1399-1401
  • see also organic electron donors
  • electronegativity equation, radical stabilization energies, 1:99-100
  • electronic applications
  • biomolecular devices, 3:1495-1497
  • conducting polymers, 4:2057-2079
  • electronic characteristics, thiazyl radicals, 4:2147-2161
  • electronic coupling matrix element, electron transfer rate, 3:1475,1477
  • electronic effects, thermodynamic stabilization of silyl radicals, 4:2118-2120
  • electronic stabilization, carbon-centered radicals, 1:57,58
  • electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, 1:147-174
  • basic concepts, 1:147-148
  • biological systems, spin labels and spin probes, 4:1966-1987
  • carbon-centered radical geometry, 1:156-157
  • exchange broadening, 1:159-160
  • heteroatom-centered radicals, 1:160-165
  • host-guest complex study, 1:233-237
  • internal motions, 1:159-160
  • interpretation of complex spectra, 1:151-153
  • isonitrile radical adducts, 2:1038-1041
  • isotropic g-factors, 1:148,150-151,156,162,163
  • isotropic hyperfine splittings, 1:148,151,152,153-156
  • kinetic EPR spectroscopy, 1:165-169
  • line shapes, 1:148-150
  • matrix isolation spectroscopy, 1:208,209-210,211-212
  • nanometer distance measurements, 4:1971,1973
  • phenolic antioxidant study
  • kinetics, 3:1633,1640-1641
  • thermodynamics, 3:1642-1644
  • polymerization kinetics, 4:1752-1753,1771,1772,1779
  • pulse electron double resonance, nanometer distance measurements, 4:1971,1973
  • quantum mechanical models, 1:155-156
  • radical conformations, 1:157-159
  • radical equilibrium study, 3:1642-1644
  • radicals in inert environments, 1:175
  • radical study, 1:175
  • relaxation phenomena, 1:148-150
  • room-temperature ionic liquids, 1:434,440,441,442
  • silyl radicals, 4:2126-2127,2128,2131
  • alkali-metal-/mercury-substituted silyl radicals, 4:2139,2140,2141
  • bis(silyl) silicon-centered radicals, 4:2133,2134
  • transition metal-substituted silyl radicals, 4:2142,2143
  • tris(silyI)-substituted silyl radicals, 4:2127,2128,2131
  • spin labels and spin probes, 4:1965-2015
  • biological systems, 4:1966-1987
  • supramolecular systems, 4:1987-2004
  • supramolecular radical chemistry, 1:229-230
  • supramolecular systems, spin labels and spin probes, 4:1987-2004
  • temperature-dependent linewidths, 1:159
  • thermodynamic parameter determination, 1:169-170
  • see also chemically induced dynamic electron polarization
  • electron paramagnetic resonance imaging (EPRI), spin probes, 4:1973
  • electron paramagnetic resonance/spin trapping (EPR/ST), 4:1966,2002,2003,2004-2005
  • electron-rich aromatic rings, oxidations, electrochemically initiated, 2:1180-1183
  • electron-rich double bonds, intramolecular anodic coupling, nucleophiles, 2:1176
  • electron-rich olefin (carbene/symmetric dimer), muonium attachment, ionic liquids, 1:434-435
  • electrons
  • dry, radiation-induced radical reactions, 1:418-419
  • hydrated, radiation-induced radical reactions, 1:401,403,407-408
  • ionizing radiation-induced production, 1:395,396
  • solvated, radiation-induced radical reactions, 1:410,418-419
  • water radiolysis, 1:401,403,407-408
  • electron self-exchange reactions, radical polymer batteries, 4:2166,2169
  • electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy
  • DNA excess electron transfer, 3:1414
  • DNA radicals, 3:1371,1373-1374
  • anisotropic hyperfine interactions, 3:1379-1380
  • excited state properties, 3:1388-1392
  • ground state properties, 3:1381-1388
  • fullerenyl radicals, 4:2171-2172
  • electron transfer (ET)
  • amino acids, 3:1459,1472
  • asymmetric, chiral ligand-assisted, 2:686-689
  • biomolecular electronic devices, 3:1495-1497
  • cysteine radical reactions, 3:1465,1466,1467
  • DNA, 3:1413-1422,1478-1479
  • followed by proton transfer, hydrogen atom transfer mode, 1:323-324
  • from guanine by aromatic radicals, 3:1295-1297
  • history, 1:19-21
  • hole migration, 3:1299-1300
  • hopping, 3:1478-1481
  • 9-mesityl-10-methylacridinium ion donor-acceptor linked dyad, 1:366-389
  • nucleophilic substitutions, 1:333
  • one- and two-electron reductions, fullerenes, 4:2190
  • peptides/proteins, 3:1475-1499
  • amide bond stepping stones, 3:1490-1493
  • amino acids, 3:1459
  • aromatic amino acids, 3:1481-1484
  • backbone influences, 3:1487-1493
  • charges, 3:1489-1490
  • dipole moments, 3:1487-1489
  • pathway investigation, 3:1479-1481
  • peptide assays, 3:1479-1481,1482
  • radiation-induced radicals in aqueous solutions, 1:409
  • relay amino acids, 3:1480-1487
  • ribonucleotide reductase, 3:1475,14-77,1493-1495
  • sulfur-containing amino acids, 3:1484-1487
  • photocatalytic oxygenation, 9-mesityl-10-methylacridinium ion, 1:370-383
  • photoinduced, 1:288-297
  • synthetic strategies, 2:1217-1221
  • prolonged lifetime charge separated state, 1:365,366-389
  • radical chain reactions, 1:62
  • rates
  • parameters, 3:1475,1477
  • peptide backbone influences, 3:1487-1493
  • redox properties of radicals, 1:249-273
  • single-step process, 3:1475,1477-1478
  • SRN1 reactions, 1:333,334-335
  • theory, DNA study, 3:1398
  • thioethers, 3:1467,1471
  • time resolved chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization studies, 1:194-197
  • see also activators generated by electron transfer; excess electron transfer; one-electron oxidation
  • electron transferring flavoprotein (Ed), ketyl radicals, radical enzymes, 3:1530,1531,1532
  • electron transport, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species generation, 3:1261-1262
  • electron-withdrawing groups (EWGs)
  • Kolbe electrolysis, 2:1196,1198-1199
  • Meerwein arylations, 2:1080
  • SRN1 reactions, 1:333,354-361
  • electron Zeeman interactions, EPR spectra, 1:148
  • electrophilic carbon-centered radicals, arylations, synthetic strategies, 2:1068-1069,1076-1079
  • electrophilic coupling
  • following oxidation, 1:288-289
  • intramolecular anodic, 2:1176
  • electrophilic radicals, in vivo, reactions with proteins, 3:1428
  • eliminases
  • coenzyme B12-dependent enzymes, 3:1505-1506,1507,1509-1511
  • ribonucleotide reductases, 3:1505,1507
  • β-eliminations
  • cascade reactions, with cyclizations, fused polycyclic cyclopropane synthesis, 2:735
  • phosphorus-centered radical generation, 2:795-796
  • radical chain reactions, 1:60,61,62,63
  • sulfur-centered radicals, 2:803-804
  • tris(trimethylsilyl)silane-mediated, 2:584-585
  • ellipticine
  • synthesis
  • homolytic aromatic substitutions, 2:1064-1065
  • selenium-centered radicals, 2:806-807
  • empirical estimation schemes, enthalpies of formation, 1:84,88
  • empirical valence bond (EVB) calculations, Co-C homolysis, 3:1551
  • emulsion polymerization (EP)
  • ab initio, RAFT, 4:1920-1921
  • industrial formulations, 4:1723
  • industrial processes, 4:1721-1724
  • industrial products, 4:1722-1723
  • inverse, 4:1722
  • nitroxide-mediated polymerization, 4:1821,1822,1840
  • reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer, 4:1920-1925
  • seeded. RAFT, 4:1921-1922
  • see also microemulsion polymerization; miniemulsion polymerization
  • enamines
  • additions, β-dicarbonyl compounds, pyrrole synthesis, 2:915
  • α-oxyaminations, nitroxide carbon radical trapping, 2:1097-1099
  • enantioselective reactions, 2:666-689
  • additions, N-acyl hydrazones, organoboranes, 2:618
  • allylations
  • cerium(IV) ammonium nitrate-mediated, 2:906-907
  • SOMO catalysis, 2:680-681
  • α-arylations, SOMO catalysis, 2:680-681
  • cascades, bromine atom transfers, organoboranes, 2:605
  • chiral Bronsted acid-mediated, 2:685
  • chiral chain-transfer reagents, 2:666-667
  • chiral ligand-assisted asymmetric electron transfers, 2:686-689
  • conjugate addition-radical alkoxyaminations, B-alkylcatecholboranes, 2:615
  • cyclizations
  • chiral Lewis acid-mediated, 2:671-672
  • chiral zinc complex-catalyzed, 2:742-743
  • 5-exo cyclizations, Sharpless epoxide ring opening, 2:997-998
  • halogen atom transfers, chiral Lewis acids, 2:670-672
  • hexylsilanes, 2:595-596
  • hydroborations, rhodium-catalyzed, 2:612
  • hydrogen atom transfers, chiral Lewis acids, 2:668-670
  • hydrogen bonding-mediated, 2:685-686
  • lipid peroxidation, 3:1579-1580
  • organocatalysis, 2:679-686
  • α-oxyaminations, aldehydes, 2:680-681
  • phenylselenium transfers, organoboranes, 2:605-606
  • radical transfer additions, iodine atoms, 2:952
  • reductive alkylations, chiral Lewis acids, 2:672-676
  • SOMO catalysis, 2:680-684
  • tandem conjugate addition-fragmentation reactions, chiral Lewis acid-mediated, 2:678-679
  • tris(trimethylsilyl)silane-mediated, 2:583-584
  • see also stereosective reactions
  • encapsulation, by cucurbiturils, radical cation stabilization, 1:236
  • end-functionalized polymers
  • atom transfer radical polymerization, 4:1877-1878,1879
  • organoheteroatom-mediated radical living polymerization, 4:1949-1953
  • synthesis, radical thiol-X click chemistry, 4:2037-2039,2040
  • end-group chemistry
  • organoheteroatom-mediated radical living polymerization, 4:1949-1953
  • reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer polymerization, 4:1916-1919
  • endocyclic closure, aryl radicals, 2:713-714
  • endocyclic conjugated enones, benzophenone-initiated photoadditions, methanol, branched-chain sugar synthesis, 2:1142-1143
  • endo cyclization see cyclizations
  • endogenous oxidant sources, 3:1425,1426
  • endoperoxides, synthesis, 1,5-diene hydroxysulfenations, 2:800-801
  • endoplasmic reticulum (ER), flavoprotein oxidases, reactive oxygen species generation, 3:1264,1265
  • endoplasmic reticulum oxidoreductin I (ERO1), reactive oxygen species generation, 3:1264,1265
  • endo-tet reaction pathways, 2:694
  • enediynes, Bergman cyclizations, 1,4-benzene diradical trapping, 2:1101-1102
  • engines, combustion research, 1:478-479
  • enolate ions of aliphatic ketones, SRN1 reactions, 1:336
  • enolates
  • coupling, iron(III) salt-mediated, 2:924
  • oxidative coupling, metal-dependent, 2:926
  • enol ethers
  • anisole derivatives, cyclizations, electrochemically initiated, 2:1183
  • dimerizations, metal-dependent, 2:916
  • furan derivatives, cyclizations, electrochemically initiated, 2:1181-1182
  • oxidation, electrochemically initiated, 2:1176-1177
  • enones
  • additions, organoboranes, 2:611
  • [2+2] cycloadditions, ruthenium-mediated photocatalysis, 2:1221-1222
  • reductive alkylations, chiral Lewis acid-mediated, 2:676-677
  • enoxy radical, stability measurement, 1:452-453
  • enthalpies of formation (Δ-fH°), 1:82-84
  • ab initio values, 1:84
  • alcohols/alkoxy radicals, 1:91-93
  • amines/nitrogen-centered radicals, 1:95-97
  • bond dissociation enthalpy measurement, 1:83-84
  • electron paramagnetic resonance, 1:169
  • empirical estimation schemes, 1:84,88
  • experimental measurements, 1:84
  • group additivity based estimates, 1:84,88
  • Hess's Law, 1:82
  • hydrocarbons/carbon-centered radicals, 1:88-91
  • hydroperoxides/hydroperoxyl radicals, 1:93-95
  • literature values, 1:85-87,90,92
  • regularities, 1:84,88
  • enthalpies of reactions, Hess's Law, 1:81-82
  • entrainment, SRN1 reactions, 1:334,341,349
  • entropy, cyclizations, 2:711-712
  • environmental impact, radical batteries, 4:2163,2168,2169
  • 1-en-6-ynes, azidosulfonylations, organic azides, 2:1030-1031
  • enynes, azidosulfonylation/5-exo-trig cyclizations, 2:739-740
  • enzymes
  • antioxidants
  • indirect, 3:1626-1627
  • preventive, 3:1625-1626
  • electron transfer, 3:1475,1477,1482,1485,1493-1494
  • lipid peroxidation, 3:1578,1579-1580
  • cholesterol oxidation, 3:1587-1588
  • see also radical enzymes
  • EP see emulsion polymerization
  • epoxide radicals, intermolecular additions, alkenes, 2:993-995
  • epoxides
  • aldehydes, 2:995-997
  • cyclizations, titanocene-catalyzed/mediated, 2:995-999
  • deoxygenations, 2:989-990
  • disproportionations, 2:989-990
  • intramolecular homolytic substitutions, 2:644-645
  • ketones, 2:995-997
  • lipid peroxidation products, 3:1585
  • reductive opening, alcohol formation, 2:990-993
  • styrene alkylations, cobalt-catalyzed, 2:1010-1011
  • sustainable hydrogen atom donors, 2:993
  • titanocene-catalyzed/mediated reactions, 2:989-1001
  • β-titanoxy radical synthesis, 2:989-990
  • epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET), lipid peroxidation product, 3:1580,1585
  • α,β-epoxy ketones, opening, titanocene-mediated, 2:991-992
  • epoxypolyenes
  • cyclizations, titanocene-mediated, 2:998-999
  • titanocene-catalyzed cyclizations, 2:748-749
  • EPR see electron paramagnetic resonance
  • EPRI see electron paramagnetic resonance imaging
  • EPR/ST see electron paramagnetic resonance/spin trapping
  • equilibrium constants
  • atom transfer radical polymerization, 4:1864,1866-1868
  • redox potential correlation, 4:1866-1868
  • ER see endoplasmic reticulum
  • EROI see endoplasmic reticulum oxidoreductinl
  • erythrocytes, lipid peroxidation, 3:1583,1589
  • (-)-erythrodine, synthesis, sulfur-centered radicals, 2:799
  • Escherichia coil (E.Coli), ribonucleotide reductases, 3:1503,1504,1505
  • ESR see electron spin resonance
  • ester carbonyl-alkene cyclizations, samarium diiodide, 2:876-877
  • α-ester radicals, cyclizations, Lewis acid-promoted, 2:950
  • 1,2-esters, rearrangements, 2-deoxy sugar synthesis, 2:1158
  • esters
  • activation, silicon surfaces, functionalized monolayers, 4:2106-2109
  • benzoic acid-derivatives, silane-mediated synthesis, 2:594-595
  • fragmentations, tin hydride-mediated, 2:553
  • functionalized, synthesis, flow microreactor experiments, 2:1254-1255
  • hydrolysis/reduction/cleavage, silicon surfaces, functionalized monolayers, 4:2104-2106
  • nitrite, photoinduced remote functionalizations, oxygen-centered radicals, 2:1231-1233
  • reductions, samarium diiodide, synthetic applications, 2:860
  • 1,2-shift, radical rearrangements, 1:125-129,2:1158
  • β-ester substituted alkyl radicals, rearrangements, 1:127,128
  • ester-substituted radicals, rearrangements, 1:125-129
  • ET see electron transfer
  • ethane, atmospheric reactions, 1:522-523
  • ethanolamine ammonia lyase (EAL)
  • mechanism, 3:1506,1507,1510
  • theoretical studies, 3:1559-1561
  • ethyl 2-(benzenesulfonylamino)acrylate, reductive coupling, alkenes, 2:613
  • ethylene, hydroxyl radical reactions, radiation-induced radicals in gaseous systems, 1:398-399
  • ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), metal chelating preventive antioxidant, 3:1623,1624
  • ethyl pyruvate, alkylations, 2:613
  • ethyl radicals, matrix isolation spectroscopy, 1:212-213
  • ethynyl benzenes, 5-endo-dig cyclizations, kinetics, 2:707
  • ethynyl radicals, matrix isolation spectroscopy, 1:214-215
  • eudesmanolide, semisynthesis, germacrane, 2:998-999
  • EVB see empirical valence bond
  • evolution
  • radical enzymes, 3:1540-1541
  • reactive oxygen species, 3:1261
  • EWGs see electron-withdrawing groups
  • excess electron transfer
  • DNA, 3:1413-1422
  • see also electron transfer
  • exchange broadening, electron paramagnetic resonance, 1:159-160
  • exchanges, functional groups, electrochemically initiated, 2:1203-1205
  • excitation of molecules, ionizing radiation, 1:395,396
  • excited electronic states, unimolecular reactions, gas phase radicals, 1:493
  • excited state processes, DNA radicals, 3:1388-1393
  • exciton-mediated initiation, monolayer generation on silicon surfaces, 4:2093-2096
  • exobiology (astrobiology), atmospheric chemistry, 1:480
  • exocyclic closure, transition state electronics, 2:714-715
  • exo cyclization see cyclizations
  • exogenous oxidant sources, 3:1425,1426
  • exothermic β-scissions, 3-exo-trig cyclizations, 2:696-697
  • experimental modeling studies, monolayer generation on silicon surfaces, 4:2096-2100
  • FAD see flavin adenine dinucleotide
  • fatty acids
  • free radicals, the metabolic syndrome, 3:1685-1690
  • lipid isomerization, 3:1599-1622
  • structures, 3:1599,1600
  • see also free fatty acids; monounsaturated fatty acids; polyunsaturated fatty acids
  • FCF see Frank-Condon factors
  • Fe(III) see iron(III)
  • Fenton chemistry
  • history, 1:15
  • preventive antioxidants, 3:1624,1625
  • reactive oxygen species, 3:1272-1273
  • ferric perchlorate (Fe(ClO4)3)-mediated radical reactions, fullerenes, 4:2174,2176-2177
  • ferromagnetism
  • BBDTA salts, crystal solvent evaporation, 4:2155-2156
  • coupling/ordering, thiazyl radicals, 4:2154-2156
  • FFAs see free fatty acids
  • field dependence, chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization studies, 1:198-199
  • field-effect mobility, polymer-based field-effect transistors, 4:2059,2061
  • field-effect transistors (FETs)
  • organic, 4:2058-2059
  • see also polymer-based field-effect transistors
  • Fischer's phase diagrams, nitroxide-mediated polymerization, 4:1819,1824
  • Fisher-Ingold persistent radical effect, hydrogen abstractions, 1:131
  • five-membered heterocycles, synthesis, sulfanyl—isonitrile radical additions, 2:1045
  • five-membered rings
  • cyclic nitrones, spin trapping, 4:2002,2004-2005
  • synthesis
  • cascade reactions, 2:739-742
  • stereoelectronically disfavoured, 2:703-709
  • unusual pathways, 2:709-711
  • flash laser photolysis (FLP), DNA charge transfer studies, 3:1404,1406,1421
  • flash photolysis
  • characterization of radicals, 1:297-298
  • see also laser flash photolysis
  • flash vacuum pyrolysis (FVP)
  • matrix isolation of radicals, 1:207,208,210
  • phosphorous ylides, 5-ends-dig cyclizations, 2:706-707
  • flat silicon surfaces, self-assembled monolayers, 4:2082
  • flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), SAM-dependent enzymes, 3:1503,1529-1534,1538
  • flavin cofactors, DNA photolase, 3:1482,1483
  • flavin serniquinone, radical enzymes, 3:1503,1529-1534,1538,1539
  • flavoprotein oxidases, reactive oxygen species generation, 3:1264,1265
  • flexible batteries, 4:2163,2167,2169
  • flow microreactor experiments
  • atom transfer radical polymerizations, 2:1248-1250
  • carbonylations, 2:1246-1248
  • free radical polymerizations, 2:1247
  • gas-liquid biphasic reactions, 2:1246-1248
  • halogenations, 2:1250-1253
  • photo-carbonylations, 2:1253-1256
  • photoinduced reactions, 2:1250-1253
  • polymerizations, 2:1248-1250
  • synthetic strategies, 2:1243-1258
  • thermally-induced reactions, 2:1243-1250
  • fluoranthene, oxidations, perylene derivative synthesis, 2:1186-1187
  • fluorescence quenching
  • DNA mismatched base pair detection, 3:1412
  • spin labels and spin probes for living system study, 4:1986
  • fluoride-catalyzed attachment, monolayer generation on silicon surfaces, 4:2096
  • fluorinations, fullerenes, 4:2185
  • fluoroalkyl radicals
  • additions
  • to fullerenes, 4:2178-2179
  • tris(trimethylsilyl)silane-mediated, 2:585-586
  • fluorocarbon radical clocks, 1:117
  • α-fluoro-α-iodo-β-arylated ketones, synthesis, Meerwein arylations, 2:1081
  • fluorous tin hydrides, preparation, 2:534-537
  • follow-up homogeneous kinetics, redox potential determination, 1:252-253
  • fomitellic acids, AB ring synthesis, titanium complex-catalyzed, 2:749
  • food spoilage, lipid peroxidation, 3:1577
  • formylamine, 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine lesion, 3:1336
  • formylations, B-alkylcatecholboranes, 2:614
  • fortucine, pentacycle core synthesis, cyclization/aromatic homolytic substitutions, 2:738
  • Fourier transform-nuclear magnetic resonance (FT-NMR), chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization, 1:176
  • four-membered rings
  • synthesis
  • carbocycles, 2:1154-1155
  • electrochemically initiated, 2:1183-1184
  • unusual cyclizations, 2:698-702
  • FOx radicals, atmospheric, 1:510-511
  • F/R see fragmentation-recombination
  • fragmentation/recombination (F/R) mechanism
  • acyloxy rearrangements, 1:126,127
  • coenzyme B12-dependent enzymes, 3:1552-1553,1555
  • fragmentations
  • alkoxy radicals, hydroazulenone synthesis, 2:734-735
  • aryl esters, samarium diiodide, 2:860
  • cascade reactions, with cyclizations, 2:732-735
  • chiral Lewis acid-mediated, enantioselective, 2:676-678
  • esters, tin hydride-mediated, 2:553
  • ionization of ionic liquids, 1:436,438,440,441,442-441
  • ketones, samarium diiodide, synthetic applications, 2:859-860
  • radical clocks, 1:114,117-118,122
  • fragmentations (continued)
  • sulfur-centered radicals, 2:803-804
  • tin hydride-mediated, esters, 2:553
  • α-fragmentations, imidoyl radicals, isonitrile formation, 2:1038
  • β-fragmentations
  • alkoxyl radical-promoted, carbohydrates, 2:1165-1169
  • B-alkylcatecholboranes, 2:612-613
  • trialkylboranes, 2:609-610
  • Frank-Condon factors (FCFs), photoionization of gas phase radicals, 1:488-490
  • free fatty acids (FFAs)
  • the metabolic syndrome, 3:1685-1687
  • etiology of increased circulating levels, 3:1685-1686
  • insulin biosynthesis impairment, 3:1680
  • mitochondria effects, 3:1686
  • NADPH oxidase-mediated superoxide radical generation, 3:1687
  • obesity, 3:1691
  • peroxisome effects, 3:1686-1687
  • free-jet spectroscopy, isolated radicals, 1:482
  • free-radical chain oxidation, 3:1623
  • see also autoxidation; lipid peroxidation
  • free-radical independent lipid peroxidation, 3:1578,1579
  • free-radical-mediated lipid peroxidation, 3:1577,1578,1580-1588
  • free radicals
  • the metabolic syndrome, 3:1679-1700
  • self-assembly, 4:1999,2000-2004
  • use of term, 3:1501
  • free-radical stress, 3:1599,1601,1605,1607-1609,1612-1615,1619
  • Fremy's salt
  • amino acid oxidations, α-keto add synthesis, 2:1123
  • phenol oxidations, benzoquinone synthesis, 2:1122
  • unsaturations, synthetic strategies, 2:1103-1104
  • frontside mechanisms, intramolecular homolytic substitutions, 2:629-632
  • I.-fucos-1-y1 radicals, additions, α,β-unsaturated esters, 2:1133
  • fullerenes, 4:2171-2195
  • additions, scandine, 2:1217-1218
  • C60/C70 radical addition comparison, 4:2173
  • carbon-centered radicals, 4:2171-2180
  • derivatives, polymer-based solar cells, 4:2068
  • halogenations, 4:2185-2186
  • hydrogen atom additions, 4:2184-2185
  • metal-centered radicals, 4:2183-2184
  • oxygen-centered radicals, 4:2180-2182
  • [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester, 4:2060,2068,2070,2071-2075
  • phosphorus-centered radicals, 4:2182
  • photocatalytic oligomerization via charge separation, 1:386-388
  • polymer-based solar cells, 4:2068,2070,2071-2072
  • radiation-induced radical reactions, 1:411-412
  • radical ions, 4:2186-2192
  • RC60 radicals, pyracylene unit, atom numbering, 4:2172
  • silicon-centered radicals, 4:2183
  • sulfur-centered radicals, 4:2180-2181
  • thiol-ene functionalization, 4:2045,2047
  • fullerenyl radical dimers, 4:2171-2172
  • fullerite (C60/C70 mixture), hydrogenation, 4:2185
  • functional group exchanges, electrochemically initiated, 2:1203-1205
  • functional group transformations, tin hydride-mediated, 2:540-556
  • functionalizations
  • electrochemically initiated, 2:1203-1205
  • isonitriles, 2:1042
  • α-this carbamates, 2:1205
  • functionalized amino acids/peptides, radical thiol additions, 4:2022,2024-2025,2026,2027,2028
  • functionalized esters, synthesis, flow microreactor experiments, 2:1254-1255
  • functionalized monolayers
  • silicon surfaces, 4:2101-2112
  • acid fluoride monolayers, 4:2109-2110
  • active esters, 4:2106-2109
  • carbon-hydrogen bond activation, 4:2101-2104
  • carboxylic acids, 4:2104,2105
  • click chemistry, 4:2111-2112,2113
  • ester activation, 4:2106-2109
  • ester hydrolysis/reduction/cleavage, 4:2104-2106
  • functionalized monomers, organoheteroatom-mediated radical living polymerization, 4:1940,1943
  • functionalized polymers
  • atom transfer radical polymerization, 4:1877-1878,1879
  • end group transformation, organoheteroatom-mediated radical living polymerization, 4:1949-1953
  • organotellurium-mediated radical living polymerization, 4:1958-1960
  • synthesis, radical thiol-X click chemistry, 4:2033,2035-2039,2040
  • functionalized vegetable oils, radical thiol additions, 4:2022
  • furans
  • enol-ether derivatives, cyclizations, 2:1181-1182
  • synthesis, tris(trimethylsilyl)silane, 2:575-576
  • fused bicyclic piperidinones, synthesis, radical cascade transfers, 2:618
  • fused polycyclic cyclopropanes, synthesis, cyclization/β-elimination cascades, 2:735
  • 3,4-fused pyrroleo-3-sulfolenes, cycloadditions with fullerenes, 4:2180
  • FVP see flash vacuum pyrolysis
  • G3(MP2)-RAD, coenzyme Biz-dependent enzymes, 3:1548,1556
  • GA see group additivity
  • gain of function changes, protein oxidation, 3:1448
  • galvinoxyl radicals
  • inhibition/scavenging, history, 1:27-28
  • redox reactions, 4:2164-2165
  • γ-rays
  • DNA radiolysis, 3:1414
  • interactions with matter, 1:395,396
  • gas-liquid biphasic reactions, flow microreactor experiments, 2:1246-1248
  • gas phase oxidants, troposphere, 1:514-518
  • gas phase radicals
  • absolute photoionization cross-section, 1:491
  • bimolecular reactions, 1:479,495-498
  • chemical reactions, 1:477-502
  • combustion research, 1:478-480
  • dissociative photoionization, 1:490-491
  • extraterrestrial atmospheres, 1:480
  • Frank-Condon factors, 1:488-490
  • generation, 1:482-487
  • interstellar chemistry, 1:481-482
  • ionization energy, 1:488-490
  • isolated radical generation, 1:482-487
  • photoionization, 1:487-492
  • plasma chemistry, 1:480-481
  • radiation-induced radicals, 1:397-400
  • signatures, 1:487-488
  • study methods, 1:482
  • unimolecular reactions, 1:479,492-495,498
  • see also atmospheric chemistry
  • Gaussian lineshapes, electron paramagnetic resonance, 1:150
  • GDH see glycerol dehydratase
  • gel effect, polymerization kinetics, 4:1742-1743
  • gels
  • hydrogel synthesis, thiol addition to unsaturated compounds, 4:2044-2045
  • microgels, atom transfer radical polymerization, 4:1876
  • organotellurium-mediated radical living polymerization, 4:1959
  • geminate chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization, hyperfine coupling constant, 1:184-185
  • geminate dynamics, neutral radicals, ionization of ionic liquids, 1:437
  • genetically encoded unnatural amino acids, orthogonal spin labeling, 4:1967,1970
  • geometric dependency, homolytic halogen translocations, 2:630
  • germacrane, eudesmanolide semisynthesis, 2:998-999
  • germanium, intramolecular homolytic substitutions, 2:650-653
  • germanium-centered radicals, electron paramagnetic resonance, 1:161-162
  • germylenol ethers, ketone perfluoroalkylations, 2:606
  • 1,n-germyl translocations, intramolecular homolytic substitutions, 2:651
  • g-factors, electron paramagnetic resonance, 1:148,150-151,156,162,163
  • GGG, DNA hole hopping, 3:1403-1404, 1405-1406
  • Gh see guanidinodihydantoin
  • Giese-type additions, vinylpinacolborane, 2:623
  • glass effect
  • monolayer generation on silicon surfaces, 4:2091-2092
  • polymerization kinetics, 4:1742,1743
  • glucose autoxidation, 3:1681
  • glucose-derived free radicals, type-2 diabetes, 3:1680-1684
  • glucotoxicity, pancreatic β-cells, 3:1680
  • D-gluco-1-y1 radicals, generation, 2:1133
  • glutamate mutase (GM)
  • active-site structure, 3:1555
  • Co-C bond homolysis, 3:1550,1551
  • mechanism, 3:1508,1511-1513
  • theoretical studies, 3:1555-1556
  • glutathione peroxidase (GPx), antioxidant action, 3:1625-1626
  • glutathione (reduced) (GSH)
  • cellular function, 3:1459
  • ionization, 3:1460
  • radical scavenging, 3:1270,1271,1276,1277
  • structure, 3:1461
  • thiol-specific nitroxide spin labels, 4:1984,1985,1986
  • glycal epoxides, radical formation, 2:994
  • glycals, cerium(IV) ammonium nitrate-mediated additions to malonates, branched-chain sugar synthesis, 2:1142
  • exo-glycals, azidoselenations, C-ketoside synthesis, 2:1141-1142
  • glycation, advanced glycation end products, 3:1681,1682,1684-1685
  • glycerol dehydratase (GDH)
  • biotechnological applications, 3:1539
  • glycyl-radical enzyme, 3:1518,1519
  • mechanism, 3:1507,1509-1510,1511,1514
  • theoretical studies, 3:1558-1559
  • glycine esters, fullerene photochemical reactions, 4:2187
  • glycoclusters, synthesis, radical thiol additions, 4:2022,2023,2024
  • glycopeptides, synthesis, radical thiol additions, 4:2025,2026,2027,2035-2036
  • α-C-glycosides, synthesis, 2:1137-1139
  • β-C-glycosides, stereoselective synthesis, 2:1156-1158
  • C-glycosides
  • synthesis
  • enol ether oxidations, electrochemically initiated, 2:1176-1177
  • hexamethylditin photochemical cleavage, 2:1238-1239
  • intermolecular carbon-carbon bond formation, 2:1132-1139
  • intramolecular carbon-carbon bond formation, 2:1143-1144
  • transition metal-catalyzed, 2:1136
  • β-O-glycosides, stereoselective synthesis, 2:1156-1158
  • glycosylations, phosphate ester rearrangement to 2-deoxy glycosyl phosphate, 1:128-129,130
  • glycosyl pyridyl sulfones, 2:1137,1140
  • glycos-1-y1 radicals, 2:1131-1132,1133-1135,1144
  • glycylglycine, photoreactions, time resolved chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization, 1:191-193
  • glycyl radical enzymes, 3:1502
  • irreversible SAM radical enzymes, 3:1517-1520
  • mechanisms, 3:1501,1502
  • theoretical studies, 3:1562-1568
  • see also glycerol dehydratase
  • GM see glutamate mutase
  • gold nanoclusters, 9-mesityl-10-methylacridinium ion, photocatalytic charge separation, 1:368,369
  • gold nanoparticles
  • radical-mediated photochemical synthesis, 4:2198,2202,2205
  • self-assembly monolayer protection, 1:237-239
  • Gomberg, M., triphenylmethyl radical discovery, 1:2-3
  • Gomberg-Buchmann reaction, history, 1:29
  • GPx see glutathione peroxidase
  • gradient copolymers
  • atom transfer radical polymerization, 4:1871
  • industrial radical polymerization, 4:1714
  • graft copolymers
  • atom transfer radical polymerization, 4:1874-1875,1878
  • industrial radical polymerization, 4:1714
  • grafting, molecular hybrids, atom transfer radical polymerization, 4:1876
  • gram-scale synthesis, methylene tetrahydrofurans, 2:1243-1244
  • Grignard reactions
  • free-radical formation, history, 1:26
  • samarium diiodide-mediated, synthetic applications, 2:879-884
  • Grignard reagents, homocoupling, nitroxide-mediated, 2:1105
  • ground-state oxygen (O(3P)), O2 photolysis in stratosphere, 1:506
  • group additivity (GA), enthalpies of formation estimation, 1:84,88
  • group transfer processes, radical chain reactions, 1:65-66,76-78
  • GSH see glutathione
  • g-tensor, anisotropic hyperfine interactions, DNA radicals, 3:1377-1378
  • guanacastepenes, synthesis, electrochemical transformations, 2:1183
  • guanidinodihydantoin (Gh), 8-oxoG oxidation, 3:1307,1309-1310,1311,1312
  • guanine (G)
  • DNA hole transfer, 3:1401,1402,1403-1407
  • hydroxyl radical reactions, 3:1292
  • one-electron oxidation, 3:1293-1300
  • aromatic radical cations, 3:1295-1297
  • base-sequence effects, 3:1294
  • carbonate radicals, 3:1294-1295
  • end products, 3:1300-1311
  • oxidant charge effects, 3:1297-1298
  • solvent exposure, 3:1297-1298
  • thermodynamics, 3:1293-1294
  • guanine (G) (continued)
  • one-electron oxidized G:C, intra-base pair proton transfer, 3:1385-1386
  • oxidation
  • 5',8-cyclonucleosides, 3:1338,1340
  • DNA charge transfer, 3:1398
  • hydroxyl radicals, 3:1326-1328
  • one-electron transfer, 3:1331-1333
  • 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro derivative, 3:1333-1334
  • singlet oxygen, 3:1320-1321
  • oxidative lesions, biological implications, 3:1311-1312
  • 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine lesions, biological implications, 3:1311-1312
  • 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine radical cation
  • nucleophilic additions, 3:1309
  • one-electron oxidation, 3:1308-1311
  • protonation states of one-electron oxidized guanine monomers, 3:1384-1385
  • radical cation, DNA hole hopping, 3:1403-1407
  • guanine radicals
  • cation/neutral forms, one-electron oxidation, 3:1300-1302
  • nucleophilic addition reactions, 3:1302-1305
  • one-electron oxidation, 3:1300-1311
  • radical reactions, 3:1305-1308
  • guanosyl radicals, electron transfer from amino acids, non-enzymatic DNA repair, time resolved chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization studies, 1:196-197
  • guest inclusion, supramolecular systems, 4:1987,1988
  • guest spin probes, supramolecular systems, 4:1987
  • halide-mediated reactions, electrochemically initiated, 2:1203
  • halides
  • reductions
  • organoboranes, 2:602-603
  • samarium diiodide, 2:852-853
  • SRN1 reactions, 1:333,348-354,360-361
  • 2-haloacrylate, ketyl radicals, 3:1533-1534
  • haloalkanes, C-halogen bond, photoinduced homolytic α-cleavage, 1:275-278
  • haloalkenes
  • carbon-halogen bonds, photoinduced homolytic α-cleavage, 1:278
  • cyclopropanations, electrochemically initiated, 2:1209
  • α-haloamides, cyclizations, tin hydride-mediated, 2:545
  • N-haloamines, pyrrolidine synthesis, hydrogen atom migration in acidic media, 1:129-131
  • haloarenes, carbon-halogen bonds, photoinduced homolytic α-cleavage, 1:278
  • α-halo carbonyl compounds, allylations, zirconium-catalyzed, 2:1015-1016
  • haloesters, cascade reactions, allylsilyloximes, 2:741-742
  • halogen anions, room-temperature ionic liquids, 1:434,438-439
  • halogenated hydrocarbons, radiolysis, 1:399,415-417
  • halogenations
  • B-alkylcatecholboranes, 2:613-616
  • chain reactions, 1:74-75
  • flow microreactor experiments, 2:1250-1253
  • fullerenes, 4:2185-2186
  • halogen atom transfers
  • agents, atom transfer radical addition, 4:1853
  • intramolecular homolytic substitutions, 2:630
  • Lewis acid-mediated, stereoselective reactions, 2:670-672
  • reactions, 2:943-963
  • halogen bonding, effects on free radicals, 1:232-233
  • halogen impurities, monolayer generation on silicon surfaces, 4:2088-2089
  • halogen radicals
  • atmospheric
  • F/Cl/Bra comparisons, 1:510-511,516-519
  • organic compound reactions, 1:516-517
  • ozone destruction, 1:508-509,510-511,512-513,517-518
  • stratosphere, 1:507-509,510-511,512-513
  • troposphere, 1:516-519
  • history, 1:16-19
  • ionization, room-temperature ionic liquids, 1:438-439
  • 6-halo-l-hexenes
  • reductive radical cyclizations, iron-catalyzed, 2:1012
  • tandem radical cyclization/cross-coupling arylations, cobalt-catalyzed, 2:1008-1009
  • Hantzsch 1,4-dihydropyridines, photochemical aromatizations, nitroxide-mediated, 2:1105-1106
  • harmonic oscillators, electron transfer, 3:1477
  • HAT see hydrogen atom transfer
  • HBA see hydrogen-bond accepting
  • HDL see high density lipoprotein
  • head-to-head monomer addition, industrial radical polymerization, 4:1712-1713
  • head-to-tail (HT) regioregularity, polythiophenes, polymer-based field-effect transistors, 4:2061-2062
  • heat, see also thermolysis
  • heat of polymerization, industrial processes, 4:1719-1720
  • HEBA see 4-hydroxyethoxybenzoic acid
  • α-helical peptides, electron transfer, 3:1487-1488,1492,1495-1496
  • helicene compounds, synthesis, diiodide double arylations, 2:1064
  • heme-oxygenases (HOs), antioxidant action, 3:1626-1627
  • heme proteins, reactive oxygen species generation, 3:1264-1265,1266
  • hemicolfigation (radical reactions with nonradicals), ionized ionic liquids, 1:437
  • 6-hepten-l-one radical anion, cyclizations, 1:320-322
  • 6-heptenyl radicals, cyclizations, carbapyranose synthesis, 2:1154
  • Hess's Law, thermochemistry, 1:81-82
  • HETE see hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid
  • heteroaromatic compounds, synthesis, xanthates, 2:978-981
  • heteroatom-centered radicals
  • acceptors, azides, 2:1023-1031
  • electron paramagnetic resonance, 1:160:165
  • generation, tin hydride-mediated, 2:554-556
  • history, 1:13-19
  • trialkylborane reactivity, 2:602
  • α-heteroatoms, carboxylic acids, electrolysis effects, 2:1200
  • α-heteroatom-stabilized radicals, atom transfer radical additions, 2:957
  • α-heteroatom-substituted carbonyl group reductions, samarium diiodide, 2:860-862
  • α-heteroatom-substituted radicals, phenylseleno transfers, 2:957
  • heterocoupling, metal-dependent, 2:917-918
  • heterocumulenes, radical acceptors, 2:1048-1052
  • heterocycles
  • benzyl analog substrates, SRN1 reactions, 1:358-360
  • carbonyl-alkene coupling, samarium diiodide, 2:874-875
  • five-membered, synthesis, sulfanyl-isonitrile radical additions, 2:1045
  • nitrogen, synthesis, tris(trimethylsilyl)silane, 2:578
  • thiazyl radicals, conductive and magnetic materials, 4:2147-2161
  • N-heterocyclic carbenes, organoborane complexes, 2:620-621
  • heterogeneous chemistry, stratosphere, ozone depletion mechanisms, 1:511-513
  • heterogeneous kinetics, redox potential determination, 1:251-252
  • heterogeneous media, antioxidant synergism and cooperativity, 3:1668-1669
  • heterogeneous nucleation, emulsion polymerization, 4:1721
  • heterogeneous polymerizations
  • reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer, 4:1919,1920-1925
  • see also emulsion polymerization; microemulsion polymerization; mini emulsion polymerization; suspension polymerization
  • heterolytic bond cleavage, thermochemistry, 1:83
  • heterophosphinations, phosphorus-centered radicals, 2:792-794
  • heteropinacol coupling
  • N-t-butylsulfinyl imines, samarium diiodide, 2:869-870
  • diazonamide A synthesis, 2:868
  • natural product synthesis, 2:868
  • nitrones, samarium diiodide, 2:868-869
  • hexaarylethanes, history, 1:4-5
  • hexabutyltin, radical chain reactions, initiator, 1:66
  • hexamethylditin
  • photochemical cleavage
  • camptothecin synthesis, 2:1238-1239
  • C-glycoside synthesis, 2:1238-1239
  • hexamethylphosphoramide (HMPA), samarium diiodide reactions, synthetic applications, 2:850-900
  • hexaphenylethanes, history, 1:4
  • Δ-hexenyl radicals
  • cyclizations, 1:317-323
  • radical anions, 1:317,322-323
  • regioselectivity, 1:318
  • solvent effects, 1:319-320
  • stereo-/regiochemical trends, 1:322-323
  • stereoselectivity, 1:318-319
  • hexylsilanes, enantioselective reactions, 2:595-596
  • hfs see hyperfine splittings
  • high density lipoprotein (HDL), oxidation, 3:1577
  • high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol concentration, the metabolic syndrome, 3:1685
  • high-energy radiation
  • radical production, 1:395-397
  • see also ionizing radiation
  • high gas pressure carbonylations, carbon monoxide, alkyl halides, 2:1246-1248
  • high-level ab initio methods, radical enzymes, theoretical studies, 3:1548,1552
  • high molecular weight polymers, reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer agents, 4:1901-1902
  • high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-EC), DNA oxidation products, 3:1325
  • high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS), DNA oxidation products, 3:1320,1322,1340
  • high-spin molecules, history, 1:11
  • hirsutene, synthesis, iron(III) salt-mediated, 2:924
  • histidine
  • protonated, hydrogen bonded to TolSQ, 1:229-230
  • relay amino acids in electron transfer, 3:1481,1484
  • history, 1:1-35
  • aliphatic radicals, 1:6-9
  • controlled/living radical polymerization, 4:1725
  • delocalized radical discovery, 1:9-12
  • electron transfer processes, 1:19-21
  • heteroatom-centered radicals, 1:13-19
  • plastics industry, 4:1701-1702
  • pre1900 1:1-1:2
  • radical processes, 1:25-30
  • reactive oxygen species, 3:1260-1261
  • triarylmethyl radicals, 1:2-6, 21-25
  • triphenylmethyl radical discovery, 1:1-6
  • HMPA see hexamethylphosphoramide
  • 5-HMU see 5-hydroxy-4-methyluracil
  • HOCl see hypochlorous acid
  • HODE see hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid
  • Hofer-Moest reactions, 2:1195-1196
  • Hofmann-Loffier-Freytag reactions
  • dihydrodeoxyepiallocemuine synthesis, 2:1234
  • hydrogen atom migration, 1:129-131
  • hole injection, DNA, 3:1399-1403
  • hole migration
  • DNA, 3:1399,1403
  • guanine lesions in DNA, 3:1298-1300
  • irradiated zeolites, 1:421
  • hole transfer
  • DNA, 3:1399-1413
  • applications, 3:1411-1413
  • hopping mechanism, 3:1403-1407
  • sugar radical formation, 3:1388-1390
  • tunneling mechanism, 3:1399-1403
  • unusual structures, 3:1407-1411
  • hollow polystyrene spheres, reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer polymerization, 4:1925
  • homocoupling
  • Grignard reagents, nitroxide-mediated, 2:1105
  • metal-dependent, 2:917-918
  • 4-methylguaiacol, 2:1188-1189
  • homocysteine (Heys)
  • carbon-centered radical reactions, 3:1462,1463
  • cellular function, 3:1459-1460
  • ionization, 3:1460
  • structure, 3:1461
  • homogeneous kinetics, follow-up, redox potential determination, 1:252-253
  • homogeneous media, antioxidant synergism and cooperativity, 3:1667-1668
  • homogeneous nucleation, emulsion polymerization, 4:1721
  • homogeneous polymerization, reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer, 4:1919-1920
  • homogeneous redox catalysis, competitive q method, 1:253-255
  • homogenization, mini-/microemulsion polymerization, 4:1724
  • homolytic cleavage
  • radical initiation, 1:37-49
  • alkoxyamines, nitroxide-mediated polymerization, 4:1829-1831
  • chain reactions, 1:60,61,62
  • photochemical cleavage, 1:43-49
  • photo-induced, 1:275-287
  • radiolysis, 1:52
  • thermal decomposition, 1:37-42
  • homolytic α-cleavage
  • photoinduced
  • carbon-C bonds, 1:281-283
  • carbon-halogen bonds, 1:275-278
  • carbon-N bonds, 1:283
  • carbon-O bonds, 1:280-281
  • carbon-S bonds, 1:283
  • N-O bonds, 1:279-280
  • O-I bonds, 1:278-279
  • homolytic halogen translocations, geometry dependency, 2:630
  • homolytic substitutions
  • aromatic
  • carbon-centered radicals, 2:1059-1069,1074-1079
  • cyclohexadienyl radicals, 2:1067
  • iminyl radicals, 2:1067
  • intermolecular, 2:1074-1079
  • intramolecular, 2:1059-1074
  • radical aryl migrations, 2:1069-1074
  • reaction mechanisms, 2:1062
  • synthetic strategies, 2:1059-1080
  • tris(trimethylsilyl)silane-mediated, 2:586-587
  • see also arylations; Pschorr reactions
  • carbon-centered radicals, selenium-centered radicals, 2:806-807
  • cascade reactions
  • with cyclizations, 2:737-739
  • ortho-substituted benzoyl rings, 2:738-739
  • intramolecular, 2:629-654
  • aromatic, 2:1059-1074
  • at germanium, 2:650-653
  • at oxygen, 2:644-645
  • at selenium, 2:637-644
  • at silicon, 2:645-650
  • at sulfur, 2:635-637
  • at tellurium, 2:637-641
  • at tin, 2:650-653
  • chiral sulfoxides, 2:636
  • kinetics, 2:632-635
  • β-lactams, 2:640-641
  • leaving groups, 2:634-635
  • phosphorus-centered radical generation, 2:796
  • radical chain reactions, 1:61
  • selenium-centered radicals, 2:805-808
  • carbon-centered radicals, 2:806-807
  • synthetic strategies, 2:804
  • tandem radical reactions, at selenium, 2:641-644
  • homopolymers
  • atom transfer radical polymerization, 4:1869-1870
  • functionalization, radical thiol-X click chemistry, 4:2033
  • nitroxide-mediated polymerization, 4:1838-1839
  • hopping mechanisms, charge transfer, 3:1403-1407,1414-1416,1478-1481
  • Horsfiline, synthesis, phosphorus-centered radicals, 2:792-793
  • HOs see heme-oxygenases
  • HOSCN see hypothiocyanous acid
  • host-guest complexes
  • electron paramagnetic resonance, 1:233-237
  • macrocyclic hosts, 1:233,234
  • nitroxide radicals, 1:233-234
  • supramolecular radical chemistry, 1:233-237
  • host-guest interactions, supramolecular systems, 4:1987,1988,1995,1999-2000
  • host spin probes, supramolecular systems, 4:1987
  • HOx radicals
  • stratosphere, 1:507-509
  • troposphere, 1:514-516
  • CO/CH4 oxidation chain reaction, 1:519-522
  • interconversions, 1:514-515
  • ozone/isoprene reactions, 1:525
  • see also hydroxyl radicals
  • 10 hour half-life temperature, thermolysis, 1:38,39
  • 3-HP see 3-hydroxypropionate
  • HPETE see hydro(pero)xyeicosatetraenoic acid
  • HPLC-ED see high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection
  • HPLC-MS/MS see high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry
  • HPODE see hydro(pero)xyoctadecadienoic acid
  • HT see head-to-tail
  • human studies, physiological lipid peroxidation products, 3:1590-1593
  • hyacinthacine A, total synthesis, sulfonyl radicals, 2:1029-1030
  • 2-hydoxyacyl-CoA dehydratases, ketyl radicals, 3:1526-1529
  • 2-hydoxybutyryl-CoA dehydratase, ketyl radicals, 3:1529-1530
  • hydrated electrons, radiation-induced radical reactions, 1:401,403,407-408
  • hydration effects, DNA radical properties, 3:1383-1384
  • hydrazine derivatives, thermolysis, 1:40
  • hydrazines, nitrogen-centered radical generation, 2:771
  • hydrazones, reductive coupling, ketones, 2:1211-1212
  • hydroazulenone, synthesis, alkoxy radical fragmentations, 2:734-735
  • hydroborations, rhodium-catalyzed, enantioselectivity control, 2:612
  • hydrocarbons
  • autoxidation inhibition, phenolic antioxidants, 3:1627-1661
  • azidations, azidoiodinanes, 2:1035-1036
  • cracking models, 1:480
  • enthalpies of formation, 1:88-91
  • GA based estimation, 1:88-89
  • standard values of precursors, 1:90
  • radiolysis, 1:417-418
  • hydrogel synthesis, thiol addition to unsaturated compounds, 4:2044-2045
  • hydrogenations, Co radicals, 4:2184-2185
  • 1,4-hydrogen atom abstractions, 1:140,141,142
  • 1,5-hydrogen atom abstractions
  • alkoxy radicals, 1:131-134
  • aryl radicals, 1:137
  • carboxyl radicals, 1:136
  • naphthalene-1,3-diyl, 1:142-143
  • protecting-radical-translocating groups, 1:137-139
  • sulfonamidyl/amidyl radicals, 1:131,132
  • vinyl radicals, 1:137
  • 1,6-hydrogen atom abstractions
  • benzylideneacetal, 1:139
  • radical inversion of anomeric center, 1:140,141
  • hydrogen atom abstractions
  • alcohols, metal-catalyzed, nitroxide-mediated, 2:1119-1121
  • catechols, TEMPO-mediated, 2:1121-1122
  • coenzyme B12-dependent enzymes, 3:1509
  • 2-deoxyribose, radical formation, 3:1345-1346
  • electron-poor nitroxides, 2:1122-1123
  • epoxide disproportionations, 2:989-990
  • free-radical-mediated lipid peroxidation, 3:1581,1583,1584
  • ketones, photoinduced radicals, 1:283-286
  • nitroxide-mediated, synthetic applications, 2:1119-1123
  • phenols, TEMPO-mediated, 2:1121-1122
  • photochemically activated radical initiators, 1:48-49
  • photoexcited ketones, 1:135
  • quinones, photoinduced radicals, 1:286-287
  • radical chain mediators, 1:64
  • radical stability, 1:463
  • substituent effects, 1:102-103
  • tris(silyl)-substituted silyl radical generation, 4:2122
  • tris(trimethylsilyl)silane, 2:561-562
  • hydrogen atom donors
  • photochemical radical-mediated metal nanostructure synthesis, 4:2203,2204
  • sustainable, epoxide reductive openings, 2:993
  • hydrogen atom migration, 1:129-143
  • coenzyme B12-dependent enzymes, 3:1548,1549
  • N-haloamines in acidic media, pyrrolidine synthesis, 1:129-131
  • Hofmann-Loffier-Freytag reactions, 1:129-131
  • radical rearrangements, 1:129-143
  • 1,2-hydrogen atom shift, alkoxyalkyl radicals, ketyl radical generation, 1:134
  • 1,5-hydrogen atom transfer
  • 5-endo-trig cyclizations, 2:703-704
  • germyl group translocation competition, 2:652
  • hydrogen atom transfer (HAT), 1:323-330
  • alkoxy radicals, 2:782-783
  • amino acids, 3:1459, 1472
  • carbon-nitrogen bond formation, carbohydrate synthesis, 2:1160-1162
  • carbon-oxygen bond formation, carbohydrate synthesis, 2:1162-1164
  • chain reactions, 2:619-620
  • classic mode, 1:323
  • deprotonation comparison, 1:329-330
  • electron transfer followed by proton transfer, 1:323-324
  • fullerene additions, 4:2184-2185
  • β-glycoside synthesis, 2:1157-1158
  • hydrogen bonding role in mode determination, 1:325-326
  • C-ketoside synthesis, 2:1144-1145
  • kinetics, 1:100-102
  • radical clocks, 1:119-121
  • Lewis acid-mediated, stereoselective reactions, 2:668-670
  • mechanisms, 1:323-330
  • memory of chirality, 2:667-668
  • modes, 1:323-326
  • nitroxide-mediated polymerization, 4:1833-1834
  • phenolic antioxidants, 3:1651-1653
  • proton-coupled electron transfer, 1:325
  • radical stabilization energy, 1:449-450,451-452,453,463-464
  • sequential proton loss electron transfer, 1:324-325
  • substituent effects, 1:102-103
  • sulfides, intramolecular homolytic substitution competition, 2:635
  • termination of nitroxide-mediated polymerization, 4:1818,1825,1826
  • thiols and selenols, 3:1460,1461-1464
  • tin hydride donors, 2:541-542
  • versus single electron transfer, tertiary amine oxidation, 1:310
  • see also proton transfer reactions
  • hydrogen-bond accepting (HBA) solvents, phenoxyl radicals, 1:230-231
  • hydrogen bonding
  • C-allylation stereocontrol, 2:657
  • effects on free radicals, 1:229-232
  • hydrogen atom transfer mode determination, 1:325-326
  • organocatalysis, enantioselective, 2:685-686
  • radical stability, 1:451
  • hydrogen gas, radiation-induced radicals in gaseous systems, 1:397-398
  • hydrogen peroxide
  • biological systems, 3:1271-1272
  • decomposition, antioxidants, 3:1625-1626
  • DNA reactions, 3:1319,1322,1325
  • enthalpies of formation, 1:93-95
  • flavoprotein oxidases, 3:1264,1265
  • inflammatory response, 3:1283,1285,1286-1288
  • NADPH oxidases, 3:1262-1264
  • reactivity relative to other two-electron oxidants, 3:1271
  • superoxide dismutase catalyzed formation, 3:1270
  • thiol protein reactions, 3:1274-1275
  • see also hydroperoxyl radicals
  • hydrogen quenching, diastereoselective, anomeric radicals, 2:1156-1157
  • hydrogen radicals, water radiolysis, 1:398,401,402,403,406-407
  • hydrogen-substituted bis(silyl) silicon-centered radicals, 4:2132
  • hydrogen terminated Si(100)/Si(111) surfaces
  • oxidation, 4:2083-2084
  • preparation, 4:2082-2083
  • self-assembled monolayer growth, 4:2084-2089
  • hydrolysis, esters, silicon surfaces, functionalized monolayers, 4:2104-2106
  • hydroperoxide see hydrogen peroxide
  • hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HPETE), lipid peroxidation product, 3:1578,1579,1582-1583
  • hydroperoxyl radicals
  • cleavage, combustion, 1:478
  • enthalpies of formation, 1:93-95
  • OH radical interconversion, atmosphere, 1:507,508-509,514-515
  • hydroperoxyoctadecadienoic acid (HPODE), lipid peroxidation product, 3:1578,1579,1580,1581,1582,1584
  • hydrophobes, mini-emulsion polymerization, 4:1724
  • hydrophosphinations
  • phosphorus-centered radicals, 2:792-795
  • single electron oxidations, phosphorus-centered radicals, 2:795
  • hydroquinones, antioxidant action, 3:1657-1659
  • hydrosilylations
  • alkenes, tris(trimethylsilyl)silane, 2:566-568
  • alkynes, tris(trimethylsilyl)silane, 2:567-568,570-571
  • dienes, silylated cyclohexadienes, 2:594
  • 4-hydroxyalkenals, lipid peroxidation, the metabolic syndrome, 3:1687-1694
  • hydroxyalkylations
  • C-H bonds, 2:619
  • radical, C-H bonds, 2:619
  • α-hydroxy-alkyl radicals, decatungstate catalyzed addition to fullerenes, 4:2174
  • hydroxy-assisted 1,2-hydrogen atom migration, in alcoholic or aqueous solutions, 1:134
  • 5-hydroxycytosine
  • formation, 3:1325
  • secondary oxidation, 3:1334-1335
  • hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HETE), lipid peroxidation product, 3:1578,1580,1583
  • β-hydroxyepoxides, deoxygenations, allylic alcohol synthesis, 2:989-990
  • 4-hydroxyethoxybenzoic acid (HEBA), photochemical radical-mediated metal nanostructure synthesis, 4:2201,2205
  • hydroxy groups, installation, TEMPO carbon radical trapping, 2:1096-1097
  • hydroxy lactols, synthesis, 5-exo cyclizations, 2:997-998
  • hydroxylamines, antioxidant action, 3:1663-1664
  • hydroxyl radicals
  • adenine oxidation, 3:1328
  • cytosine oxidation, 3:1324-1326
  • DNA damage, 3:1372-1373
  • kinetics, 3:1290-1291
  • products, 3:1291-1292
  • DNA oxidation, 3:1319,1321-1328
  • Fenton reaction, history, 1:15
  • guanine oxidation, 3:1326-1328
  • hydrogen abstraction from DNA sugar moieties, 3:1345-1346
  • hydroperoxyl radical interconversion, atmosphere, 1:507,508-509,514-515
  • hydroxyl radicals (continued)
  • inflammatory response, 3:1283,1288-1289
  • methionine reactions, 3:1467-1471
  • 5-methylcytosine oxidation, 3:1324-1326
  • oxidative damage in vivo, 3:1425,1428
  • reaction rate constants with biological molecules, 3:1425,1426,1428
  • stability, 1:449,450
  • thymine oxidation, 3:1321-1323
  • troposphere, 1:514-516
  • carbon monoxide oxidation, 1:515,519-520
  • interconversion reactions, 1:514-515
  • isoprene oxidation, 1:524
  • measurements/tracers, 1:515-516
  • methane oxidation, 1:515,519-522
  • water radiolysis
  • gas phase, 1:398-399
  • liquid phase, 1:401-403,404-406
  • hydroxymethylations
  • alkyl iodides, organoboranes, 2:621
  • fluorous tin hydride-mediated, 2:535
  • 5-hydroxy-4-methyluracil (5-HMU), antioxidant action, 3:1670
  • hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (HODE), lipid peroxidation product, 3:1578,1589,1591,1592
  • 2-hydroxyphenoxyl radical, matrix isolation spectroscopy, 1:224-225
  • 3-hydroxypropionate (3-HP), production, biotechnological applications of radical enzymes, 3:1539-1540
  • N-hydroxypyridine-2thione esters, thermolysis, 1:41
  • 5-hydroxypyrimidines
  • formation, 3:1325
  • secondary oxidation, 3:1334-1335
  • hydroxysulfenations, 1,5-dienes, endoperoxide synthesis, 2:800-801
  • hydroxytetralones, synthesis, xanthate radical cyclizations, 2:978,980
  • 5-hydroxyuracil
  • formation, 3:1325
  • secondary oxidation, 3:1334-1335
  • hyperbranched polymers
  • atom transfer radical polymerization, 4:1875
  • thiol addition to unsaturated compounds, 4:2041
  • hyperconjugative stabilization
  • aliphatic amine radical cations, 1:308
  • carbon-centered radicals, 1:454,457
  • hyperfine coupling constant (HFCC)
  • chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization, 1:177,184-185
  • DNA radicals, 3:1375-1376
  • ESR spectroscopy, 3:1375-1376
  • theoretical calculation, 3:1380-1381
  • hyperfine splittings (hfs)
  • electron paramagnetic resonance, 1:148,151,152,153-156
  • carbon-centered radicals, 1:157
  • deduction, 1:152
  • nuclei two or more bonds from UPE, 1:153-155
  • origins, 1:153
  • quantum chemical computation, 1:155-156
  • hyperglycemia, 3:1679-1685
  • AGE-RAGE-induced free radicals, 3:1684-1685
  • glucose-derived free radicals, 3:1680-1684
  • lipid interactions, 3:1690,1693
  • hyperlipidemia, the metabolic syndrome, 3:1679,1680,1684,1685-1692
  • hypertriglyceridemia, the metabolic syndrome, 3:1685
  • hypervalent intermediates, intramolecular homolytic substitutions, 2:629-630
  • hypervalent iodine reagents, organic electron donor activations, 2:844
  • hypnophilin, synthesis, carbon—carbon bond sequential formation, samarium diiodide-mediated, 2:890
  • hypobromide, lipid oxidation, 3:1579
  • hypobromous acid (HOBr), protein oxidation, 3:1441-1443
  • hypochlorite, lipid oxidation, 3:1578,1579
  • hypochlorous acid (HOCI)
  • DNA damage, 3:1288
  • inflammatory response, 3:1283,1284,1285,1287-1288
  • protein oxidation, 3:1441-1443
  • hypohalides, lipid oxidation, 3:1579
  • hypohalous acids
  • in biological systems, 3:1272
  • generation, inflammatory response, 3:1284
  • hypophosphorus acid, tin-free Barton-McCombie deoxygenations, 2:969
  • hypothiocyanous acid (HOSCN), protein oxidation, 3:1441-1443
  • Ialibinone A, synthesis, 2:932
  • Ialibinone B, synthesis, 2:932
  • ICAR see initiators for continuous activator regeneration
  • IE see ionization energy
  • ILs see ionic liquids
  • imidazolidine-N-oxyl nitroxides, spin labels and spin probes, 4:1967
  • imidazoline-N-oxyl nitroxides, spin labels and spin probes, 4:1967
  • imidazolium cations, ionic liquids, 1:433-435
  • imidoyl radicals
  • conjugation effects, 2:1041
  • formation, isonitrile additions, 2:1037-1038
  • α-fragmentations, isonitrile formation, 2:1038
  • resonance stabilization, 2:1038-1039
  • imine derivatives, additions, nitrogen-centered radical formation, 2:780-781
  • imine equivalents, intramolecular Barbier additions, samarium diiodide-mediated, 2:884
  • imines
  • additions, trialkylboranes, 2:609
  • pinacol coupling, samarium diiodide, synthetic applications, 2:868-870
  • reductive coupling, samarium diiodide, 2:876
  • iminyl radicals
  • [4+1] annotations, isonitriles, 2:1043-1044
  • cyclizations, unusual bond formation, 2:717-718
  • generation, 2:770,776-777
  • α-azidoalkyl radicals, 2:1032
  • tin hydride-mediated, 2:554-556
  • xanthate Barton-McCombie deoxygenations, 2:971-972
  • homolytic aromatic substitutions, 2:1067
  • trapping, xanthate Barton-McCombie deoxygenations, 2:971-972
  • indirect antioxidants, 3:1623,1626-1627
  • indirect effects of ionizing radiation, molecules in solution, 1:396,402-403
  • indium-aminyl radicals, 2:769
  • indoles
  • additions, ketyl radicals, radical/anionic sequences, 2:893-894
  • ketone-bearing derivatives, reductive cyclizations, 2:1206-1207
  • malonylations, photocatalytic, 2:1077
  • photocatalytic C-H functionalizations, ruthenium-mediated, 2:1226-1227
  • synthesis
  • alkynyl isonitrile cyclizations, 2:1045-1046
  • Meerwein arylations, 2:1080
  • α-stannoimidoyl radicals, tin hydride-mediated, 2:552-556
  • xanthate radical cyclizations, 2:978, 980
  • indole tetramers, electrochemical generation, 2:1194-1195
  • indolizidine alkaloids, synthesis, Barton ester photochemical cleavage, 2:1236-1237
  • indolizidines, synthesis, arnidyl radical cascade reactions, 2:730-731
  • inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), inflammation, 3:1284
  • 1,n-inductions, stereoselective reactions, 2:656-657
  • 1,2-inductions, acyclic, substrate controlled, 2:655-656
  • 1,3-inductions, stereoselective reactions, 2:656-657
  • industrial radical polymerization, 4:1701-1736
  • controlled reversible-deactivation processes, 4:1725-1731
  • importance, 4:1703
  • mechanistic aspects, 4:1704-1719
  • processes, 4:1719-1725
  • process types, 4:1720-1724
  • reactor types, 4:1724-1725
  • inelastic collisions, charged particles interacting with matter, 1:395,396
  • inelastic scattering, neutral particles interacting with matter, 1:395,396
  • inert gases, matrix isolation, 1:207-228
  • inflammation
  • obese adipose tissue, 3:1691,1692
  • oxidative stress, 3:1283,1288,1302,1311
  • small reactive species
  • DNA damage, 3:1283,1290-1312
  • generation, 3:1283-1290
  • infrared (IR) spectroscopy, matrix isolation, 1:208,209-210,211
  • Ingold-Fisher effects see persistent radical effect
  • inhibited autoxidation
  • phenolic antioxidants, 3:1627-1629
  • kinetics, 3:1630-1635
  • inhibition rate constant, phenolic antioxidants, 3:1629
  • inhibitors, industrial radical polymerization, 4:1717-1718
  • iniferters, controlled reversible-deactivation radical polymerization, 4:1725
  • initialization (pre-equilibrium) stage, reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer polymerization, 4:1897,1898
  • initial monomer concentration; controlled/living radical polymerization, 4:1791-1792
  • initiation of radicals see radical initiation; radical initiators
  • initiation stage
  • polymerization, 4:1737
  • atom transfer radical polymerization, 4:1860-1861
  • decomposition rate coefficients, 4:1756-1757
  • industrial radical polymerization, 4:1706, 1711-1712
  • initiator efficiency, 4:1739,1743,1755,1757-1761
  • kinetics, 4:1739,1755-1762
  • nitroxide-mediated polymerization, 4:1818,1819,1820-1822
  • photoinitiation, 4:1711-1712,1761-1762
  • reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer, 4:1897
  • thermal autoinitiation, 4:1706
  • radical chain reactions, 1:59,60,62,63,108,110
  • SRN1 reactions, 1:334
  • initiation-termination balance, radical polymerization, 4:1785,1786,1787
  • initiator efficiency, polymerization kinetics, 4:1739,1743,1755,1757-1761
  • initiators
  • polymerization
  • atom transfer radical polymerization, 4:1856
  • industrial processes, 4:1706-1712
  • radical chain reactions, 1:62, 63
  • initiators for continuous activator regeneration (ICAR)
  • atom transfer radical addition/cyclization, 4:1879-1880
  • atom transfer radical polymerization, 4:1863
  • chain end functionality, 4:1794-1797
  • industrial processes, 4:1729-1730
  • injection mechanisms, DNA charge transfer, 3:1399-1403,1416-1421
  • inks, UV-curing, industrial radical polymerization, 4:1711
  • inner-sphere electron transfer (ISET), atom transfer radical polymerization, 4:1803,1869
  • inorganic anions, room-temperature ionic liquids, 1:438-440
  • inorganic azides, as radical acceptors, 2:1034-1036
  • inorganic bases-organic group anions, room-temperature ionic liquids, 1:440
  • inorganic material-polymer hybrids, atom transfer radical polymerization, 4:1876-1877,1879
  • inorganic salts, SRN1 reaction initiation, 1:335
  • iNOS see inducible nitric oxide synthase
  • insaturations, selenium-centered radical additions, 2:808-809
  • in situ nitroxide-mediated polymerization, industrial processes, 4:1727
  • in situ stabilization, metal nanoparticles, 4:2206
  • instability scales, radicals, 1:98-99
  • instantaneous copolymer composition, polymerization kinetics, 4:1749-1750
  • instantaneous dispersity, polymerization kinetics, 4:1747-1748
  • instantaneous molar mass distributions, polymerization kinetics, 4:1743-1748
  • instantaneous number-average degree of polymerization, 4:1746-1747
  • insulin, type-2 diabetes, 3:1680
  • insulin receptor substrate proteins (IRSs), 3:1680
  • integrated rate laws, polymerization, 4:1741-1742
  • intercalation, electron donors/acceptors, DNA hole tunneling study, 3:1399-1401
  • interchain transfer constant reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer polymerization, 4:1900,1901
  • intermediate radicals, reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer polymerization, 4:1897
  • intermolecular additions, alkenes, epoxide radicals, 2:993-995
  • intermolecular aldol-type reactions, samarium diiodide-mediated, 2:887-888
  • intermolecular arylations, β-dicarbonyl compounds, 2:910
  • intermolecular α-arylations, SOMO catalysis, enantioselective, 2:680-681
  • intermolecular Barbier reactions, samarium diiodide-mediated, synthetic applications, 2:881-882
  • intermolecular carbon-carbon bond formation
  • branched-chain sugar synthesis, 2:1142-1143
  • carbohydrate synthesis, 2:1131-1143
  • C-disaccharide synthesis, 2:1139-1141
  • C-glycoside synthesis, 2:1132-1139
  • C-ketoside synthesis, 2:1141-1142
  • intermolecular carbonyl-alkene coupling, samarium diiodide, 2:871-872
  • intermolecular chain radical processes, synthetic strategies, 2:739-746
  • intermolecular electron transfer, time resolved chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization studies, 1:194-197
  • intermolecular Grignard reactions, samarium diiodide-mediated, synthetic applications, 2:881-882
  • intermolecular homolytic aromatic substitutions, synthetic strategies, 2:1074-1079
  • intermolecular pinacol coupling, samarium diiodide, 2:865-866
  • intermolecular radical additions to multiple bonds, chain reactions, 1:69-71
  • intermolecular reactions, tris(trimethylsilyOsilane-mediated, 2:583-587
  • intermolecular Reformatsky reactions, samarium diiodide-mediated, synthetic applications, 2:885-886
  • intermolecular samariations, C-disaccharide synthesis, 2:1139-1141
  • internal homolytic substitutions, tris(trimethylsilyl)silane, 2:582
  • internal motions, electron paramagnetic resonance, 1:159-160
  • interstellar chemistry (astrochemistry), 1:481-482,496-497
  • interstrand pyrimidine-purine cross-links, DNA oxidation, 3:1338
  • intra-base pair proton transfer in one-electron oxidized G:C, DNA radicals, 3:1385-1386
  • intra-inter-intra domino processes, oxygen-centered radicals, 2:790-791
  • intramolecular addition, Δ-5-hexenyl radicals, 5-exo-trig versus 6-endo-trig pathway, 1:317,318
  • intramolecular aldol-type reactions, samarium diiodide-mediated, synthetic applications, 2:888
  • intramolecular anodic coupling, electron-rich double bonds, nucleophiles, 2:1176
  • intramolecular α-arylations, SOMO catalysis, enantioselective, 2:680-681
  • intramolecular aryl migrations, tin to carbon, 2:948
  • intramolecular Barbier reactions, samarium diiodide-mediated, 2:882-884
  • intramolecular carbon-carbon bond formation
  • branched-chain sugar synthesis, 2:1146-1149
  • carbohydrate synthesis, 2:1143-1155
  • C-glycoside synthesis, 2:1143-1144
  • C-ketoside synthesis, 2:1144-1145
  • intramolecular carbonyl-alkene coupling
  • chelation control, samarium diiodide, 2:873-874
  • samarium diiodide, synthetic applications, 2:872-876
  • intramolecular chain radical processes, synthetic strategies, 2:729-746
  • intramolecular coupling
  • anodic, nucleophiles, 2:1176
  • carbonyl-alkene, samarium diiodide, 2:873-874
  • electrochemically initiated, 2:1193
  • methoxylated diphenylalkanes, 2:1193
  • pinacol, samarium diiodide, 2:866-868
  • intramolecular cyclizations
  • electrochemically initiated, 2:1176
  • C-glycoside synthesis, 2:1143-1144
  • Δ-5-hexenyl radicals, 1:317-318
  • methoxylated phenanthrene synthesis, 2:1192-1193
  • intramolecular electron transfer, TR-CIDNP, 1:194-197
  • intramolecular Grignard reactions, samarium diiodide-mediated, 2:882-884
  • intramolecular homolytic substitutions, 2:629-654
  • aromatic, 2:1059-1074
  • at germanium, 2:650-653
  • at oxygen, 2:644-645
  • at selenium, 2:637-644
  • at silicon, 2:645-650
  • at sulfur, 2:635-637
  • at tellurium, 2:637-641
  • at tin, 2:650-653
  • chalcogens, 2:630-631
  • chiral sulfoxides, 2:636
  • 1,n-germyl translocations, 2:651
  • halogens, 2:630
  • kinetics, 2:632-635
  • β-lactams, 2:640-641
  • leaving groups, 2:634-635
  • radical chain reactions, 1:61
  • 1,n-silyl translocations, 2:650
  • 1,4-stannyl migrations, 2:649
  • 1,n-stannyl translocations, 2:651
  • sulfides, hydrogen transfer competition, 2:635
  • tandem, 2:641-644
  • intramolecular hydrogen atom abstractions, 1:141-142
  • intramolecular hydrogen transfer reactions, termination of nitroxide-mediated polymerization, 4:1818, 1825
  • intramolecular long range electron transfer, radiation-induced radicals in aqueous solutions, 1:409
  • intramolecular pinacol coupling, samarium diiodide, synthetic applications, 2:866-868
  • intramolecular reactions, silane-mediated, 2:574-582
  • intramolecular Reformatsky reactions, samarium diiodide-mediated, 2:886-887
  • intramolecular SRN1 reactions, ring closure, 1:344-347
  • intrastrand G-T cross-links, hydroxyl radicals, 3:1292-1293
  • intrastrand pyrimidine-purine cross-links, DNA oxidation, 3:1335-1336
  • inverse emulsion polymerization, 4:1722
  • inverted spin trapping, 4:2003,2005
  • in vivo electron transfer, 3:1475,1476-1477
  • in vivo oxidants
  • formation, 3:1425,1426
  • lipid peroxidation, 3:1577-1578
  • protein reactions, 3:1426-1450
  • iodanes, photoinduced homolytic α-cleavage, O-I bonds, 1:278-279
  • iodides, conversion to lactames, homolytic aromatic substitutions, 2:1062
  • iodine, see also organoiodine
  • iodine atom transfer, 2:945-952
  • ATRA, 2:945-947
  • ATRC, 2:947-952
  • enantioselective additions, 2:952
  • intramolecular homolytic substitutions, 2:630
  • organoboranes, 2:604-605
  • iodine azide, azidations, carbon compounds, 2:1034-1035
  • iodine-mediated radical living polymerization (IRP), 4:1932-1944,1949,1953-1956
  • iodine radicals, IOx, atmospheric, 1:510-511,518-519
  • 1-iodoadamantane, reductions, fluorous tin hydride-mediated, 2:536
  • iodoaldehydes, chain transfers, triethylborane, 2:617
  • iodoalkanes, atom transfer carbonylations, flow microreactor experiments, 2:1254
  • α-iodo-fi-alkoxyesters, reductions, Lewis acid-mediated, 2:662-663
  • iodobenzene, dearomatizations, meso-tetraol synthesis, 2:810-811
  • 2-iodobenzyl protected aliphatic amines, iron-catalyzed arylations, 2:1013
  • α-iodo causes, photoinduced mesolytic cleavage, 1:296
  • α-iodoesters
  • additions, allylboron derivatives, 2:622
  • atom transfer radical cyclizations, 2:949
  • radical phenylations, organoboranes, 2:607
  • 2β-iodo glucopyranosides, tandem cyclizations, branched-chain sugar synthesis, 2:1147-1148
  • 6-iodo-l-hexene derivatives, cyclizations, palladium-catalyzed, 2:1005-1006
  • iodomethylaziridine derivatives, annulations, pyrrolidine derivative synthesis, 2:604
  • 5-iodo-1-pentene derivatives, carbonylative cyclizations, palladium-catalyzed, 2:1005
  • 2-iodoxybenzoic acid (IBX), anilinamide oxidations, 2:779
  • ionic conjugate additions, polar crossover reactions, 2:657,659
  • ionic liquids (ILs)
  • aromatic anions, 1:442-441
  • cations, 1:444-446
  • constituents, 1:433,434
  • ionization of ions, 1:436-438
  • nonaromatic anions, 1:438-442
  • radiation-induced radical reactions, 1:418-420
  • room-temperature, 1:433-448
  • ionic polymerization, radical polymerization comparison, 4:1785
  • ionic radicals
  • DAN, ionizing radiation formation, 3:1371-1372
  • fullerene reactions, 4:2186-2192
  • versus neutral radicals, 1:301-332
  • ionization..., see also photoionization
  • ionization cross-sections, photoionization of gas phase radicals, 1:488,491
  • ionization energy (IE), photoionization of gas phase radicals, 1:488-490
  • ionization of ions, room-temperature ionic liquids, 1:436-438
  • ionization potentials
  • definition, 1:249
  • redox potential determination, 1:258
  • tris(silyl)-substituted silyl radicals, 4:2130
  • ionizing radiation
  • DNA radical formation, 3:1371-1374
  • direct effects, 3:1371-1372
  • direct-type effects, 3:1372
  • indirect effects, 3:1372
  • quasi-direct effects, 3:1371-1372
  • radical reactions, 1:395-432
  • aqueous solutions, 1:400-410
  • gas phase, 1:397-400
  • ionic liquids, 1:418-420
  • liquid phase, 1:400-420
  • organic solvents, 1:410-418
  • radiolysis, 1:395-397
  • solid phase, 1:420-423
  • zeolites, 1:421-423
  • reactive oxygen species generation in biological systems, 3:1265
  • solvent/solute effects, 1:396
  • spurs of dense ionization, 1:395-396,401
  • types/interactions with matter, 1:395,396
  • IOx radicals
  • atmospheric, 1:510-511,518-519
  • stratosphere, 1:510-511
  • troposphere, 1:518-519
  • ipso-cyclizations, spirocyclic azidocyclohexadienyl radical formation, 2:1032-1033
  • ipso substitutions, intermolecular, arylations, 2:1079
  • Irgacure-907(I-907), photochemical radical-mediated metal nanostructure synthesis, 4:2202,2203
  • Irgacure-2959 (I-2959), photochemical radical-mediated metal nanostructure synthesis, 4:2201-2202
  • iron
  • cellular, reactive oxygen species, 3:1273
  • chelating agents, preventive antioxidants, 3:1624
  • ferric perchlorate (Fe(ClO4)3)-mediated radical reactions, fullerenes, 4:2174, 2176-2177
  • ferromagnetism, 4:2154-2156
  • reagents, organic electron donor activations, 2:837-840
  • iron-catalyzed reactions
  • aerobic oxidations, alcohols, nitroxide-mediated, 2:1119-1121
  • arylations
  • benzene, 2:1013-1014
  • 2-iodobenzyl protected aliphatic amines, 2:1013
  • cross-coupling, alkyl halides, 2:1012-1013
  • oxidative additions, 2:1012-1014
  • reductive radical cyclizations, 6-halo-1-hexene, 2:1012
  • iron complexes
  • atom transfer radical polymerization, 4:1858-1860
  • catalyzing reaction cascades, 2:752-754
  • Fenton chemistry, 3:1272-1273
  • iron radical complexes, history, 1:4-5
  • iron(III) salt-mediated synthesis
  • addition-cyclizations, aryl rings, 2:910-913
  • α-arylations, 2:924-927
  • coupling, enolates, 2:924
  • cyclizations, malonates, 2:922-923
  • hirsutene synthesis, 2:924
  • ring opening, 2:932-935
  • iron-sulfur clusters, SAM-dependent enzymes, 3:1501,1503,1514
  • iron-sulfur world, radical enzymes, 3:1540
  • IRP see iodine-mediated radical living polymerization
  • irreversible S-adenosylmethionine radical enzymes, 3:1517-1525
  • IRSs see insulin receptor substrate proteins
  • ISET see inner-sphere electron transfer
  • Isobutyryl-CoA mutate, mechanism, 3:1508,1512
  • isocyanide
  • C-S bond cleavage, 2:803
  • thioselenations, 2:807
  • isodasycarpidone, synthesis, selenoester cyclizations, 2:806
  • isodesmic equations, radical stability, 1:452,453,458,463,469
  • isodesmic reactions
  • definition, 1:450
  • hydrogen transfer, 1:450,452
  • isolated radicals
  • gas phase, 1:477-502
  • generation, 1:482-487
  • study methods, 1:482
  • isomerization enthalpies, bond dissociation enthalpy measurement, 1:83
  • isomerizations
  • Barton-McCombie deoxygenations, 2:971-972
  • 1-benzyloxy-9,10-anthraquinones, 2:698
  • isonitriles
  • additions
  • heteroatom centered radicals, 2:1038
  • imidoyl radical fates, 2:1037-1038
  • telluro derivatives, 2:1046
  • alkynyl, cyclizations, indole synthesis, 2:1045-1046
  • [4+1] annulations
  • iminyl radicals, 2:1043-1044
  • vinyl radicals, 2:1043
  • aromatizations, cyclohexadienyl radicals, 2:1044
  • carbotellurations, 2:959
  • 13C-labelling, carboxylic acids, 2:1042-1043
  • cleavage, tin-hydride mediated, 2:548
  • conversion, nitriles, 2:1037
  • cyanations, 2:1042
  • deaminations, 2:1042
  • double radical chalcogenations, 2:1047-1048
  • electron paramagnetic resonance, 2:1038-1041
  • formation, imidoyl radical α-fragmentations, 2:1038
  • functionalizations, 2:1042
  • isonitriles (continued)
  • kinetics, 2:1038-1041
  • polar effects, electrophilic attack, 2:1040
  • as radical acceptors, 2:1036-1048
  • radical adducts, kinetics, 2:1038-1041
  • structural resonance, 2:1036
  • synthetic applications, 2:1041-1048
  • isoprene, atmospheric reactions, 1:517,523-525
  • isoprenoid, biosynthesis, radical enzymes, 3:1536-1537
  • n-isopropyl radicals, matrix isolation spectroscopy, 1:213-214
  • isoprostanes (IsoPs)
  • lipid peroxidation products, 3:1585-1586
  • human physiological levels, 3:1591
  • metabolites, nitroxide radical trapping, 2:1100
  • isoquinalones, synthesis, electrochemically initiated, 2:1193
  • isothiocyanates (ITCs)
  • additions, alkyl radicals, 2:1049-1050
  • annulations, aryl radicals, 2:1050-1051
  • antioxidant action, 3:1627
  • as radical acceptors, 2:1049-1051
  • isotropic g-factors, electron paramagnetic resonance, 1:148,150-151,156,162,163
  • isotropic hyperfine interactions, DNA radicals, 3:1375
  • isotropic hyperfine splittings, electron paramagnetic resonance, 1:148,153-156
  • isotropic spectra, electron paramagnetic resonance, 1:147-170
  • ITCs see isothiocyanates
  • IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry), atmospheric radical chemistry, 1:503
  • Julia-Lythgoe olefinations, sulfone reductions, samarium diiodide, 2:864-865
  • (+)-juvabione, synthesis, Norrish reactions, 2:1229
  • J-values, photochemical reaction rates, atmosphere, 1:505-506
  • Karplus type relationships, hyperfine splittings, EPR, 1:154,158
  • Keck allylations, C-glycoside synthesis, 2:1132-1133
  • Kekule structures, aromatic radicals, 1:11
  • ketene dithioacetals, oxidations, electrochemically initiated, 2:1177-1180
  • ketenes
  • bisadditions, nitroxides, 2:1104
  • as radical acceptors, 2:1051-1052
  • ketene silyl acetals, fullerene additions, 4:2189-2190
  • ketenimines, as radical acceptors, 2:1051-1052
  • o-ketenimino-substituted benzylic radicals, cyclizations, 2:1052
  • α-ketenyl alkyl radicals, generation/cyclizations, 2:1052
  • ketimines, cyclizations, vinyl radicals, 2:720-721
  • 4'-keto abasic sites see C4'-oxidized abasic site
  • α-keto acids, synthesis, amino acid oxidations, 2:1123
  • α-keto alkoxyamines, synthesis, TEMPO carbon radical trapping, 2:1097
  • β-ketoesters
  • additions, alkenes, 2:902
  • cyclizations, metal-dependent, 2:919-921
  • γ-ketoesters, synthesis, intramolecular carbon-carbon bond formation, 2:1145
  • ketones
  • additions, aldehydes, 2:906-907
  • α-alkylations, N-siloxyenamine, 2:606
  • asymmetric reductions, samarium diiodide, synthetic applications, 2:859
  • atom transfer radical cyclizations, 2:949
  • carbon-C bonds, photoinduced homolytic α-cleavage, 1:281-283
  • cyclizations, metal-dependent, 2:919
  • 3-exo cyclizations, epoxides, 2:995-997
  • 4-exo cyclizations, epoxides, 2:995-997
  • fragmentations, samarium diiodide, synthetic applications, 2:859-860
  • fullerene reactions, 4:2182
  • glycosyl pyridyl sulfone reductions, 1,2-trans-C-glycosides synthesis, 2:1137
  • H-abstraction, photoinduced radicals, 1:283-286
  • lipid peroxidation products, 3:1585
  • perfluoroalkylations, germylenol ethers, 2:606
  • photoexcitation, hydrogen abstraction, 1:134,135
  • radical anions, cyclopropylcarbiny1→homoallyl-type rearrangements, 1:302-307
  • reductions, samarium diiodide, 2:857-860
  • reductive coupling, 2:1211-1212
  • reductive cyclizations, 2:1206-1208
  • ketorolac, synthesis, metal-dependent, 2:927
  • C-ketosides
  • intermolecular carbon-carbon bond formation, 2:1141-1142
  • intramolecular carbon-carbon bond formation, 2:1144-1145
  • ketyl radical anions
  • cyclopropylcarbinyl-Aomoallyl-type rearrangements, ring opening, 1:302-307
  • protonation effects, synthetic applications, 2:855-856
  • ketyl radicals
  • acyl-CoA dehydrogenases, 3:1530-1531
  • additions, indoles, radical/anionic sequences, 2:893-894
  • DNA photolase, 3:1531-1533
  • electron bifurcation, 3:1531,1532
  • 2-hydoxyacyl-CoA dehydratases, 3:1526-1529
  • 2-hydoxybutyryl-CoA dehydratase, 3:1529-1530
  • photochemical synthesis of metal nanostructures, 4:2197,2199,2200,2201,2202,2205
  • radical enzymes, 3:1525-1534
  • Kharasch-type reactions
  • additions, 4:1851,1852
  • radical chain reaction, 1:62-63,66,75-76
  • transition metal-catalyzed, 2:1003-1004
  • see also atom transfer radical addition
  • KIE see kinetic isotope effects
  • kinetic equations
  • nitroxide-mediated polymerization, 4:1819
  • persistent radical effect, 4:1816,1819
  • kinetic isotope effects (KIE), hydrogen atom transfer, 1:323-324
  • kinetic parameters, industrial radical polymerization, 4:1705,1706
  • kinetic resolutions, oxoammonium salt-mediated, synthetic applications, 2:1117-1118
  • kinetics
  • antioxidant activity measurement, phenolic antioxidants, 3:1629-1641
  • atmospheric radical chemistry, 1:503
  • atom transfer radical polymerization, 4:1857,1861,1863-1864
  • competition kinetics, 1:107-108,110-114
  • 3-exo-trig cyclizations, 2:694-698
  • 4-exo-trig cyclizations, 2:698-702
  • 5-endo-dig cyclizations, 2:706-709
  • cyclopropane ring opening, 1:311-312,313-314
  • cyclopropylcarbinyl-ehomoallyl-type rearrangements, 1:303-304
  • EPR spectroscopy, 1:161,165-169
  • radical decay curves/concentration measurements, 1:165-167
  • steady-state measurements, 1:167-169
  • Δ-5-hexenyl radical cyclizations, 1:317
  • hydrogen atom transfer, 1:100-102,323
  • isonitrile radical adducts, 2:1038-1041
  • modelling, controlled/living radical polymerization, 4:1788-1797,1816,1820
  • organoheteroatom-mediated radical living polymerization, 4:1953-1956
  • radical cation deprotonations, 1:327-329
  • radical chain reactions, 1:109-110
  • radical clocks, 1:107-124
  • radical polymerization, 4:1737-1784
  • reactive oxygen species, 3:1267,1268,1271,1273-1275
  • reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer, 4:1898-1899
  • ring-closures, 2:632-635
  • stabilization of silyl radicals, steric effects, 4:2120-2121
  • thermodynamic correlation, phenolic antioxidants, 3:1646-1650
  • versus thermodynamics, activation energy, 3:1267,1268,1271
  • kinetic tables, second-order rate constants, 1:118-122
  • Knoevenagel adducts, paired electrolysis, cyclobutane synthesis, 2:1184
  • Kolbe electrolysis, 2:1195-1202
  • cyclizations, 2:1198-1199
  • 5-exo-trig cyclizations, 2:1199
  • electron-withdrawing groups, 2:1196,1198-1199
  • P-chiral bisphosphino ligand synthesis, 2:1201-1202
  • primary aliphatic carboxylic acid dimerizations, 2:1199-1200
  • α-silyl acetic acid dimerizations, 2:1200-1201
  • kp see propagation rate constant
  • kl see termination rate constant
  • lactames, iodide conversions, 2:1062
  • lactams
  • synthesis
  • acyl radical cyclizations, 2:721-722
  • transition metal-catalyzed, 2:1004
  • β-lactanis
  • Baeyer-Villager reactions, peptide synthesis, 2:1120
  • intramolecular homolytic substitutions, 2:640-641
  • synthesis, fluorous tin hydride-mediated, 2:535
  • γ-lactams, synthesis, carbamoylmethyl radical 5-endo-trig cyclizations, 2:703-704
  • lactols, hydroxy, synthesis 5-exo cyclizations, 2:997-998
  • lactones
  • Barbier additions, samarium dliodide-mediated, 2:883-884
  • radical/radical cyclizations, samarium diiodide-mediated, 2:890-891
  • reductions, samarium diiodide, 2:860
  • ring contraction/expansions, acyloxy shift, 1:128,129
  • synthesis
  • iodine transfers, 2:604
  • transition metal-catalyzed, 2:1004
  • γ-lactones, synthesis, 2:902,904-906
  • large rings, synthesis, unusual cyclizations, 2:711-715
  • laser flash electron photoinjection, redox potential determination, 1:255-256
  • laser flash photolysis (LFP)
  • antioxidant kinetic measurements, 3:1637-1639,1640
  • characterization of radicals, 1:297-298
  • DNA excess electron transfer study, 3:1421
  • DNA hole transfer study, 3:1404,1406
  • kinetics, electron paramagnetic resonance relationship, 1:161,167
  • radical cation generation, electron transfer in peptides, 3:1480,1481,1482
  • rate constant determination, radical clock calibration, 1:107,112,113,117,118
  • laser induced fluorescence (LIP) spectroscopy, combustion engine research, 1:479
  • latex particles, emulsion polymerization, 4:1721-1722
  • lauroyl peroxide, tin-free Barton-McCombie deoxygenations, 2:969
  • LDL see low density lipoprotein
  • LDPE see low density polyethylene
  • leaving groups
  • intramolecular homolytic substitutions, 2:634-635
  • phenylselenium, carbon-centered radical generation, 2:805-806
  • phosphorus-centered radicals, 2:795-796
  • reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer agents, 4:1896,1897,1904
  • SRN1 reactions, 1:333,334,335
  • sulfur-centered radicals, 2:803-804
  • LEDs see light emitting diodes
  • LEEs see low-energy electrons
  • lepadiformine, total synthesis, 2:746
  • lepadin B, synthesis, xanthates, 2:977-978
  • lepidopterene, photocatalytic formation, 1:388,389
  • LET see linear energy transfer
  • Lewis acid-mediated reactions
  • atom transfer radical additions, bromines, 2:953
  • cyclizations
  • α-carbamoyl radicals, 2:951
  • α-ester radacals, 1:340
  • diastereoselective, 2:662-666
  • enantioselective reactions, 2:668-679
  • halogen atom transfers, stereoselective reactions, 2:670-672
  • hydrogen atom transfers, stereoselective reactions, 2:668-670
  • rearrangements, β-acyloxy alkyl radicals, 1:128
  • reductions, α-iodo-β-alkoxyesters, 2:662-663
  • Lewis structures of radicals, stability measurement, 1:452-453
  • LFP see laser flash photolysis
  • LIE see laser induced fluorescence
  • lifetime line broadening, electron paramagnetic resonance, 1:149
  • lifetimes, excited electronic states, gas phase radicals, 1:493
  • ligation protocols, block copolymers, reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer polymerization, 4:1908,1912-1916
  • light, see also photo…
  • light emitting diodes (LEDs)
  • metal nanoparticles, light-induced changes, 4:2208-2209
  • polymer-based, 4:2057
  • light harvesting, photocatalytic charge separation, 1:365-393
  • light-induced reactions see photoinduced…
  • light intensity effects, radical-mediated metal nanostructure synthesis, 4:2204
  • Li-ion see lithium-ion
  • linear chain polymers, atom transfer radical polymerization, 4:1873
  • linear energy transfer (LET), ionizing radiation particles, 1:395-396,397,401,421
  • linear segmented copolymers, atom transfer radical polymerization, 4:1871-1872
  • line shapes, electron paramagnetic resonance, 1:148-150
  • linoleic acid/lino/eates
  • enzymatic lipid peroxidation, 3:1579-1580
  • free-radical-mediated lipid peroxidation, 3:1581-1582
  • nonradical/nonenzymatic lipid peroxidation, 3:1579
  • lipid functionalization, radical axial additions, 4:2022
  • lipid hydroperoxides, lipid peroxidation products, human physiological levels, 3:1590
  • lipid hydroxides, hydroperoxides, lipid peroxidation products, 3:1584-1585
  • lipid isomerization, 3:1599-1622
  • bacteria, 3:1617-1619
  • factors affecting, 3:1615-1619
  • free radical mechanism, 3:1600-1609
  • individuating protein damage, 1:309-311
  • inhibition, 3:1616-1617
  • oxygen role, 3:1615-1616
  • thiyl radicals, 3:1601-1604
  • trans lipids in biological samples, 3:1612-1615
  • lipidomics, trans lipids in biological samples, 3:1612-1615,1619
  • lipid peroxidation (LPO), 3:1577-1594
  • β-carotene, pro-oxidant action, 3:1670,1671,1672
  • cholesterol, 3:1584-1588
  • diabetic complications, 3:1693-1694
  • dynamics, 3:1583-1584
  • enzymatic, 3:1578,1579-1580
  • free-radical-mediated, 3:1577,1578,1580-1588
  • inhibition
  • β-carotene, 3:1672
  • phenolic antioxidants, 3:1627-1661
  • in vivo effects, 3:1577-1578
  • lipid-oxidation product ratios, 3:1592-1593
  • low density lipoproteins, 3:1588-1589
  • mechanisms, 3:1578-1583
  • the metabolic syndrome, 3:1687-1690
  • nonradical/nonenzymatic, 3:1578,1579
  • obese adipose tissue, 3:1691-1692
  • products, 3:1584-1588
  • biological effects, 3:1593-1594
  • biological samples, 3:1583,1588-1589,1590-1593
  • cytotoxic/cytoprotective effects, 3:1578,1593-1594
  • oxidative stress markers in vitro, 3:1577-1578,1590-1593
  • parent lipid ratios, 3:1592-1593
  • physiological levels in humans, 3:1590-1593
  • reactions with biomolecules, 3:1588
  • signaling messengers, 3:1594
  • lipid peroxyl radicals, peroxidation chain reactions, 3:1581
  • lipophilic guanosines, self-assembly in the presence of alkali cations, 1:237,238
  • lipoproteins, apolipoprotein B-containing, the metabolic syndrome, 3:1685
  • liposomes
  • cis-trans isomerization, 3:1602,1609-1610,1613
  • oxidative damage, 3:1616
  • tandem protein-lipid damage, 3:1608
  • lipotoxicity, pancreatic β-cells, 3:1680
  • lipoxygenase (LOX), lipid peroxidation, 3:1578,1579-1580
  • liquid phase polymerization, viscosity, industrial radical polymerization, 4:1719
  • liquid phase radical chemistry, radiation-induced radicals, 1:400-420
  • lithium enolates, trifluoromethylations, organoboranes, 2:605
  • lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries, 4:2163
  • living polymerization, radical versus ionic, 4:1785-1786
  • living radical polymerization (LRP)
  • organoheteroatom-mediated, 4:1931-1963
  • reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer, 4:1895-1929
  • use of terms, 4:1725
  • see also controlled/living radical polymerization; controlled reversible-deactivation radical polymerization
  • living systems see biological systems; in vivo…
  • lone-pair donation, stabilization of carbon-centered radicals, 1:454,457
  • long range electron transfer (LRET), radiation-induced radicals in aqueous solutions, 1:403,409
  • Lorentzian lineshapes, electron paramagnetic resonance, 1:149,150
  • low-band gap polymers, polymer-based solar cells, 4:2072-2075
  • low density lipoprotein (LDL)
  • oxidation, 3:1577,1583
  • biological samples, 3:1588-1589,1592
  • low density polyethylene (LOPE), chain transfer to polymer, 4:1779
  • low-energy electrons (LEEs)
  • DNA damage
  • ESR studies, 3:1390-1392
  • theoretical studies, 3:1392-1393
  • low molecular weight polymers, reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer agents, 4:1903
  • low temperature gas-phase studies, Cinetique de Reaction en Ecoulement Supersonique Uniforme, 1:482,496-497
  • low-temperature plasmas, radical chemistry, 1:480
  • LOX see lipoxygenase
  • LPO see lipid peroxidation
  • LRET see long range electron transfer
  • LRP see living radical polymerization
  • luotonin A, synthesis, 2:737,1067
  • lyconadin A, synthesis, 7-exo/6-exo cascade cyclizations, 2:732
  • lysine-2,3-aminomutase, SAM-dependent, mechanism, 3:1513-1514,1515-1516,1526
  • β-lysine-5,6-aminomutase,CoB12-dependent, mechanism, 3:1506,1508,1513-1514,1516,1526
  • MA see methyl acrylate
  • macrocycles, synthesis, radical thiol additions, 4:2025,2028,2030
  • macrocyclic hosts, host-guest complexes, 1:233,234
  • macro-cyclizations, phthalimide derivatives, photochemical electron transfer-induced, 2:1218-1219
  • macromolecular architecture see molecular architecture control
  • macromolecular bottle brush polymers, atom transfer radical polymerization, 4:1878-1879
  • macromolecular chemistry, radical thiol-X click chemistry, 4:2033-2045
  • macromolecular design via interchange of xanthates (MADIX)
  • radical polymerization, 4:1731,1895
  • see also reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer
  • macromolecular synthesis, living radicals, room-temperature ionic liquids, 1:434
  • macrophages, small reactive species generation, 3:1283,1284
  • macroradical termination, glass effect, polymerization kinetics, 4:1743
  • MADIX see macromolecular design via interchange of xanthates
  • magnetic activity of radicals, history, 1:11,12
  • magnetic bistability, thiazyl radicals, 4:2148-2151
  • magnetic materials, thiazyl radicals, 4:2147,2148-2151,2154-2156
  • magnetic ordering, thiazyl radicals, 4:2154-2156
  • magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
  • spin probes, nitroxide contrast agents, 4:1972-1973
  • see also Overhauser-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging
  • magnetic resonance techniques
  • short-lived radicals/radical ions, 1:175-206
  • see also chemically induced dynamic electron polarization; chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization
  • main-chain functional polymers, synthesis, radical thiol-X click chemistry, 4:2033,2035-2037
  • malonates
  • additions, 2:947
  • cerium(IV) ammonium nitrate-mediated to glycals, 2:1142
  • annulations, 2:947
  • cyclizations, metal-dependent, 2:921-924
  • malononitriles, additions/annulations, 2:947
  • malonylations, indoles, photocatalytic, 2:1077
  • malonyl radicals
  • allylations, chiral auxiliaries, 2:660,662
  • atom transfer radical cyclizations, 2:949
  • 5-exo versus 6-endo cyclizations, 2:949
  • manganese(III) acetate (MAN)-mediated reactions, 2:901-941
  • addition-cyclizations
  • alkenes, 2:913
  • aryl rings, 2:911-913
  • additions, 2:913-917
  • aldehydes, ketones, 2:906-907
  • alkenes, β-dicarbonyl compounds, 2:907-918
  • β-dicarbonyl compounds, alkenes, 2:907-918
  • ketones, aldehydes, 2:906-907
  • cyclization—rearrangements, Ugi products, 2:912
  • cyclizations
  • aldehydes, 2:919
  • β-ketoesters, 2:919-921
  • ketones, 2:919
  • malonates, 2:921-924
  • dihydrofuran synthesis, 2:907-910
  • fullerenes, 4:2174-2178
  • intermolecular arylations, β-dicarbonyl compounds, 2:910
  • γ-lactone synthesis, acetic acid, 2:904-905
  • propellane synthesis, 2:909
  • ring opening, 2:932-935
  • manganese(III)-catalyzed reactions, pyridine synthesis, 2:785-786
  • manganese-catalyzed reactions
  • aldol-type, 2:1014
  • oxidative additions, 2:1014
  • manganese complex-catalyzed reactions
  • cascades, 2:749-752
  • 5-exo/6-endo cyclizations, 2:749
  • manganese reagents, organic electron donor activations, 2:841-842
  • Marcus theory
  • electron transfer, 3:1475,1481,1489,1491,1492
  • DNA, 3:1401,1402,1403,1413,1422
  • mass spectrometry (MS)
  • gas phase radicals
  • bimolecular reactions, 1:497
  • generation, 1:486-487
  • photoionization, 1:487
  • unimolecular reactions, 1:494
  • matrix isolation spectroscopy, 1:207-228
  • alkyl radicals, 1:210-214
  • aryl radicals, 1:218-225
  • radical formation, 1:207-208
  • radical reactions, 1:210
  • spectroscopic method comparison, 1:208-209
  • unsaturated radicals, 1:214-218
  • MCR see methyl-coenzyme M reductase
  • mechanistic considerations, phenolic antioxidants, 3:1650-1657
  • mechanistic inhibitors, in SET enzymes, radical cations, 1:310-311
  • mechanistic probes, radical ions, cyclopropylcarbinyl→homoallyl rearrangements, 1:301
  • mediators
  • radical chain reactions, 1:63-65
  • reductive mediators, 1:66-73
  • Meerwein arylations, synthetic strategies, 2:1080-1082
  • melatonin, antioxidant action, 3:1625-1626
  • (±)-melinoline E, indole alkaloid synthesis, 2:785-786
  • membrane-bound proteins, electron transfer, energy conversion life processes, 3:1475,1476
  • membrane models
  • lipid isomerization, 3:1609-1610
  • see also liposomes
  • membranes
  • lipid peroxidation, 3:1577,1580,1583,1584,1586
  • permeability, reactive oxygen species, 3:1275-1276
  • phase-separated antioxidants, 3:1668-1669
  • properties of saturated/cis and trans fatty acids, 3:1617-1618
  • spin labels and spin probes, 4:1967,1968,1987
  • sulfur-containing amino acid residues in peptides/proteins, radical generation, 3:1606
  • memory of chirality, 2:667-668
  • menthol, oxidations, azabicyclic N-oxyl radicals, 2:1203
  • mepivacaine, one-step synthesis, 2:619
  • 2-mercaptoethanol, lipid isomerization, 3:1604
  • mercury-silicon bond cleavage, tris(silyl)-substituted silyl radical generation, 4:2124
  • mercury-substituted silyl radicals, persistent and stable, 4:2140-2141
  • mesicarpine
  • synthesis
  • homolytic aromatic substitutions, 2:1066
  • xanthates, 2:979,981
  • 9-mesityl-10-methylacridinium ion (Aer+-Mes)
  • C-C bond formation via charge separation, 1:386-389
  • donor-acceptor linked dyad, photocatalytic charge separation, 1:366-370
  • gold nanoclusters, 1:368, 369
  • photocatalytic bromination via charge separation, 1:383-386
  • photocatalytic oxygenation via electron transfer, 1:370-383
  • photoexcitation, 1:366-367,370
  • PMO immobilization, 1:369-370
  • mesityl-substituted bis(silyl) silicon-centered radicals, persistent and stable, 4:2132,2134
  • mesolytic cleavage
  • photoinduced, 1:291-297
  • carbon-C bonds, 1:293-294
  • carbon-halogen bonds, 1:294-296
  • carbon-H bonds, 1:291-292
  • carbon-Se bonds, 1:296
  • carbon-Si bonds, 1:292-293
  • N-S bonds, 1:297
  • O-Si bonds, 1:294
  • Se-Se/Si-Se bonds, 1:296-297
  • meso-tetraor, synthesis, 2:810-811
  • Met see methionine
  • the metabolic syndrome, 3:1679-1700
  • diabetic complications, 3:1692-1694
  • fatty acids, 3:1685-1690
  • hyperglycemia, 3:1679-1685
  • lipid peroxidation, 3:1687-1690,1691-1692
  • metal-carbon bonds, thermolysis, 1:41
  • metal-centered radicals, fullerene reactions, 4:2183-2184
  • metal chelating agents, preventive antioxidants, 3:1623,1624
  • metal complexes, oxidations, nitroxide-mediated, 2:1106-1108
  • metal-deactivating preventive antioxidants, 3:1625
  • metalloproteins, biological chemistry of reactive oxygen species, 3:1272
  • metallothioneins, lipid isomerization, 3:1608,1609
  • metal-mediated oxyl radical formation, DNA radicals, 3:1373
  • metal nanoparticles (MNPs)
  • bimetallic, radical-mediated photochemical synthesis, 4:2209
  • morphology, light-induced changes, 4:2207-2208
  • noble metals, radical-mediated photochemical synthesis, 4:2198-2209
  • metal nanoparticles (MNPs) (continued)
  • non-noble metals, radical-mediated photochemical synthesis, 4:2209
  • postsynthesis photochemical modification, 4:2206-2209
  • changes to size and morphology, 4:2208-2209
  • seeded growth, 4:2206,2208
  • surface chemistry, 4:2209
  • radical-mediated photochemical synthesis, 4:2197-2210
  • arrested growth, 4:2204
  • atmosphere/oxygen effects, 4:2205-2206
  • bimolecular routes, 4:2200-2201
  • counterion influence, 4:2205
  • factors affecting outcome, 4:2204-2206
  • initiator-free systems, 4:2202-2204
  • in situ stabilization, 4:2206
  • light intensity effects, 4:2204
  • photochemistry advantages, 4:2198
  • precursors, 4:2198-2200
  • stoichiometry, 4:2206
  • unimolecular routes, 4:2201-2202
  • self-assembly monolayer protection, 1:237-239
  • metal organic polyhedra (MOP), spin probes, 4:1999-2000
  • metals
  • conventional batteries, 4:2163
  • free-radical-mediated lipid peroxidation, 3:1580
  • metal substituted-silyl radicals, persistent and stable, 4:2137-2143
  • methacrylic esters, nitroxide-mediated polymerization, 4:1839
  • methane
  • atmospheric reactions, 1:515,519-522
  • NOx radical effects, 1:521-522
  • conversions, methanol, boron trichloride-mediated, 2:620
  • methanol
  • benzophenone-initiated photoadditions, endocyclic conjugated enones, 2:1142-1143
  • boron trichloride-mediated synthesis, methane conversions, 2:620
  • methionine (Met)
  • carbonate radical reactions, 3:1471-1472
  • cellular function, 3:1459
  • hydrogen atom radical reactions, 3:1472
  • hydroxyl radical reactions, 3:1467-1471
  • oxidant reaction rates, 3:1426,1427
  • oxidizing radical reactions, 3:1467-1472
  • peroxyl radical reactions, 3:1471
  • radical reactions, 3:1459,1467-1472
  • relay stations in electron transfer, 3:1484,1485-1487
  • SAM-dependent enzymes, 3:1502,1514
  • structure, 3:1461
  • methoxylated diphenylalkanes, intramolecular coupling, 2:1193
  • methoxylated phenanthrene, synthesis, electrochemically initiated intramolecular cyclizations, 2:1192-1193
  • methoxyl radicals, trimethylborane/triphenylborane substitutions, 2:602
  • methylacrylamides, polymerization, reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer, 4:1904-1905
  • methylacrylates
  • controlled/living radical polymerization, 4:1792-1793,1800-1801
  • organoheteroatom-mediated radical living polymerization, 4:1940,1941
  • reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer, 4:1896,1904-1905
  • 1-methyl-3-alkylimidazolium cations, room-temperature ionic liquids, 1:433-434
  • (2S,3S)-3-methylaspartate, glutamate mutase isomerization, 3:1555
  • 2-methy11,3-butadiene see isoprene
  • methyl chloroform, atmospheric, 1:515-516
  • methyl-coenzyme M reductase (MCR)
  • active-site structure, 3:1571
  • pseudo radical enzymes, 3:1538-1539
  • theoretical studies, 3:1570-1574
  • 5-methylcytosine
  • oxidation
  • hydroxyl radicals, 3:1324-1326
  • one-electron transfer, 3:1330-1331
  • methyleneaziridine, cyclization/ring opening cascade reactions, 2:734
  • methylenecyclohexanes, carboazidations, sulfonyl azides, 2:1030-1031
  • methylene cyclopropanes, radical/radical cyclizations, samarium diiodide-mediated, 2:890-891
  • 2-methyleneglutarate mutase (MGM)
  • mechanism, 3:1508,1511-1512
  • theoretical studies, 3:1551,1552-1553
  • methylene tetrahydrofurans, gram-scale synthesis, flow microreactor experiments, 2:1243-1244
  • 4-methylguaiacol, horno-coupling, electrochemically initiated, 2:1188-1189
  • methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (MCM)
  • active-site structure, 3:1554
  • Co-C bond homolysis, 3:1550,1551
  • mechanism, 3:1508,1512,1514
  • theoretical studies, 3:1553-1555
  • methyl methacrylate (MMA), bulk polymerization, 4:1789-1791,1792,1793
  • methyl peroxyl radicals, matrix isolation spectroscopy, 1:212
  • methyl radicals
  • matrix isolation spectroscopy, 1:210-212
  • multiple addition to fullerenes, 4:2172
  • spin probes for EPR, ring conformation study, 1:158
  • structure, matrix isolation spectroscopy, 1:210-211
  • methyl-substituted silyl enol ethers, cyclizations, stannylaminyl radicals, 2:1025
  • MGM see 2-methyleneglutarate mutase
  • micelle formation, emulsion polymerization, 4:1721
  • microemulsion polymerization
  • industrial processes, 4:1724
  • reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer, 4:1922-1923,1925
  • microgels, atom transfer radical polymerization, 4:1876
  • microorganism defence, reactive oxygen species generation in phagocytes, 3:1263-1264
  • microorganisms, lipid isomerization in bacteria, 3:1617-1619
  • mild conditions, alcohol-thiol conversions, Barton-McCombie deoxygenations, 2:971-972
  • miniemulsion polymerization
  • industrial processes, 4:1724
  • nitroxide-mediated polymerization, 4:1821,1822,1840
  • reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer, 4:1922,1925
  • minimal polymerization time, controlled/living radical polymerization, 4:1789,1790,1792-1793
  • mismatched base pairs, DNA hole transfer, 3:1409-1411,1412
  • mitochondria
  • free fatty acid effects, 3:1686
  • free radical production (ROS/superoxide), 3:1681-1682,1683,1684,1686
  • hyperglycemia effects, 3:1681-1682,1683
  • reactive oxygen species generation, 3:1261-1262
  • Mizorolci-Heck reactions
  • cobalt-catalyzed, 2:1010-1011
  • titanium-catalyzed, 2:1014-1015
  • MLVs see multilamella vesicles
  • MMA see methyl methacrylate
  • MMD see molar mass distribution
  • MNPs see metal nanoparticles
  • MO see molecular orbitals
  • modelling
  • DNA hole transfer study, 3:1404-1405,1406,1413
  • electron transfer, 3:1415,1416,1422,1478-1481,1487
  • kinetics of controlled/living radical polymerization, 4:1788-1797,1816,1820
  • membrane models, 3:1609-1610
  • monolayer generation on silicon surfaces, 4:2096-2100
  • radical enzymes, 3:1547,1550-1551,1555,1557-1558
  • modular design, block copolymers, reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer polymerization, 4:1908,1912-1916
  • molar mass distribution (MMD), 4:1743-1748
  • molar masses, polymerization kinetics, 4:1743-1749
  • molecular architecture control
  • controlled/living radical polymerization, 4:1786,1787-1788,1807,1808
  • atom transfer RP, 4:1804-1805
  • nitroxide-mediated polymerization, 4:1801-1802,1840-1843
  • reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer, 4:1806,1906-1916
  • molecular clouds, interstellar chemistry, 1:481-482
  • molecular geometry, DNA radicals, theoretical calculation, 3:1380
  • molecular hybrids, atom transfer radical polymerization, 4:1876-1877,1879
  • molecular liquids, ionization, ionic liquid comparison, 1:436
  • molecular magnets, history, 1:11
  • molecular orbitals (MO)
  • single occupied molecular orbit plots, 4:2148
  • theoretical calculations, 3:1371
  • molecular oxygen (O2)
  • cysteine thiyl radical reactions, 3:1466
  • reductions, tris(trimethylsilyl)silane, 2:568-569
  • molecular reactive species (ROS/RNS), inflammatory response, 3:1283,1285-1288
  • molecular recognition, radical spin probes, 4:1987
  • molecular shuttles, rotaxanes, 1:240,241-244
  • molecular structures, DFT computation, EPR, 1:156
  • molecular weight control, polymerization, 4:1870-1871,1899-1903
  • molecular weight distribution (MWD), polymerization, 4:1931,1932-1933,1935,1937,1956
  • molecule-based conductors/superconductors, thiazyl radicals, 4:2147-2161
  • molten salts see ionic liquids
  • monocompetent systems
  • nitroxide-mediated polymerization, 4:1820-1821
  • persistent radical effect, 4:1816
  • monocytes, reactive oxygen species generation, 3:1263
  • monolayer protected clusters (MPCs), metal nanoparticles, 1:237-239
  • monolayers, see also self-assembled monolayers
  • monoliths, organotellurium-mediated radical living polymerization, 4:1959-1960
  • monomer reactivity ratios, copolymerization kinetics, 4:1766-1768
  • monomers
  • atom transfer radical polymerization, 4:1855-1856
  • ceiling temperature, radical polymerization, 4:1714
  • copolymerization parameters, 4:1715
  • droplets, emulsion polymerization, 4:1721-1722
  • industrial radical polymerization, 4:1704,1705
  • organoheteroatom-mediated radical living polymerization, 4:1939-1943
  • range, nitroxide-mediated polymerization/organometallic radical polymerization, 4:1801
  • range/functional groups, reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer polymerization, 4:1903-1906
  • solubility, emulsion polymerization, 4:1721
  • stabilization in storage and in-process, radical polymerization, 4:1717-1718
  • monoradicals, history, 1:1-6,8-10,13
  • monosubstituted alkyl radicals, stability, 1:454-457
  • monosubstitutions, SRN1 reactions, 1:335,336-337,361
  • monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs)
  • free-radical-mediated lipid peroxidation, 3:1580
  • lipid isomerization, 3:1599,1601
  • structure, 3:1599,1600
  • MOP see metal organic polyhedra
  • morpholine, addition to fullerenes, 4:2186
  • Mott phase, carrier doping, 1,3,5-trithia2,4,6-triazapentalenyl, 4:2156-2157
  • MPCs see monolayer protected clusters
  • MPO see myeloperoxidase
  • MP PLP see multiple-pulse pulsed-laser polymerization
  • MS see mass spectrometry
  • MTSL (S (2,2,5,5-tetramethy1-2,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrol-3-yl)methyl methanesulonothioate), cysteine residue spin labeling, 4:1967,1969,1970
  • MUFAs see monounsaturated fatty acids
  • multidirectional growth, conventional radical polymerization, 4:1788
  • multilamella vesicles (MLVs), lipid isomerization, 3:1609
  • multiple bonds, additions, sulfur-centered radicals, 2:798-803
  • multiple-pulse pulsed-laser polymerization (MP PLP), propagation rate coefficients, 4:1753-1755
  • multiple radical additions, fullerenes, 4:2172-2173
  • multisegmented copolymers, atom transfer radical polymerization, 4:1871-1872
  • muonium attachment, electron-rich olefin, ionic liquids, 1:434-435
  • muon spin resonance spectroscopy, ionic liquids, 1:434-435
  • muscarine, synthesis, thiazole-2[3H]-thione derivative photo-irradiation, 2:1238
  • mutagenicity studies, 5',8-cyclopurine lesions, 3:1351-1352
  • mutases
  • coenzyme B12-dependent enzymes, 3:1506,1507-1508,1511-1514
  • amino group rearrangement, 3:1508,1513-1514,1516,1526
  • carbon-skeleton rearrangement, 3:1511-1513
  • SAM-dependent aminomutases, 3:1513-1514,1515-1516,1526
  • MWD see molecular weight distribution
  • myeloperoxidase (MPO)
  • free-radical generation, 3:1580
  • hypohalide generation, 3:1579
  • inflammation, 3:1284
  • Myers-Saito cycloaromatizations, 2:710-711
  • N5O5 hydrolysis, stratospheric ozone depletion, 1:513
  • NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I), reactive oxygen species generation, 3:1261-1262
  • NADPH oxidases (NOXs)
  • reactive oxygen species generation, 3:1262-1264
  • cell signaling, 3:1263-1264
  • NADPH oxidases (NOXs) (continued)
  • phagocytes, 3:1263-1264
  • superoxide radicals, fatty acid effects, 3:1687
  • NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2), phagocytic reactive oxygen species generation, 3:1263-1264
  • (-)-nakadomarin A, synthesis, Barton-McCombie deoxygenations, 2:550
  • nanomaterials
  • carbon filament synthesis, atom transfer radical polymerization, 4:1876,1877
  • see also metal nanoparticles
  • nanoscale distance measurements, spin labels and spin probes, 4:1971
  • nanoscale electronic wiring, DNA, 3:1397,1412,1413
  • nanoscale molecular machines, mechanical interlocking of free radicals, 1:239-244
  • naphthaldiimide (NDI), DNA hairpin conjugation, electron transfer, 3:1404,1405
  • naphthalene, electrolysis, biaryl compound synthesis, 2:1185-1186
  • (S)-naproxine, synthesis, chiral trialkyltin hydride/magnesium bromide, 2:539
  • NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration), atmospheric radical chemistry, 1:503,513
  • natural product synthesis
  • carbonyl-alkene coupling, samarium diiodide, 2:874-875
  • conjugate reductions, samarium diiodide, 2:863-864
  • 7-endo cyclizations, 2:798-799,998-999
  • heteropinacol coupling, 2:868
  • intramolecular pinacol coupling, samarium diiodide, 2:867-868
  • sulfur-centered radicals, 2:798-799
  • natural product-polymer hybrids, atom transfer radical polymerization, 4:1876-1877,1379
  • natural triglycerides, lipid isomerization, 3:1603-1604
  • NDI see naphthaldiimide
  • near-infrared (FIR) spectroscopy, pulsed-laser polymerization kinetics, 4:1753
  • Negishi coupling, alkyl-alkyl, nickel-catalyzed, 2:1007
  • Negishi reagents, zirconium-catalyzed reactions, 2:1016
  • (+)-nemorensic acid, synthesis, electrochemically initiated, 2:1180
  • neocryptolepine, synthesis, iminyl radical homolytic aromatic substitutions, 2:1067
  • neon, matrix isolation, 1:207
  • neopentyl halides, SRN1 reactions, 1:351-352
  • neopentyl radicals, electron paramagnetic resonance, 1:160
  • neophilic rearrangements, Barton-McCombie intermediates, xanthates, 2:971
  • neophyl-type rearrangements
  • 2-azabenzonorobornanes synthesis, tris(trimethylsilyl)silane-mediated, 2:589-590
  • dilauroyl peroxide-mediated, 2:1070-1071
  • synthetic applications, 2:1070-1071
  • networks of polymers
  • atom transfer radical polymerization, 4:1876
  • thiol addition to unsaturated compounds, 4:2041-2044
  • neutral attachment, monolayer generation on silicon surfaces, 4:2096
  • neutralization-reionization mass spectrometry (NRMS), gas phase radicals, 1:486-487,494
  • neutral particles, high-energy, interactions with matter, 1:395,396
  • neutral radicals
  • DNA, 3:1300-1302,1372,1375,1388
  • ionization of ions in ionic liquids, 1:436,437
  • versus radical cations/anions, 1:301-332
  • neutrophils
  • reactive oxygen species generation, 3:1263
  • small reactive species generation, 3:1283,1284
  • nickel-catalyzed reactions, oxidative additions, 2:1006-1008
  • nicotine, synthesis, Hofmann-Loffler-Freytag reaction, 1:131
  • NIR see near-infrared
  • nitrate anions, room-temperature ionic liquids, 1:439-440
  • nitrate esters, rearrangements, 1:126
  • nitrate radical (NO3), atmospheric, 1:507,508,516,523-524
  • nitrates, thermolysis, 1:41
  • nitric oxide
  • biological systems, 3:1269
  • radicals causing inflammatory response, 3:1284
  • radicals from proteins, 3:1439
  • superoxide reactions, 3:1270
  • nitric oxide synthase (NOS), 3:1284
  • nitrites
  • additions
  • indium-aminyl radicals, 2:769
  • nitrogen-centered radical formation, 2:780-781
  • N-stannylaminyl radicals, 2:768
  • formation, isonitrile conversion, 2:1037
  • nitrite esters, photoinduced remote functionalizations, 2:1231-1233
  • nitrites, thermolysis, 1:41
  • nitroalkanes, SRN1 reactions, 1:354-355
  • nitro-fatty acids, lipid peroxidation products, 3:1586,1591
  • nitrogen
  • 4-exo-trig cyclizations, substituent effects, 2:701
  • matrix isolation, 1:207
  • nitrogen-based nucleophiles, SRN1 reactions, 1:339-340
  • nitrogen-carbon bonds
  • cleavage, nitrogen-centered radical formation, 2:778-779
  • formation, carbohydrate synthesis, 2:1160-1162
  • nitrogen-centered radicals
  • atom transfer radical additions, 2:774-775
  • biofuel combustion, 1:479
  • clocks, 1:117-118
  • cyclizations, unusual bond formation, 2:716-717
  • cysteine residue reactions, 3:1465
  • electron paramagnetic resonance, 1:162-164
  • enthalpies of formation, 1:95-97
  • formation, 2:767-781
  • N-allylsulfonyl compounds, 2:773
  • azide compounds, 2:767-771
  • hydrazine compounds, 2:771
  • imine derivative additions, 2:780-781
  • N-C bond cleavage, 2:778-779
  • N-halogen bond cleavage, 2:773-776
  • N-H bond cleavage, 2:779-780
  • nitrite additions, 2:780-781
  • N-N bond cleavage, 2:767-772
  • N-O bond cleavage, 2:776-778
  • N-S bond cleavage, 2:772-773
  • N-thioaryl compounds, 2:772-773
  • N-thiocarbonylsulfanyl compounds, 2:773
  • triazene compounds, 2:771-772
  • history, 1:13
  • intramolecular remote functionalizations, photoinduced, 2:1234
  • lipid isomerization, 3:1604-1605
  • protein radicals, 3:1432-1433,1439-1441
  • stability measurement, 1:451-453,468-469
  • nitrogen-containing compounds
  • antioxidant action, 3:1661-1665,1673
  • reductions, samarium diiodide, 2:862-863
  • nitrogen dioxide radicals
  • additions, 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine radical cation, 3:1309-1310
  • cysteine residue reactions, 3:1465
  • guanine radical reactions, 3:1305-1307
  • lipid isomerization, 3:1604-1605
  • nitrogen-halogen bonds, cleavage, nitrogen-centered radical generation, 2:773-776
  • nitrogen heterocycles, synthesis, tris(trimethylsilyl)silane, 2:578
  • nitrogen-hydrogen bonds, cleavage, nitrogen-centered radical formation, 2:779-780
  • nitrogen-nitrogen bonds, cleavage, nitrogen-centered radical generation, 2:767-771
  • nitrogen-oxygen bonds
  • N-alkoxy compounds, photoinduced homolytic α-cleavage, 1:279-280
  • cleavage, nitrogen-centered radical formation, 2:776-778
  • thermolysis, 1:41
  • nitrogen-sulfur bonds
  • cleavage, nitrogen-centered radical generation, 2:772-773
  • photoinduced mesolytic cleavage, 1:297
  • nitrones
  • additions, trialkylboranes, 2:609
  • heteropinacol coupling, samarium diiodide, 2:868-869
  • reductive coupling, ketones, electrochemically initiated, 2:1211-1212
  • spin trapping, 4:2002,2004-2005
  • nitroso compounds, spin trapping, 4:2002,2005
  • nitrosoperoxycarbonate (ONOOCO2-), inflammatory response, 3:1285-1286
  • nitroxide decay, termination of nitroxide-mediated polymerization, 4:1819,1826,1833
  • nitroxide-mediated photopolymerization (NMP2), 4:1844-1845
  • nitroxide-mediated polymerization (NMP), 4:1799-1802,1813-1850
  • alkoxyamines, 2:1102-1103,4:1813,1828-1837
  • applications, 4:1843-1844
  • bicompetent initiation systems, 4:1821-1822
  • chain-end functionalization, 4:1840-1843
  • conditions, 4:1801
  • controlled architecture, 4:1801-1802,1840-1843
  • copolymerization, 4:1826-1827,1840,1843,1844
  • general scheme, 4:1818-1819
  • industrial processes, 4:1726,1727-1729
  • initiation stage, 4:1801,1818,1819,1820-1822
  • key equations, 4:1819
  • kinetics, 4:1813,1815-1837
  • macromolecular architecture, 4:1801-1802,1840-1843
  • main nitroxide families, 4:1827-1828
  • monocompetent initiation systems, 4:1820-1821
  • monomers/initiators, 4:1801
  • nomenclature, 4:1799
  • phase diagrams, 4:1819-1820
  • principles, 4:1813-1827
  • propagation stage, 4:1818,1819,1822-1825
  • radicals involved, 4:1814-1815
  • side reactions, 4:1833-1834
  • side reactions/cross coupling, 4:1818,1819,1825-1826
  • styrene, flow microreactor experiments, 2:1248,1250
  • termination stage, 4:1818,1819,1825-1826
  • types of polymerization, 4:1838-1840
  • nitroxide radicals
  • gold nanoparticle, 1:238-239
  • halogen bonding, 1:232-233
  • host complexation, ERR studies, 1:233-234
  • redox reactions, 4:2164-2165
  • rotaxane capping, 1:244
  • nitroxides
  • additions
  • alkylcatecholboranes, carbon radical generation, 2:1097
  • catecholboranes, synthetic applications, 2:1097
  • ketene, synthetic applications, 2:1104
  • aerobic oxidations, alcohols, metal-catalyzed, 2:1119-1121
  • alkoxyamine homolysis, synthetic applications, 2:1102-1103
  • Anelli oxidations, alcohols, 2:1113-1114
  • antioxidant action, 3:1664-1665,1673
  • autoxidations, synthetic applications, 2:1123
  • 1,4-benzene diradical trapping, enediyne Bergman cyclizations, 2:1101-1102
  • calixarene study, 4:1995-1998
  • carbon radical trapping, olefin additions, 2:1101-1102
  • catalyst reoxidations, 2:1106-1108
  • crown-ethers/cryptands, 4:1990,1991
  • cucurbituril study, 4:1998-1999
  • cyclodextrin study, 4:1991-1995
  • dendrimer investigation, 4:1988-1991
  • electrochemically initiated aminoxyl radical-mediated reactions, 2:1202-1203
  • importance, 4:1965
  • MRI contrast agents, 4:1972-1973
  • as oxidants
  • metal catalysts/complexes, 2:1106-1108
  • organic species, 2:1104-1106
  • single electron transfers, 2:1104-1108
  • synthetic applications, 2:1104-1123
  • oxymetric spin probes, 4:1978,1981,1982
  • pH sensitive spin probes, 4:1974,1975-1976,1979
  • profluorescent spin labels and spin probes, 4:1986,1987
  • redox status spin probes, 4:1982-1984,1985
  • single electron transfers
  • metal catalysts/complexes, 2:1106-1108
  • organic species, 2:1104-1106
  • spin labels and spin probes, 4:1965,1966-1967
  • biological systems, 4:1965,1967-1987
  • GSH detection/quantification, 4:1984,1985,1986
  • oxymetric spin probes, 4:1978,1981,1982
  • pH sensitive spin probes, 4:1974,1975-1976,1979
  • profluorescent, 4:1986,1987
  • redox status spin probes, 4:1982-1984,1985
  • supramolecular systems, 4:1988-1999
  • thiol-specific spin labels, 4:1984,1985,1986
  • stability, 4:1965
  • nitroxide-mediated polymerization, 4:1819,1826,1833
  • structure, 4:1966,1967
  • synthetic applications, 2:1095-1129
  • thermolysis, 1:42
  • thiol-specific spin labels, GSH detection/quantification, 4:1984,1985,1986
  • trapping
  • aryl radicals, 2:1101-1102
  • carbon radicals, 2:1095-1102
  • after cyclizations, 2:1099-1101
  • unsaturations, synthetic applications, 2:1103-1104
  • nitroxyl-malonate-mediated radical polymerizations, styrene, flow microreactor experiments, 2:1249-1250
  • nitroxyl radicals
  • history, 1:14
  • nonchain reaction sequences, 1:109
  • NMP2 are nitroxide-mediated photopolymerization
  • NMP see nitroxide-mediated polymerization
  • NMR see nuclear magnetic resonance
  • NO2, electron-withdrawing group, SRN1 reactions, 1:333,354
  • NO2 radicals
  • additions, 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine radical cation, 3:1309-1310
  • NO2 radicals (continued)
  • cysteine residue reactions, 3:1465
  • guanine radical reactions, 3:1305-1307
  • lipid isomerization, 3:1604-1605
  • NOx radicals (nitrogen oxide radicals)
  • stratosphere, 1:507-510,513
  • troposphere, 1:516,520-523
  • importance in pollution cleansing, 1:520-522
  • isoprene oxidation, 1:524-525
  • transport via PAN, 1:522-523
  • Nobel Prizes
  • radical history
  • awards, 1:14,17,26,30
  • non-awards, 1:1,3,6,30
  • noble metal nanoparticles, radical-mediated photochemical synthesis, 4:2198-2209
  • nojirimycin, synthesis, 2:1218-1219
  • nonanomeric alcohols, deoxygenations, carbohydrate synthesis, 2:1158-1160
  • nonanomeric C-radicals, reductions, carbohydrate synthesis, 2:1158-1160
  • nonaromatic anions, room-temperature ionic liquids, 1:438-442
  • nonchain reactions, radical kinetics, 1:108-109
  • noncyclic nitroxides, nitroxide-mediated polymerization, 4:1827,1838
  • non-enzymatic DNA repair, time resolved chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization studies, 1:196-197
  • non-enzymatic/non-radical oxidation of lipids, 3:1578,1579
  • non-Kekule bi/polyradicals, history, 1:11-12
  • non-Kolbe synthesis, 2:1195-1196
  • nonlinear electrical transport, thiazyl radicals, 4:2157-2159
  • non-radical/non-enzymatic oxidation of lipids, 3:1578,1579
  • non-radical reactive oxygen species, 3:1259,1260,1271-1272
  • non-reductive processes, chain reactions, 1:73-78
  • nonsymmetric reference compounds, radical stabilization energy characterization, 1:451
  • normalization, ionized ionic liquids, 1:437
  • normal mode displacement diagrams, methyl radicals, 1:211
  • Norrish reactions, 2:1227-1231
  • Norrish type II photoprocesses, hydrogen abstraction, 1:135
  • Norrish type I reactions
  • ketones, 1:282
  • photochemical radical-mediated metal nanostructure synthesis, 4:2200,2201,2202
  • Norrish-Trommsdorff effect, viscosity increase, industrial radical polymerization, 4:1719
  • Norrish-Yang cyclobutanol synthesis, hydrogen abstraction, 1:134,135
  • NOS see nitric oxide synthase
  • NOXs see NADPH oxidases
  • NRMS see neutralization-reionization mass spectrometry
  • N-substituted/N,N-disubstituted acrylamides, nitroxide-mediated polymerization, 4:1838
  • NT3・(BF4)2
  • crystal structures, 4:2158
  • nonlinear electrical transport, 4:2157-2159
  • n-type semiconducting polymers, polymer-based field-effect transistors, 4:2066-2067
  • nuclear hyperpolarization, chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization, 1:176,177
  • nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy
  • radical study, 1:175-176
  • room-temperature ionic liquids, 1:444,445
  • see also chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization
  • nuclear reactions, high-energy neutral particles interacting with atomic nuclei, 1:395,396
  • nucleation phase, emulsion polymerization, 4:1721-1722
  • nucleic acids
  • spin labels and spin probes, 4:1970-1971
  • see also DNA
  • nucleic acid sugar radicals
  • C1', 3:1362-1365,1367
  • C2', 3:1359-1362,1367
  • ribonucleosides, 3:1361,1362
  • C3', 3:1357-1359,1366
  • ribonucleosides, 3:1359
  • C4', 3:1352-1357,1366
  • C4-AP lesions, 3:1354-1356
  • ribonucleosides, 3:1356-1357
  • C5', 3:1346-1351,1366
  • aerobic conditions, 3:1347-1348
  • anaerobic conditions, 3:1348-1351
  • fates, 3:1346-1351
  • generation, 3:1346
  • ribonucleosides, 3:1352
  • formation, 3:1372
  • hole transfer processes, 3:1388-1390
  • oxidation, 3:1338,1345-1370
  • ribonucleosides, 3:1352,1356-1357,1359
  • nucleobases
  • oxidation/reduction, 3:1319-1344,1398-1399
  • see also individual bases
  • nucleophilic additions
  • guanine radicals, 3:1302-1305
  • 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine radical cation, 3:1309
  • nucleophilic carbon-centered radicals, arylations, 2:1059-1067,1074-1076
  • nucleophilic coupling, following reduction, photoinduced electron-transfer, 1:289
  • nucleophilic radicals, in vivo, 3:1428
  • nucleophilic substitutions
  • electron transfer, 1:333
  • see also SRN1 reactions
  • nucleophilic thiol-X reactions, 4:2018
  • nucleosides, reductions, tris(trimethylsilyl)silane, 2:570
  • null cycles, stratospheric chemistry, 1:508,509-510,513
  • number-average degree of polymerization, 4:1746-1747,1899-1900
  • O(1D) see electrically excited oxygen
  • O(3P) see ground-state oxygen
  • obesity, 3:1690-1694
  • octahedral spin cages, metal organic polyhedra, 4:1999-2000
  • odd-oxygen
  • stratosphere, 1:506-509
  • see also ozone; singlet oxygen
  • OFETs see organic field-effect transistors
  • oil-soluble polymerization systems, initiation stage, 4:1821,1822
  • oleanolic acid derivatives, synthesis, nitrite ester remote functionalizations, 2:1231-1232
  • olefinations, 1,2-diol reductions, tris(trimethylsilyl)silane, 2:563-564
  • olefins
  • additions
  • aryl radicals, 2:1066-1067,1080-1082
  • carbon radicals, with nitroxide trapping, 2:1101-1102
  • oxoammonium cations, alkoxyamine synthesis, 2:1096
  • vinylsilane epoxides, 1,2-dial synthesis, 2:995
  • xanthates, 2:976-977
  • amine-bearing electron-rich, pyrrolidine synthesis, 2:1177-1178
  • carboaminohydroxylations, 2:1081-1082
  • carbodiazenylations, 2:1081-1082
  • 4-exo-trig cyclizations, 2:701
  • oxidative cleavage, sulfur-centered radicals, 2:801-802
  • oligomerizations
  • allyl iodoacetate, 2:952
  • fullerene, 1:386-388
  • ω-funetionahzed polymers, nitroxide-mediated polymerization, 4:1840-1843
  • OMRI see Overhauser-enhanced magnetic resonance, imaging
  • OMRP see organometallic radical polymerization
  • one-carbon ring expansions, cycloketones, tris(trimethylsilyl)silane, 2:581-582
  • one-electron oxidations
  • adenine, 3:1333
  • concepts, 2:901-904
  • cytosine, 3:1330
  • DNA damage, 3:1293-1300,1319-1320,1328-1333
  • end products of guanine reactions, 3:1300-1311
  • thermodynamics, 3:1293-1294
  • following hydrophosphinations, phosphorus-centered radicals, 2:795
  • guanine, 3:1331-1333
  • hole migration, guanine lesions in DNA, 3:1298-1300
  • metal catalysts/complexes, nitroxide-mediated, 2:1106-1108
  • 5-methylcytosine oxidation, 3:1330-1331
  • organic species, nitroxides, 2:1104-1106
  • oxidant charge effects, guanine lesions in DNA, 3:1297-1298
  • reactive oxygen species in biological systems, 3:1266,1267-1271
  • thymine, 3:1328-1330
  • tris(silyl)-substituted silyl radical generation, 4:2124-2125
  • one-electron oxidized G:C, intra-base pair proton transfer, DNA radicals, 3:1385-1386
  • one-electron oxidized guanine monomers, protonation states, DNA radicals, 3:1384-1385
  • one-electron reductions
  • carbonyl groups, ketyl radicals, radical enzymes, 3:1525
  • fullerenes, 4:2190
  • organosilicon compounds, stable anion radical generation, 4:2135-2137
  • radical generation by enzymes, 3:1502
  • reactive oxygen species in biological systems, 3:1266,1267-1271
  • tris(silyl)-substituted silyl radical generation, 4:2124-2125
  • ONOO- see peroxynitrite
  • ONOOCO21 see nitrosoperoxycarbonate
  • open chain nitrones, spin trapping, 4:2002,2004-2005
  • Oppolzer's camphorsultam, stereoselective reactions, 2:660,662
  • optically active bis-sulfoxide synthesis, nitroxide radical trapping, 2:1100-1101
  • orbital angular motion, unpaired electrons, EPR, 1:150
  • organic azides
  • aminyl radical synthesis, 2:1020
  • azidosulfonylations, 2:1030-1031
  • azido-transfers, 2:1028-1031
  • cyclizations
  • aryl radicals, 2:1020
  • dithiocarbonyl radicals, 2:1020-1021
  • vinyl radicals, 2:1022
  • as radical acceptors, 2:1020-1034
  • carbon radicals, 2:1020-1023
  • heteroatom-centered radicals, 2:1023-1027
  • reductions, stannylatninyl radicals, 2:1023
  • organic batteries, polyradicals, 4:2163-2170
  • organic electron donors
  • electrochemical induction, synthetic applications, 2:844-845
  • photoactivation, synthetic applications, 2:832-834
  • reagent-induced activation
  • aminium cation-radical salts, 2:842-844
  • eerie ammonium nitrate, 2:834-837
  • copper reagents, 2:840-841
  • hypervalent iodine reagents, 2:844
  • iron reagents, 2:837-840
  • manganese reagents, 2:841-842
  • synthetic applications, 2:834-844
  • spontaneous electron transfers, 2:817-831
  • synthetic strategies, 2:817-847
  • thermal electron transfers, 2:817-831
  • organic electronic devices, 3:1495-1497
  • DNA nanoscale electronic wiring, 3:1397,1412,1413
  • organic field-effect transistors (OFETs), 4:2058-2059
  • principles, 4:2059
  • types, 4:2058
  • see also polymer-based field-effect transistors
  • organic-inorganic hybrids, atom transfer radical polymerization, 4:1876,1879
  • organic molecules
  • atmospheric, 1:514, 525
  • ethane, 1:522-523
  • iodine compounds, 1:518
  • isoprene, 1:523-525
  • methane, 1:515,519-522
  • organic monolayers see self-assembled monolayers
  • organic peroxides
  • decomposition by antioxidants, 3:1625-1626
  • industrial use, 4:1707-1708
  • initiators, polymerization, 4:1707-1710
  • reactions in biological systems, 3:1271
  • organic photovoltaic devices, 4:2059
  • see also polymer-based solar cells
  • organic solvents, radiation-induced radical reactions, 1:410-418
  • organic species, oxidations, single electron transfers, nitroxides, 2:1104-1106
  • organic synthesis, samarium diiodide, synthetic applications, 2:849-900
  • organized systems, lipid isomerization, 3:1609-1610
  • organobismuthine-mediated living radical polymerization (BIRP), 4:1932-1958,1960
  • organoboranes, 2:601-628
  • additions, enones, 2:611
  • alcohol deoxygenations, 2:621
  • alkene additions, 2:603-604
  • alkenylations, 2:606-607
  • alkyl iodide hydroxymethylations, 2:621
  • alkyne additions, 2:603-604
  • allylations, 2:606-607
  • arylations, 2:607
  • autoxidations, 2:602
  • Barton-McCombie deoxygenations, 2:621
  • bromine atom transfers, 2:605
  • as C-centered radicals, 2:607-616
  • chain transfers, 2:616-620
  • chlorine atom transfers, 2:605
  • halide reductions, 2:602-603
  • N-heterocyclic carbene complexes, 2:620-621
  • iodine transfers, 2:604-605
  • lithium enolate trifluoromethylations, 2:605
  • organoboranes (continued)
  • oxidative radical hydroxyarylations, 2:617
  • phenylselenium transfers, 2:605-606
  • radidal initiations, 2:602-607
  • radical initiators, 1:42-43
  • reactivity, 2:601-602
  • stereoselective hydroxysulfenylations, 2:620
  • styrylations, 2:606-607
  • tertiary amine complexes, 2:620
  • water complexations, 2:621
  • xanthate-transfers, 2:606
  • organocatalysis
  • chiral Bronsted acids, 2:685
  • enantioselective reactions, 2:679-686
  • hydrogen bonding-mediated, 2:685-686
  • SOMO catalysis, 2:680-684
  • organoheteroatom-mediated living radical polymerization
  • applications, 4:1958-1960
  • block copolymers, 4:1945-1949
  • chain transfer agents, 4:1933-1935,1937,1938
  • cocatalysts, 4:1935-1937,1956-1958
  • components, 4:1933-1953
  • conditions, 4:1937-1939
  • early development, 4:1932-1933
  • end group transformation, 4:1949-1953
  • mechanisms, 4:1953-1958
  • monomers, 4:1939-1943
  • synthetic scope, 4:1939-1943
  • organoiodine-mediated radical living polymerization (IRP), 4:1932-1944,1949,1953-1956
  • see also reversible chain transfer-catalyzed polymerization
  • organometallic compounds
  • pyrolysis, history, 1:6
  • thermolysis, 1:41
  • organometallic radical polymerization (OMRP), nitroxide-mediated, 4:1799,1800-1802,1807
  • organophosphines/organophosphates, antioxidant action, 3:1625
  • organophotocatalysis, asymmetric a-alkylations, aldehydes, 2:1224-1225
  • organosilicas, 9-mesityl-10-methylacridinium ion immobilization, 1:369-370
  • organostibine-mediated living radical polymerization (SBRP), 4:1932-1958,1960
  • organotellurium, antioxidant action, 3:1625
  • organotellurium-mediated living radical polymerization (TERP), 4:1932-1960
  • organo-tin compounds, radical chain mediators, 1:63-65,66
  • ornithine-4,5-aminomutase, mechanism, 3:1508,1513
  • orthogonal spin labeling, genetically encoded unnatural amino acids, 4:1967,1970
  • OSET see outer-sphere electron transfer
  • osmoylations, meso-tetxaol synthesis, 2:810-811
  • Ostwald ripening, mini-emulsion polymerization, 4:1724
  • outer-sphere electron transfer (OSET), atom transfer radical polymerization, 4:1869
  • Overhauser-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (OMRI), spin probes, 4:1973-1974
  • oxazolidines
  • electrochemically initiated functionalization, 2:1204-1205
  • ring expansions, 2:1205
  • oxidant charge effects, one-electron oxidation of guanine, 3:1297-1298
  • oxidants in the body
  • endogenous/exogenous sources, 3:1425,1426
  • protein interactions, 3:1425-1457
  • reaction rate constants, 3:1425-1426,1427
  • oxidases, 2-oxoacids, pseudo radical enzymes, 3:1538
  • oxidation potentials
  • definition, 1:249
  • DNA nucleobases, 3:1398-1399
  • radical tables, 1:258-259,267-270
  • see also redox potential of radicals
  • oxidations
  • alcohols
  • metal-catalyzed, 2:1119-1121
  • oxoammonium salts, 2:1108-1117
  • alkoxyl radical fragmentations, carbohydrates, 2:1166-1168
  • amino acids, 3:1467-1472
  • α-keto acid synthesis, Fremy's salt, 2:1123
  • anilinamides, IBX-mediated, 2:779
  • carbohydrates, 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl, 2:1202-1203
  • cerium(IV) ammonium nitrate-mediated, 2:901-941
  • chemoselective, alcohols, oxoammonium salts, 2:1108-1117
  • dialkyl nitroxides, 2:1096
  • 2,6-di-tert-butylphenol, 2:1188
  • 4,6-dimethylphenol, spirolactone synthesis, 2:1189
  • 1,2-diols, a-diketone formation, oxoammonium salts, 2:1111
  • DNA, 3:1319-1344,1345-1370,1373,1374-1375,1401,1411-1412
  • electrochemically initiated
  • biaryl synthesis, 2:1184-1195
  • carbohydrates, 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl, 2:1202-1203
  • carboxylic acids, 2:1196-1202
  • electron-rich aromatic rings, 2:1180-1183
  • enol ethers, 2:1176-1177
  • ketene dithioacetals, 2:1177-1180
  • menthol, azabicyclic N-oxyl radicals, 2:1203
  • electron-rich aromatic rings, 2:1180-1183
  • enol ethers, 2:1176-1177
  • fluoranthene, perylene derivative synthesis, 2:1186-1187
  • followed by coupling with nucleophiles, photoinduced electron-transfer, 1:288-289
  • hydrogen abstractions, nitroxide-mediated, 2:1119-1123
  • IBX-mediated, anilinamides, 2:779
  • iron(III) salt-mediated, 2:901-941
  • ketene dithioacetals, 2:1177-1180
  • lipids, see also lipid peroxidation
  • manganese(III) acetate-mediated, 2:901-941
  • menthol, azabicyclic N-oxyl radicals, 2:1203
  • methionine, 3:1467-1472
  • nitroxide-mediated
  • hydrogen abstractions, 2:1119-1123
  • synthetic applications, 2:1104-1123
  • nucleic acids, sugar radical formation, 3:1345-1370
  • nucleobase modification, 3:1319-1344
  • phenols, benzoquinone synthesis, Fremy's salt, 2:1122
  • polyaza-substituted ethenes, 2:826-831
  • polyunsaturated fatty acids with molecular oxygen, radical catalyzed, 3:1577
  • radical initiation, 1:50
  • radicals to peroxides, history, 1:2,3-4
  • tetrathiafulvalenes
  • arenediazonium salts, 2:819-826
  • diazonium salts, 2:819-826
  • synthetic applications, 2:818-826
  • thioethers, 3:1467-1472
  • tris(silyl)-substituted silyl radicals, 4:2124-2125,2130
  • see also one-electron oxidations
  • oxidative additions, 2:1003-1018
  • cobalt-catalyzed, 2:1008-1012
  • iron-catalyzed reactions, 2:1012-1014
  • manganese-catalyzed, 2:1014
  • nickel-catalyzed, 2:1006-1008
  • palladium-catalyzed, 2:1004-1006
  • silver-catalyzed, 2:1014
  • titanium-catalyzed, 2:1014-1015
  • zirconium-catalyzed reactions, 2:1015-1016
  • oxidative cleavage, olefins, sulfur-centered radicals, 2:801-802
  • oxidative coupling
  • chiral ligand-mediated, 2:688-689
  • metal-dependent, 2:926
  • oxidative cyclizations
  • 5-cyclodecynone, oxygen-centered radicals, 2:788
  • cyclopropane synthesis, 2:903-904
  • oxidative damage
  • DNA hole transfer, 3:1401,1411-1412
  • localization/diffusion of oxidants, 3:1425
  • proteins, 3:1425-1457
  • oxidative (electron-loss) pathway, DNA radical formation, 3:1373,1374-1375
  • oxidative fragmentation, room-temperature ionic liquids, 1:440,444
  • oxidative hydroxymylations, organoboranes, 2:617
  • oxidative phosphonations, dialkyl phosphites, 2:1086
  • oxidative radical hydroxyarylations, organoboranes, 2:617
  • oxidative rearrangements, tertiary allylic alcohols, oxoammonium salts, 2:1110
  • oxidative stress
  • biomarkers, 3:1302,1311
  • DNA reactions, 3:1283-1317
  • DNA sugar radicals, 3:1345-1370
  • glucose-derived free radicals, type-2 diabetes, 3:1680-1684
  • inflammatory response, 3:1283,1288,1302,1311
  • markers in vitro, lipid peroxidation products, 3:1577-1578,1590-1593
  • protein damage, sulfur/selenium-containing amino acids, 3:1459
  • reactive oxygen species in biological systems, 3:1266,1271,1277-1278
  • see also lipid peroxidation
  • oxide radical ions, radiation-induced production, 1:401
  • oxidizing effects, atmospheric cleansing, 1:514-525
  • oxidizing radical production, water radiolysis, 1:402-403
  • oxime ethers, tricyclic pyrolidine synthesis, cascade cyclizations, 2:730-731
  • oximes, reductive coupling, ketones, 2:1211-1212
  • oxiranyl ketones, aldol reactions, samarium diiodide-mediated, 2:888
  • 2-oxoacids, dehydrogenases/oxidases, pseudo radical enzymes, 3:1538
  • oxoammonium cations, additions to olefins, alkoxyamine synthesis, 2:1096
  • oxoammonium salts
  • desymmetrizations, 2:1117-1118
  • kinetic resolutions, 2:1117-1118
  • oxidations
  • chemoselective, alcohols, 2:1108-1117
  • synthetic applications, 2:1108-1119
  • 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoG)
  • biological implications of lesions, 3:1311-1312
  • oxidation, 3:1333-1334
  • 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine/formylamine (8-oxoG/dF) lesion, hydroperoxyl radical oxidation, 3:1336
  • 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine radical cation (8-oxoG)+
  • nucleophilic additions, 3:1309
  • one-electron oxidation, 3:1308-1311
  • α-oxy-alkyl radicals, decatungstate catalyzed addition to fullerenes, 4:2174
  • α-oxyaminations, SOMO catalysis, aldehydes, 2:680-681
  • oxygen.
  • effects on radical-mediated metal nanostructure synthesis, 4:2205-2206
  • inhibition, industrial radical polymerization, 4:1718-1719
  • initiation, radical enzymes, 3:1539
  • intramolecular homolytic substitutions, 2:644-645
  • molecular
  • cysteine thiyl radical reactions, 3:1466
  • reductions, tris(trimethylsilypsilane, 2:568-569
  • odd-oxygen, stratosphere, 1:506-509
  • photochemical reactions, stratosphere, 1:506
  • role in lipid isomerization, 3:1615-1616
  • see also ozone; singlet oxygen
  • oxygenations
  • B-alkylcatecholboranes, 2:613-616
  • photocatalytic reactions, 1:370-383
  • oxygenative tetraamination, fullerenes, 4:2186
  • oxygen-carbon bonds
  • cleavage
  • photoinduced homolysis of aromatic ethers/esters, 1:280-281
  • radical generation, tin-hydride mediated, 2:549-550
  • formation, carbohydrate synthesis, 2:1162-1164
  • oxygen-centered radicals
  • clocks, 1:118,119
  • cyclizations, unusual bond formation, 2:717-719
  • electron paramagnetic resonance, 1:164-165
  • formation, 2:781-790
  • fullerene reactions, 4:2180-2182
  • history, 1:14-16
  • hydrogen atom transfers, 2:782-783
  • nitrite ester remote functionalizations, 2:1231-1233
  • photoinduced remote functionalizations, intramolecular, 2:1231-1234
  • redox reactions, 4:2164-2165
  • β-scission, 2:783-785
  • stability measurement, 1:451-453,466-468
  • see also reactive oxygen species; superoxide
  • oxygen-derived species see reactive oxygen species
  • oxygen-hydrogen bonds, bond dissociation enthalpy, phenolic antioxidant action, 3:1641-1642
  • oxygen-iodine bonds, iodanes, photoinduced homolytic α-cleavage, 1:278-279
  • oxygen-silicon bonds, photoinduced mesolytic cleavage, 1:294
  • N-oxyl radicals, bond dissociation energies, 1:92-93
  • oxyl radicals
  • cyclizations, tin hydride-mediated, 2:556
  • metal-mediated radical formation, DNA radicals, 3:1373
  • see also nitroxyl radicals
  • oxymetry, spin probes, 4:1978-1982,1983,1984
  • oxysterols
  • cholesterol oxidation products, 3:1586-1587
  • human physiological levels, 3:1591,1592
  • ozone
  • Antarctic hole, 1:511-513,517-518,525
  • lipid oxidation, 3:1578,1579
  • stratosphere, 1:505,506-513,525
  • depletion mechanisms, 1:506,508-509,510-513
  • troposphere
  • halogen radicals, 1:517-518
  • hydroxyl radicals, 1:514-515,517-518
  • ozone (continued)
  • isoprene reaction, 1:525
  • nitrate radicals, 1:516
  • NOx radical dependent effects, 1:520,521-522,525
  • organic compound reactions, 1:516,519-525
  • P3HT see poly(3-hexylthiophene)
  • P450s, inhibition, N-benzyl-N-cyclopropylamine radical cations, 1:310
  • PAC see photoacoustic calorimetry
  • (-)-paeoniflorin, multistep synthesis, oxygen-centered radical remote functionalizations, 2:1233-1234
  • PAHs see polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
  • paired electrolysis, Knoevenagel adducts, cyclobutane synthesis, 2:1184
  • pair production, electromagnetic radiation, 1:395,396
  • palladium-catalyzed reactions
  • oxidative additions, 2:1004-1006
  • reoxidants, nitroxides, 2:1106-1108
  • 1-palmitoy1-2-elaidoyl phosphatidyl choline (PEPC), radical isomerization from POPC, 3:1602
  • 1-palmitoy1-2-oleoyl phosphatidyl choline (POPC), radical isomerization to PEPC, 3:1602
  • PAN see peroxyacetyl nitrate
  • pancreatic β-cells, glucotoxicity/lipotoxicity, 3:1680
  • Paneth, F.A., aliphatic radicals, 1:6
  • paramagnetic..., see also electron paramagnetic resonance
  • paramagnetic rotaxanes, 1:244
  • paramagnetic supramolecular systems, EPR, 4:1987
  • paramagnetic susceptibilities, temperature dependence, 1,3,5-trithia2,4,6-triazapentalenyl, 4:2148,2149
  • partially saturated pyrimidine-fused azocines, synthesis, 2:713
  • particles
  • atmospheric condensed phase processes, 1:504
  • ionizing radiation, 1:395-396
  • polar stratospheric cloud, 1:504,512
  • passivation, silicon surfaces, 4:2082,2084
  • Pauling's electronegativity equation, radical stabilization energies, 1:99-100
  • PBTTT copolymer, polymer-based field-effect transistors, 4:2063-2064
  • PCBM see [6,6]-phenyl-C,51-butyric acid methyl ester
  • PCDTBT see poly[N-9-hepta-decanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4',7'-di-2-thieny1-2',1',3'-benzothiadiazole))
  • PCE see power conversion efficiency
  • PCET see proton-coupled electron transfer
  • P-chiral bisphosphino ligands, synthesis, Kolbe electrolysis, 2:1201-1202
  • PCHT see proton-coupled hole transfer
  • PCPDTBT see poly[2,6-(4,4-bis-(2-ethylhexyl)-4-cyclopenta[2,1-b;3,4-bldithiophene)-alt-4,7-(2,1,3-benzothiadiazole)]
  • PDI see polydispersity index
  • PEDRI see proton electron double resonance imaging
  • PELDOR see pulse electron double resonance
  • penitrem building blocks, synthesis, aryl radicals, 2:1084-1085
  • penitrem indole alkaloids, synthesis, radical/anionic sequences, 2:891-892
  • pentacyclic alkaloids, synthesis, tris(trimethylsilyl)silane, 2:580
  • penultimate model (PM), copolymerization propagation, 4:1749-1750
  • penultimate unit effect (PUE), nitroxide-mediated polymerization, 4:1834-1835
  • peptide backbones
  • electron transfer influences, 3:1487-1493
  • amide bond stepping stones, 3:1490-1493
  • charges, 3:1489-1490
  • dipole moments, 3:1487-1493
  • peptide nucleic acid (PNA), DNA hybrid, 3:1415
  • peptides
  • electron transfer, 3:1475-1499
  • functionalization, radical thiol addition reactions, 4:2022,2024-2025,2026,2027,2028
  • intramolecular electron transfer, time resolved CIDNP studies, 1:195-196
  • nanotube-based electrodes, 3:1495
  • side-chains, electron hopping, 3:1479-1481
  • single molecules, electron transfer, 3:1496,1497
  • sulfur-containing amino acid residues, radical generation, 3:1605-1607
  • synthesis, Baeyer-Villager reactions, TEMPO-mediated, 2:1120
  • perchlorinated triarylmethyl radicals, history, 1:21-23
  • perfluoroalkylations, ketones, germylenol ethers, 2:606
  • perfluoroalkyl iodides, atom transfer radical additions, 2:946
  • periodic mesoporous organosilicas (PM0s), 9-mesityl-10-methylacridinium ion immobilization, 1:369-370
  • peroxidases, oxidation of xenobiotics to radicals, 3:1266
  • peroxidations
  • antioxidants, 3:1623-1672
  • lipids, 3:1577-1594
  • peroxide effects
  • atom transfer radical addition, 4:1851
  • halogen radicals, history, 1:17-18
  • peroxides
  • history, 1:2,15-16
  • initiators, industrial radical polymerization, 4:1707-1710
  • thermolysis, 1:38-39
  • peroxisomes, fatty acid induced free radical generation, 3:1686-1687
  • peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), tropospheric chemistry, 1:522-523
  • peroxydisulfuric acid salts see persulfates
  • peroxy esters, history, 1:16
  • peroxyl radicals
  • antioxidants, 3:1623-1672
  • clocks, phenolic antioxidants, 3:1635-1637
  • history, 1:2,15-16
  • methionine reactions, 3:1471
  • proteins, 3:1430-1431
  • quenching, phenolic antioxidants, 3:1627-1629
  • peroxynitrite (ONOO-)
  • generation, inflammatory response, 3:1283,1284,1285-1286
  • protein reactions, 3:1439-1441
  • reactions in biological systems, 3:1272
  • persistent radical effect (PRE)
  • consequences, 4:1817-1818
  • controlled/living radical polymerization, 4:1786-1787,1797-1799,1817-1818
  • definition, 4:1815-1816
  • examples, 4:1816-1817,1818
  • kinetic equations, 4:1816,1819
  • nitroxide-mediated polymerization, 4:1813,1819
  • nonchain reaction sequences, 1:108-109
  • see also atom transfer radical polymerization; stable free radical polymerization
  • persistent radicals, 1:58,59
  • applications, 4:2117-2118
  • history, 1:2-3,7,9-10
  • initiators, thermolysis, 1:41-42
  • intermediates, nonchain reactions, 1:108-109
  • silyl radicals, 4:2117-2146
  • use of term, 1:449, 4:2118
  • persulfates (peroxydisulfuric acid salts), initiators, industrial radical polymerization, 4:1709-1710
  • perylene bisimides (PDI), DNA conjugation, hole transfer, 3:1413
  • perylene derivatives, electrochemically initiated synthesis, 2:1186-1187
  • PET see photoinduced electron-transfer
  • PFETs see polymer-based field-effect transistors
  • PFL see pyruvate formate lyase
  • pH dependence, electron transfer, 3:1496,1497
  • pH measurements, spin probes, 4:1974,1975-1978
  • phagocytes, reactive oxygen species generation, 3:1263
  • pharmaceuticals, reactive oxygen species generation, 3:1265-1266
  • pharmacological antioxidants, effectiveness, 3:1277
  • phase diagrams, nitroxide-mediated polymerization, 4:1819-1820,1822-1824
  • phase-separated antioxidants, 3:1668-1669
  • phase transitions, thiazyl radicals, 4:2147-2154
  • phenol derivatives, silane-mediated reactions, 2:594-595
  • phenolic antioxidants, 3:1627-1661
  • catechols/resorcinols/hydroquinones, 3:1657-1659
  • kinetic methods, 3:1629-1641
  • direct measurements, 3:1635-1640
  • inhibited autoxidation, 3:1630-1635
  • peroxyl radical clocks, 3:1635-1637
  • using DPPH, 3:1640-1641
  • mechanistic considerations, 3:1650-1657
  • computational insights, 3:1653-1654
  • H-atom transfer, 3:1651-1653
  • solvent effects, 3:1654-1655
  • pyridinols/pyrimidinols, 3:1660-1661
  • thermodynamic methods, 3:1641-1650
  • thermodynamics/lcinetics correlation, 3:1646-1650
  • phenols
  • conversions, benzoates, 2:697
  • 2,6-dihalogenated, electrochemical coupling, 2:1190-1191
  • electrolysis, biaryl compound synthesis, 2:1186-1187
  • hydrogen abstractions, TEMPO-mediated, 2:1121-1122
  • phenothiazine (PTZ), DNA hairpin conjugation, electron transfer, 3:1404,1405
  • phenoxides, oxidative coupling, metal-dependent, 2:926
  • phenoxyl radicals
  • hydrogen bonded complexes, 1:230
  • matrix isolation spectroscopy, 1:223-225
  • reaction pathways, 2:1187
  • phenoxymethyl radicals, decatungstate catalyzed addition to fullerenes, 4:2173
  • phenylations, α-iodoesters, organoboranes, 2:607
  • [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), polymer-based solar cells, 4:2060,2068,2070,2071-2075
  • phenyl cyclopropyl ketones, radical anion generation, 1:302-303
  • phenylhydrazines, fullerene reactions, 4:2179-2180
  • phenyl peroxy radicals, matrix isolation spectroscopy, 1:220,221
  • phenyl radicals, matrix isolation spectroscopy, 1:208,218-222
  • 2-phenylselenated butadienes, synthesis, 2:808
  • phenylseleno groups
  • atom transfer radical additions, 2:956-958
  • atom transfer radical cyclizations, 2:956-958
  • carbon-centered radical generation, 2:805-806
  • transfers
  • α-heteroatom-substituted radicals, 2:957
  • organoboranes, 2:605-606
  • phenyl-substituted bis(silyl) silicon-centered radicals, 4:2132,2134
  • phenyl-substituted silyl enol ethers, cyclizations, stannylaminyl radicals, 2:1025
  • phenylthiomethyl radicals, decatungstate catalyzed addition to fullerenes, 4:2173
  • phosphasilenes, stable anion radicals, 4:2137
  • phosphate esters, rearrangements, 1:126,128-129,130
  • phosphates, antioxidant action, 3:1625
  • β-(phosphatoxy)alkyl radicals, rearrangements, 1:127
  • phosphines
  • antioxidant action, 3:1625
  • aryl radical phosphonylations, 2:1086-1087
  • phosphine selenides, reductions, tris(trimethylsilyl)silane, 2:565-566
  • phosphine sulfides, reductions, tris(trimethylsilyl)silane, 2:565-566
  • phospholipids
  • cis-trans isomerization, 3:1602
  • geometry of saturated/cis and trans fatty acids, 3:1617-1618
  • phosphonations, arenes/phosphines, 2:1086-1087
  • α-phosphoric enones, reductive alkylations, chiral Lewis acid-mediated, 2:673-674
  • phosphorous ylides, flash vacuum pyrolysis, 2:706-707
  • phosphorus-based mediators, phosphorus-centered radicals, 2:796-798
  • phosphorus-based nucleophiles, SRN1 reactions, 1:339-340
  • phosphorus-carbon bonds
  • formation
  • carbohydrate synthesis, 2:1162
  • tris(trimethylsilyl)silane-mediated, 2:587-588
  • phosphorus-centered radicals
  • cascade reaction hydrophosphinations, 2:794-795
  • chemistry, 2:790-796
  • electron paramagnetic resonance, 1:162-164
  • fullerene reactions, 4:2182
  • generation
  • β-eliminations, 2:795-796
  • homolytic substitutions, 2:796
  • heterophosphinations, 2:792-794
  • hydrophosphinations, 2:792-795
  • as leaving groups, 2:795-796
  • substituent effects, 2:790-792
  • unsaturations, 2:792-795
  • photoacoustic calorimetry (PAC)
  • bond dissociation enthalpy measurement, 1:83
  • phenolic antioxidant thermodynamics, 3:1644-1645
  • photoacoustic spectroscopy, radical characterization, 1:298
  • photoactivated flavin cofactors, DNA photolase, electron transfer, 3:1482,1483
  • photoactivated redox processes, radical initiation, 1:51-52
  • photoadditions, branched-chain sugar synthesis, 2:1142-1143
  • photocarbonylations, flow microreactor experiments, 2:1253-1256
  • photocatalytic reactions
  • bromination, via charge separation, 9-mesityl-10-methylacridinium ion, 1:383-386
  • cascade reactions, 2:761-763
  • C-C bond formation via charge separation, 1:386-389
  • dimerization, anthracene, 1:388,389
  • malonylations, indoles, 2:1077
  • 9-mesityl-10-methylacridinium ion, 1:366-389
  • Norrish reactions, 2:1227-1231
  • oligomerization, fullerene, 1:386-388
  • oxygenation, 1:370-383
  • anthracene, via radical ion coupling, 1:370-372
  • benzylamine, 1:380
  • DNA cleavage, 1:380-383
  • electron transfer, 1:370-383
  • photocatalytic reactions (continued)
  • 9-mesity1-10-methylacridinium ion, 1:370-383
  • tetraphenylethylene to 1,2-dioxetane, 1:372-374
  • triphenylphosphene, 1:378-380
  • p-xylene, reduction of oxygen, 1:374-378
  • photosynthesis mimics, 1:365
  • radical ions, charge separation, 1:365-393
  • ruthenium-mediated
  • C-H functionalizations, indoles, 2:1226-1227
  • [2+2] cycloadditions, 2:1221-1222,1223-1224
  • reductions, alkyl halides, 2:1225-1226
  • synthetic strategies, 2:1221-1227
  • photocells, thiazyl radicals, 4:2159
  • photochemically activated radical initiators, 1:43-49
  • photochemically generated radicals see photoinduced radicals
  • photochemically-induced dynamic nuclear polarization (photo-CIDNP), 1:298
  • photochemically-induced extrusions, carbon monoxide, cyclic ketones, 2:1231
  • photochemistry
  • aromatizations, nitroxide-mediated, Hantzsch 1,4-dihydropyridines, 2:1105-1106
  • carbon radicals, 1:275-297
  • characterization, 1:297-298
  • electron transfer, 1:288-297
  • single step processes, 1:275-288
  • cleavage
  • Barton esters
  • indolizidine alkaloid synthesis, 2:1236-1237
  • platensimycin synthesis, 2:1235-1236
  • carbamoyl diethyldithiocarhamate, (-)-aphanophine synthesis, 2:1235
  • hexamethylditin
  • camptothecin synthesis, 2:1238-1239
  • C-glycoside synthesis, 2:1238-1239
  • homolytic, 1:275-288
  • mesolytic, 1:291-297
  • tin reagents, 2:1238-1239
  • see also photolysis
  • electron transfer-induced additions, 2:1217-1221
  • fullerenes
  • acylations, 4:2173-2174
  • additions, 4:2172,2179
  • dimer cleavage, 4:2172
  • hydrogenation, 4:2184-2185
  • ion radicals, 4:2186-2191
  • platinum-centered radicals, 4:2184
  • silicon-centered radicals, 4:2183,2184
  • sulfur-centered radicals, 4:2181
  • glycylglycine, time resolved chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization, 1:191-193
  • Hofmann-Loffier-Freytag reactions, dihydrodeoxyepiallocemuine synthesis, 2:1234
  • isomerizations, 1-benzyloxy-9,10-anthraquinones, via 3-exo-trig closure, 2:698
  • light induced changes in nanoparticle morphology and size, 4:2207-2208
  • light intensity effects, radical-mediated metal nanostructure synthesis, 4:2204
  • nitrogen-centered radicals, 2:1234
  • Norrish reactions, 2:1227-1231
  • oxygen-centered radicals, 2:1231-1234
  • postsynthesis nanostructure modification, 4:2206-2209
  • proteins, 3:1443-1447
  • radical-mediated metal nanostructure synthesis, 4:2197-2210
  • advantages, 4:2198
  • factors affecting outcome, 4:2204-2206
  • precursors, 4:2198-2204
  • radical thiol additions, 4:2019,2020
  • carbohydrates, 4:2022,2053
  • colloidal particles, 4:2045,2047,2048
  • dendrimers, 4:2030,2033
  • macrocycles, 4:2025,2030
  • peptides, 4:2025-2029
  • polymers, 4:2033,2035-2036,2039,2041,2045
  • surface chemistry, 4:2048-2052
  • reaction rates, atmosphere, 1:505-506
  • reactive oxygen species generation in biological systems, 3:1265
  • reduction of acetone, 4:2199
  • remote functionalizations, 2:1231-1234
  • ruthenium-mediated reactions, 2:1221-1227
  • sulfur-containing biomolecules, time resolved chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization, 1:193-194
  • sulfur-containing derivatives, 2:1235-1238
  • synthetic applications, 2:1217-1241
  • tin reagents, 2:1238-1239
  • tris(silyl)-substituted silyl radicals, 4:2130
  • photo-CIDNP see photochemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization
  • photoconductivity, thiazyl radicals, 4:2159
  • photocycloaddition, tertiary amines to fullerenes, 4:2188
  • photodiodes, peptide-based, 3:1495-1496
  • photodissociation
  • atmospheric radical generation, 1:503
  • stratospheric oxygen/ozone reactions, 1:506
  • photoelectric effect, high-energy electromagnetic radiation, 1:395,396
  • photoelectrochemical evaluation techniques, redox potentials, 1:249,255-257
  • photoelectron transfers, organic donors, synthetic applications, 2:832-834
  • photoexcited ketones, hydrogen abstraction, 1:135
  • photofragment spectroscopy, unimolecular reactions, gas phase radicals, 1:493-494
  • photoinduced bond cleavage see photolysis
  • photoinduced charge separation, free radical generation, room-temperature ionic liquids, 1:434
  • photoinduced cyclizations, bromoalkynes, triethylamine, 2:1252-1253
  • photoinduced electron-transfer (PET), 1:288-297
  • followed by elimination/addition of neutral species, 1:289-291
  • mesolytic cleavage, 1:291-297
  • oxidation followed by electrophilic coupling, 1:288-289
  • reduction followed by nucleophilic coupling, 1:289
  • photoinduced radicals, 1:275-300
  • additions, 1:287-288
  • characterization techniques, 1:297-298
  • homolytic cleavage, 1:275-288
  • hydrogen abstraction, 1:283-287
  • ketones, history, 1:26
  • mesolytic cleavage, 1:291-297
  • one step processes, 1:275-288
  • precursors, matrix isolation, 1:207-208
  • photoinduced reactions
  • aliphatic azides, allenylindium dichloride, 2:1027
  • comparison with radiation-induced reactions, 1:396
  • exciton-mediated initiation, monolayer generation on silicon surfaces, 4:2093-2096
  • remote functionalizations, heteroatom-centered intermediates, 2:1231-1235
  • photoiniferters, radical initiators, 1:45
  • photoinitiation
  • industrial radical polymerization. 4:1711-1712
  • monolayer generation on silicon surfaces, 4:2093-2096
  • photochemically activated radical initiators, 1:43-49
  • polymerization kinetics, 4:1761-1762
  • SRN1 reactions, 1:334
  • photoinitiators see photochemically activated radical initiators
  • photoionization
  • free radical generation, room-temperature ionic liquids, 1:434
  • gas phase radicals, 1:479,487-492
  • absolute cross-section, 1:491
  • dissociative, 1:490-491
  • Frank-Condon factors, 1:488-490
  • ionization energy, 1:488-490
  • signatures, 1:487-488
  • state-selected cation source, 1:491-492
  • photoionization mass spectrometry (PIMS), bond dissociation enthalpy measurement, 1:83
  • photolysis
  • free radical generation, room-temperature ionic liquids, 1:433,444
  • gas phase isolated radical generation, 1:484-485
  • hydrogen peroxide, history, 1:2,14
  • matrix isolation of radicals, 1:207-208
  • radical initiators, 1:43-49
  • photomasking, surface polymerization, radical thiol-ene process, 4:2048,2049,2050
  • photomodulation voltammetry, redox potential determination, 1:256-257
  • photooxidation, proteins, 3:1443-1447
  • photooxygenation see photocatalytic reactions, oxygenation
  • photopolymerization, nitroxide-mediated polymerization, 4:1844-1845
  • photosensitized alkylation, alkenes, 1:288-289
  • photosynthesis
  • electron transfer in proteins, 3:1475,1476
  • mimicking systems, 1:365
  • photovoltaic devices, 4:2059,2060,2076-2077
  • see also polymer-based solar cells
  • phthalimide N-oxyl (PINO), unsaturations, 2:1103-1104
  • phthalimides
  • photoinduced electron-transfer
  • followed by elimination/addition of neutral species, 1:289-291
  • macro-cyclizations, 2:1218-1219
  • physiological levels in humans, lipid peroxidation products, 3:1590-1593
  • physiologically relevant reactive oxygen species, 3:1259-1281
  • π-conjugated aromatic stacking, DNA charge transfer, 3:1397,1399,1401
  • π-radicals, geometries, electron paramagnetic resonance, 1:156
  • π-systems, additions, oxygen-centered radicals, 2:787-790
  • pigment dispersants, block copolymers, industrial radical polymerization, 4:1728
  • PIMS see photoionization mass spectrometry
  • pinacol coupling
  • samarium diiodide, 2:864-870
  • stannane-mediated, 2:651-652
  • pinacol cyclizations, substituent effects, 2:867-868
  • PINO see phthalimide N-oxyl
  • piperazinone nitroxide, nitroxide-mediated polymerization, 4:1728
  • piperidine derivatives, silylations, 2:1205
  • plasma (blood), lipid peroxidation products, 3:1583,1586,1589,1590-1593
  • plasma chemistry, 1:480-481
  • plastics, definition, 4:1701
  • plastics industry, history and growth, 4:1701-1702
  • platensimycin synthesis, Barton ester photochemical cleavage, 2:1235-1236
  • platinum-centered radicals, fullerene reactions, 4:2184
  • PLEDS see polymer-based light emitting diodes
  • pleuromutilin synthesis, radical cyclization/intramolecular aldol sequence, 2:893-894
  • PLP see pulsed-laser polymerization
  • PM see penultimate model
  • PMOs see periodic mesoporous organosilicas
  • PNIPAM-block-PNVP diblock copolymers, organoheteroatom-mediated radical living polymerization, 4:1958
  • polarity reversal catalysis
  • benzeneselenol, 2:542
  • silanes, 2:572-574
  • polar reactions
  • following SRN1 reaction, ring closure, 1:342-344
  • stereoselective crossover reactions, 2:657-658,659
  • polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) particles, ozone depletion, 1:504,512
  • polyarylated products, SRN1-Stille tandem reactions, 1:339
  • polyaza-substituted ethenes, spontaneous electron transfers, 2:826-831
  • poly[2,6-(4,4-bis-(2-ethylhexyl)-4-cyclopenta[2,1-b;3,4-b']dithiophene)-alt-4,7-(2,1,3-benzothiadiazole)] (PCPDTBT), polymer-based solar cells, 4:2073,2074
  • 1,2-polybutadiene, modifications, xanthates, 2:983-984
  • polycyclic aromatic compounds, synthesis, xanthates, 2:978-981
  • polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), formation in combustion, 1:479
  • polycyclic indoles, synthesis, addition/cyclization cascades, 2:742-743
  • polycyclic products
  • conjugated acyclic triynes, 2:743-744
  • SOMO catalysis, 2:683-684
  • polycyclizations, cascade reactions, 2:729-732
  • poly(3,3'''-dialkyl-quaterthiophene) (PQT), polymer-based field-effect transistors, 4:2063,2064
  • polydispersities, reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer polymerization, 4:1900,1901,1902,1903,1908
  • polydispersity index (PDI), reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer polymerization, 4:1901,1902,1903,1904
  • polyenes, reductive tandem cyclizations, 2:1209
  • polyfunctionalized cyclohexane analogs, synthesis, 2:1154
  • polyfunctionalized cyclopentane analogs, synthesis, 2:1149-1153
  • poly[N-9-hepta-decanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4',7'-di-2-thienyl-2',1',3'-benzothiadiazole)] (PCDTBT), 4:2065,2066,2067
  • poly(3-hexylthiophene)(P3HT)
  • polymer-based field-effect transistors, 4:2061-2062,2064
  • polymer-based solar cells, 4:2070-2072
  • polyimide (PI) film microreactors, cyclizations, tris(trimethylsilyl)silane-mediated, 2:1244-1246
  • polymer applications
  • batteries, 4:2057-2079,2163-2170
  • industrially produced polymer types, 4:1702-1703
  • spin labels and spin probes, 4:1972
  • polymer-based field-effect transistors (PFETs), 4:2057
  • advanced materials, 4:2061-2067
  • basic principles, 4:2058-2059
  • complementary circuits, 4:2075-2076
  • copolymers, 4:2063,2065-2066
  • field-effect mobility, 4:2059
  • low-cost applications, 4:2075-2076
  • polymer-based field-effect transistors (PFETs) (continued)
  • n-type semiconducting polymers, 4:2066-2067
  • polythiophenes, 4:2061-2065
  • p-type semiconducting polymers, 4:2061-2066
  • polymer-based light emitting diodes (PLEDs), 4:2057
  • polymer-based solar cells (PSCs), 4:2057
  • advanced materials, 4:2067-2075
  • basic principles, 4:2059-2061
  • bulk heterojunction structure, 4:2059,2060,2067-2068
  • commercial production, 4:2076-2077
  • low-band gap polymers, 4:2072-2075
  • polyphenylenevinylenes, 4:2069-2070
  • polythiophenes, 4:2070-2072
  • power conversion efficiency, 4:2061,2068-2069
  • roll-to-roll technique, 4:2076-2077
  • polymer capsules, synthesis, thiol addition to unsaturated compounds, 4:2045,2047,2048
  • polymer hydrogels, synthesis, thiol addition to unsaturated compounds, 4:2044-2045
  • polymeric molecular hybrids, atom transfer radical polymerization, 4:1876-1877,1879
  • polymerization
  • ionic/radical polymerization comparison, 4:1785,1786
  • see also radical polymerization
  • polymerization inhibitors, industrial radical polymerization, 4:1717-1718
  • polymerization rate kinetics, 4:1740-1743
  • polymerization time, dead chain fraction effects, 4:1789,1790
  • polymer monoliths, organotellurium-mediated radical living polymerization, 4:1959-1960
  • polymer networks
  • atom transfer radical polymerization, 4:1876
  • thiol addition to unsaturated compounds, 4:2041-2044
  • polymer-supported trialkyltin hydrides, 2:532-534
  • polyphenylenevinylenes (PPVs), polymer-based solar cells, 4:2069-2070
  • polyradical batteries, 4:2163-2170
  • practical applications, 4:2168-2169
  • radical polymer charge transport and storage, 4:2165-2166
  • radical polymer configuration, 4:2166-2168
  • radical redox reactions, 4:2164-2165
  • polyradicals
  • history, 1:11-12
  • self-assembly, 1:237
  • polysilyl radicals, persistent and stable, 4:2117,2121-2141
  • polystyrene, see also styrenes, polymerizations
  • polystyrene oxammonium resins, oxidations, 2:1116
  • polythiophenes
  • polymer-based field-effect transistors, 4:2061-2066
  • polymer-based solar cells, 4:2070-2072
  • polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs)
  • lipid isomerization, 3:1599,1602-1603,1615-1616
  • the metabolic syndrome, 3:1687-1690
  • peroxidation, 3:1577,1580-1581,1584,1588,1615-1616,1687-1690
  • structure, 3:1599,1600
  • population-balance equations, radical polymerization, 4:1739-1740
  • porous polymeric materials (polymer monoliths), organotellurium-mediated radical living polymerization, 4:1959-1960
  • porous silicon surfaces, biomolecule attachment, self-assembled monolayers, 4:2082-2083
  • positional isomer preference, supramolecular lipid organization, 3:1610-1612
  • postpolymerization functionalization, atom transfer radical polymerization, 4:1877-1878
  • postpolymerization modification, reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer, "click" chemistry, 4:1905,1913,1916
  • postsynthesis nanostructure modification, photochemical, 4:2206-2209
  • potassium organotrifluoroborates, radical generation, 2:617
  • Povarov cyclizations, electrochemically initiated, 2:1209-1210
  • power conversion efficiency (PCE), polymer-based solar cells, 4:2061,2068-2069,2071-2072,2074-2075
  • P(PSI2OD-DD) see N,N-dialkyl-1,7-dibromo-3,4,9,10-perylene diimide and dithienothiophene copolymer
  • PPVs see polyphenylenevinylenes
  • PQT see poly(3,3'''-dialkyl-quaterthiophene)
  • PRE see persistent radical effect
  • precipitation polymerization, industrial processes, 4:1720
  • precursors, photochemical radical-mediated metal nanostructure synthesis, 4:2198-2202
  • pre-equilibrium (initialization) stage, reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer polymerization, 4:1897,1898
  • preferred conformations, fullerenyl radicals, 4:2171,2172
  • preventive antioxidants, 3:1623,1624-1626
  • primary aliphatic carboxylic acids, Kolbe dimerizations, 2:1199-1200
  • primary amidyl radicals, additions to C=C bonds, 2:772
  • primary batteries, 4:2163
  • primary carbon radicals, 4-exo-trig cyclizations, 2:699
  • profluorescent spin labels and spin probes, 4:1985-1987
  • prokaryotes, lipid isomerization, 3:1617-1619
  • prolonged lifetime charge separated state, electron transfer, 1:365,366-370
  • propagation, radical chain reactions, 1:59-63,108
  • propagation cycle, SRN1 reactions, 1:334-335
  • propagation rate coefficients, polymerization kinetics, 4:1750-1752,1753-1755,1762-1766
  • propagation rate constant (kp), controlled/living radical polymerization, 4:1788-1789,1792-1793
  • propagation stage
  • industrial radical polymerization, 4:1712-1714
  • nitroxide-mediated polymerization, 4:1818,1819,1822-1825
  • polymerization kinetics, 4:1739-1740,1762-1770
  • radical polymerization, 4:1737
  • propane-1,2-diol dehydratase, mechanism, 3:1506,1507,1509,1510,1514
  • 2-propanol, tin-free Barton-McCombie deoxygenations, 2:969
  • propargyl peroxy radicals, matrix isolation spectroscopy, 1:217
  • propargyl radicals
  • dimerization, combustion, 1:479
  • matrix isolation spectroscopy, 1:216-218
  • 3,3,3-propellane, cascade synthesis, 2:736-737
  • propellanes, synthesis, manganese(III) acetate-mediated, 2:909
  • n-propyl radicals, matrix isolation spectroscopy, 1:213-214
  • protected dicarboxylic acids, anodic oxidations, 2:1197
  • protected metal nanoparticles, by self-assembly monolayers, 1:237-239
  • protecting groups, radical translocation, 1:137-139
  • protein radicals
  • alkoxyl radicals, 3:1431-1432
  • aromatic side chains, 3:1433-1436
  • backbones, 3:1436-1438
  • fates, 3:1430-1439
  • nitrogen-centered radicals, 3:1432-1433
  • peroxyl radicals, 3:1430-1431
  • side-chain carbon-centered radicals, 3:1430
  • sulfur-containing amino acids, 3:1433
  • translocation, 3:1438-1439
  • proteins
  • antioxidants, 3:1625-1627
  • backbones, radical chemistry, 3:1436-1438
  • cysteine, radical reactions, 3:1467
  • damage, sulfur-containing amino acid residues, 3:1459-1474
  • DNA cross links, oxidative lesions, 3:1338
  • electron transfer, 3:1475-1499
  • glycation, free radical production, 3:1681,1682
  • oxidation, 3:1425-1457
  • consequences, 3:1447-1448
  • factors affecting, 3:1426-1427
  • N-halo species, 3:1441-1443
  • photo-oxidation, 3:1443-1447
  • reactive nitrogen species, 3:1439-1441
  • reactive nitrogen species reactions, 3:1439-1441
  • repair, 3:1448-1450
  • singlet oxygen, 3:1445-1447
  • radical enzymes, 3:1501-1546
  • theoretical studies, 3:1547-1576
  • radical reactions, 3:1467,3:1428-3:1430
  • selenocysteine, radical reactions, 3:1467
  • side-chains
  • carbon-centered radicals, 3:1430
  • electron transfer, hopping mechanism, 3:1479-1481
  • radical production, 3:1430-1436
  • radical translocations, 3:1438-1439
  • spin labels and spin probes, 4:1967,1969-1970
  • structure
  • electron transfer effects, 3:1478
  • time resolved chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization studies, 1:197-198
  • sulfur-containing amino acid residues, radical generation, 3:1605-1607
  • tandem protein-lipid damage, radical attack, 3:1607-1609
  • protonated histidine (His・2H+), hydrogen bonded to To1SQ, 1:229-230
  • protonated pyridines, arylations, 2:1076
  • protonation states
  • glutamate mutase reactions, 3:1555
  • one-electron oxidized guanine monomers, DNA radicals, 3:1384-1385
  • proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET)
  • hydrogen atom transfer mode, 1:325
  • peptides and proteins, 3:1482,1483
  • phenolic antioxidant action, 3:1653-1654,1661
  • sulfur-containing antioxidant action, 3:1666
  • proton-coupled hole transfer (PCHT), DNA, base cation to sugar radicals, 3:1375
  • proton electron double resonance imaging (PEDR1), spin probes, 4:1973-1974
  • protons, radiation-induced production, 1:395,396
  • proton transfer reactions
  • intra-base pair, DNA radicals, 3:1385-1386
  • termination of nitroxide-mediated polymerization, 4:1825
  • see also hydrogen atom transfer
  • proximal bisnitroxides, nitroxide-mediated polymerization, 4:1828
  • proxyl nitroxides, spin labels and spin probes, 4:1967
  • 5 ps spin labeling, nucleic acids, 4:1971
  • PSC see polar stratospheric cloud
  • Pschorr reactions, synthetic strategies, 2:1059-1069
  • PSCs see polymer-based solar cells
  • pseudo radical enzymes, 3:1537-1539
  • mechanisms, 3:1502
  • methyl-coenzyme M reducatase, 3:1538-1539
  • 2-oxoacid dehydrogenases/oxidases, 3:1538
  • PTBx see thieno[3,4-b]thiophene/benzodithiophene alternating copolymer
  • PTOC see pyridine-2-thioneoxycarbonyl
  • PTX see phenothiazine
  • p-type semiconducting polymers, 4:2061-2066
  • PUE see penultimate unit effect
  • PUFAs see polyunsaturated fatty acids
  • pulsed electrical discharge methods, gas phase isolated radical generation, 1:485
  • pulsed hyperthermal nozzle, flash vacuum pyrolysis, 1:208
  • pulsed-laser polymerization (PLP), kinetics, 4:1752-1755
  • pulse electron double resonance (PELDOR), nanometer distance measurements, 4:1971,1973
  • pulse radiolysis
  • radical reaction study, 1:397,423
  • gas phase, 1:399,400
  • organic solvents, 1:413,418
  • proteins/peptides, 1:409
  • redox potential determination, 1:257
  • pumiliotoxin C, synthesis, Barton-McCombie deoxygenations, 2:550
  • pump-probe methodology, characterization of photoinduced radicals, 1:298
  • (-)-punctatin, synthesis, Norrish reactions, 2:1229-1230
  • purification, industrial radical polymerization, 4:1719
  • purine 5',8-cyclonucleosides, DNA oxidation, 3:1338,1340
  • "push-pull" mechanism, coenzyme B12-dependent eliminases, 3:1510,1511
  • pyracylene unit, fullerene radicals, 4:2172
  • pyramidality see degree of pyramidality
  • pyranosides, C-2 branched, synthesis by sequential additions, 2:1147-1148
  • pyrazolophenanthridines, synthesis, intermolecular homolytic aromatic substitutions, 2:1062
  • pyrazolopyridines, synthesis, intermolecular homolytic aromatic substitutions, 2:1062
  • pyridines
  • arylations, 2:1076
  • manganese(II)-catalyzed synthesis, 2:785-786
  • pyridine-2-thioneoxycarbonyl (PTOC)
  • esters
  • history, 1:29-30
  • radical chain reaction initiation, 1:110,113-114
  • PTOC thiol method, radical clock calibration, 1:112-113
  • pyridinols, antioxidant action, 3:1645,1660-1661
  • pyrimidine hydroperoxyl radicals, DNA lesions, 3:1336-1338
  • pyrimidine-purine DNA intrastrand cross-links, 3:1335-1336
  • pyrimidinols, antioxidant action, 3:1645,1660-1661
  • pyrolysis, gas-phase isolated radical generation, 1:483-484
  • 3,4-fused pyrroleo-3-sulfolenes, cycloadditions with fullerenes, 4:2180
  • pyrroles
  • alkylations, 2:1078
  • synthesis, enamine/β-dicarbonyl compound additions, 2:915
  • pyrrolidine derivatives
  • synthesis
  • iodomethylaziridine derivative annulations, 2:604
  • oxygen-centered radicals, 2:788-789
  • pyrrolidines
  • synthesis
  • amine-bearing electron-rich olefin oxidations, 2:1177-1178
  • from N-haloamines, hydrogen atom migration in acidic media, 1:129-131
  • radical [3+2] annulations, 2:605
  • pyrrolidinones, synthesis, alkyl radical azidations, 2:804
  • pyrrolizidines, synthesis, amidyl radical cascade reactions, 2:730-731
  • pyruvate formate lyase (PFL), 3:1562-1566
  • QM/MM see quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics
  • quantum-chemical calculations
  • electron paramagnetic resonance parameters, 1:155-156
  • monolayer generation on silicon surfaces, 4:2097-2098
  • quantum mechanics
  • isotropic electron paramagnetic resonance parameters, 1:155-156
  • reaction rate calculation, 1:100
  • quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM), hybrid procedures, radical enzymes, 3:1547-1548,1550,1551,1557-1558,1566
  • quantum yields, chain length magnitude, SRN1 reactions, 1:334-335
  • quaternary centers, installations, chiral Lewis acid-mediated fragmentations, 2:677-678
  • quenching of radicals
  • by metal ions, metal nanostructure synthesis, 4:2199,2200
  • β-carotene, 3:1670
  • phenolic antioxidants, 3:1627-1629
  • quinones
  • additions to B-alkylcatecholboranes, 2:611
  • additions to trialkylboranes, 2:609
  • H-abstraction, 1:286-287
  • R2R see roll-to-roll technique
  • radiation see ionizing radiation; light...; photo...; ultraviolet
  • radical acceptors
  • aliphatic asides, 2:1023-1027
  • azides, 2:1019-1036
  • heterocumulenes, 2:1048-1052
  • inorganic azides, 2:1034-1036
  • isonitriles, 2:1036-1048
  • isothiocyanates, 2:1049-1051
  • ketenes, 2:1051-1052
  • ketenimines, 2:1051-1052
  • organic azides, 2:1020-1034
  • sulfonyl azides, 2:1027-1031
  • unusual, 2:1019-1057
  • radical additions see additions
  • radical/anionic sequences, carbon-carbon bond sequential formation, 2:891-894
  • radical arylations see arylations
  • radical chain processes see chain reactions
  • radical characterization
  • electron paramagnetic resonance, 1:157-159
  • matrix isolation spectroscopy, 1:207-228
  • radical clocks, 1:107-124
  • acyl radicals, 1:118
  • advantages/disadvantages, 1:107-108
  • calibration methods, 1:112-114
  • carbon radicals, 1:114-117
  • competition kinetic studies, 1:107-108,110-114
  • cyckations, 1:89,111,113,114,116-117
  • kinetic EPR spectroscopy, 1:167
  • nitrogen radicals, 1:117-118
  • oxygen radicals, 1:118,119
  • phenolic antioxidant kinetics, 3:1635-1637
  • radical conjugate additions (RCA), 2:703-705
  • see also conjugate additions
  • radical decay curves, kinetic EPR spectroscopy, 1:165-167
  • radical dianions, room-temperature ionic liquids, 1:436-437
  • radical dications, room-temperature ionic liquids, 1:436-437
  • radical enzymes, 3:1501-1546
  • aromatic compound reduction, 3:1534-1536
  • biotechnological applications, 3:1539-1540
  • coenzyme Bia-dependent, 3:1548-1562
  • evolution, 3:1540-1541
  • glycyl radical enzymes, 3:1562-1568
  • isoprenoid biosynthesis, 3:1536-1537
  • ketyl radicals, 3:1525-1534
  • mechanisms, 3:1501,1502-1503
  • methyl-coenzyme M reductase, 3:1570-1574
  • oxygen initiated radicals, 3:1539
  • radical recycling, 3:1501,1502,1503
  • ribonucleotide reductase, 3:1568-1570
  • theoretical studies, 3:1547-1576
  • thiyl radicals, 3:1460
  • radical equilibrium electron paramagnetic resonance (REqEPR), 3:1642-1644
  • radical families, atmospheric chemistry, 1:505
  • radical-generating machinery, radical enzymes, 3:1502-1503,1504-1505
  • radical-guanine radical reactions, one-electron oxidation of DNA, 3:1305-1308
  • radical halogenations, history, 1:18
  • radical induction, photochemical processes, 1:275-300
  • radical inhibitors, history, 1:27-28
  • radical initiation, 1:37-55
  • chain reactions, 1:59,60,62,63
  • matrix isolation, 1:207-208
  • monolayer generation on silicon surfaces, 4:2089-2096
  • overview, 1:37-55
  • proteins, 3:1428
  • room-temperature ionic liquids, 1:434-435
  • thiol addition to unsaturated compounds, 4:2019,2020
  • radical initiators (RIs), 1:37-55
  • azo compounds, 1:39-40,43
  • chain processes, 1:40
  • controlled/living radical polymerization, chain end functionality, 4:1794-1797
  • heteroatom—heteroatom/carbon-metal, 1:40-41
  • history, 1:25-26
  • hydrogen abstraction, 1:48-49
  • induced decomposition, history, 1:27
  • organoboranes, 1:42-43,2:602-607
  • peroxides, 1:38-39,43
  • persistent, 1:41-42
  • photolysis, 1:43-49
  • radiolysis, 1:37,52
  • redox reactions, 1:37,50-52
  • thermolysis, 1:37-42
  • transition metal complexes, 2:1004
  • radical interconversions, atmosphere, 1:505,507,508-509,514-515
  • radical ion coupling
  • photocatalytic oxygenation of anthracene, 1:370-372
  • selective electron transfer reactions, 1:365,366
  • radical ion pairs
  • amines and fullerenes, 4:2186
  • radical rearrangements by fragmentation/recombination, 1:126-127
  • radical ion probes, cyclopropylcarbinyl→homoallyl rearrangements, 1:301
  • radical ions
  • chemically induced dynamic electron polarization studies, 1:202-203
  • clocks, cyclopropylcarbinyl→homoallyl rearrangements, 1:301
  • dianions/dications, 1:436-437
  • photocatalytic reactions, charge separation, 1:365-393
  • radiation-induced production in organic solvents, 1:410,412,413,414,417,418
  • selectivity versus neutral free radicals, 1:365
  • versus neutral radicals, 1:301-332
  • see also ionic liquids
  • radical mediators, chain reactions, 1:63-73
  • radical modification, industrial polymers produced by non-radical polymerization techniques, 4:1703
  • radical nucleophilic substitutions see SRN1 reaction
  • radical pair mechanism (RPM), chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization, 1:177
  • radical pairs (RPs)
  • CIDNP, 1:175-179
  • recombination in solvent cage, 1:42
  • radical-polar crossover reactions, xanthates, 2:978-979
  • radical polymer, definition, 4:2164
  • radical polymer batteries, 4:2165-2166
  • configuration, 4:2166-2168
  • practical applications, 4:2168-2169
  • redox reactions, 4:2164-2165
  • radical polymerization (RP)
  • applications, industry, 4:1701-1736
  • benzyl methacrylate flow microreactor experiments, 2:1247,1249
  • block copolymers, RAFT, 4:1906-1916
  • chain end functionalities, 4:1788
  • chemically induced dynamic electron polarization studies, 1:200-202
  • chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization, 1:189-190
  • composition control, ATRP, 4:1873
  • concentrations, 4:1785
  • control of topology/composition/functionality, ATRP, 4:1855,1869-1878
  • convergent synthesis, RAFT, 4:1906,1912-1916
  • dispersion, RAFT, 4:1923
  • divergent synthesis, RAFT, 4:1906,1907-1912
  • emulsions, RAFT, 4:1920-1924
  • end-group chemistry, RAPT, 4:1916-1919
  • flow microreactor experiments, 2:1247
  • fullerenes, 4:2180,2181
  • functionality control, ATRP, 4:1877-1878,1879
  • functional polymers, organotellurium radical living polymerization, 4:1958-1960
  • fundamental reactions, 4:1737-1738
  • fundamentals of controlled living process, 4:1785-1812
  • high molecular weight molecules, RAFT, 4:1901-1902
  • history, 1:28
  • industrial applications, 4:1701-1736
  • controlled reversible-deactivation processes, 4:1725-1731
  • importance, 4:1703
  • mechanistic aspects, 4:1704-1719
  • processes, 4:1719-1725
  • inhibition, RAFT agents, 4:1898
  • inhibitors, industrial radical polymerization, 4:1717-1718
  • initiation kinetics, 4:1739,1755-1762
  • initiation versus termination rates, 4:1785,1786
  • ionic polymerization process comparison, 4:1785
  • kinetics, 4:1737-1784
  • conversion effects on rate coefficients, 4:1742-1743,1773-1775
  • conversion of monomer into polymer, 4:1740-1743
  • disproportionation-to-combination ratio, 4:1776-1777
  • initiation, 4:1739,1755-1762
  • machinery, 4:1739-1755
  • propagation, 4:1739,1740,1762-1770
  • copolymerization, 4:1766-1770
  • rate coefficients, 4:1762-1766
  • stages, 4:1739-1740
  • termination, 4:1739-1740,1770-1777
  • living ends, RAFT, 4:1901-1902
  • low molecular weight molecules, RAFT, 4:1903
  • molecular architecture control, 4:1787-1788,1801-1802,1804-1805,1806
  • molecular weight control, 4:1931,1932
  • molecular weights, RAFT, 4:1899-1903
  • monomer range/functional groups, RAFT, 4:1903-1906
  • nitroxide-mediated, 4:1813-1850
  • number-average degree of polymerization, RAFT, 4:1899-1900
  • organoheteroatom-mediated living radical polymerization, 4:1931-1963
  • photoinitiation kinetics, 4:1761-1762
  • polymeric architecture, RAFT, 4:1806,1906-1916
  • population-balance equations, 4:1739-1740
  • propagation kinetics, 4:1739,1740,1762-1770
  • RAFT/ARTP combination, 4:1902
  • rate of conversion, 4:1740-1743
  • reaction schemes, 4:1739-1740
  • retardation, RAFT agents, 4:1898
  • reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer, 4:1895-1929
  • room-temperature ionic liquids, 1:434
  • styrene, nitroxide-mediated, flow microreactor experiments, 2:1248,1250
  • surface modification
  • conventional RP versus controlled/living RP, 4:1786,1787
  • kinetics, 4:1739-1740,1770-1777
  • radical thiol-ene process, 4:2048-2049,2050,2052
  • RAFT, 4:1897,1898,1902
  • termination
  • rate coefficients, 4:1752-1753,1770-1771
  • types, 4:1738
  • see also chain length-dependent termination; initiation-termination balance
  • thiol addition to unsaturated compounds, 4:2017,2019,2020
  • click chemistry
  • branched polymers, 4:2039,2041
  • functional polymers, 4:2033-2039,2040
  • polymer networks, 4:2041-2044
  • topology control, ATRP, 4:1873-1877
  • unique morphologies, RAFT, 4:1925
  • see also controlled/living radical polymerization
  • radical polymers, definition, 4:2164
  • radical process history, 1:25-30
  • radical quenching see quenching of radicals
  • radical-radical coupling, chain reaction termination, 1:60,62
  • radical-radical interactions, reactive oxygen species, 3:1268-1269
  • radical/radical sequences, carbon-carbon bond sequential formation, 2:890-891
  • radical reactivity ratios, copolymerization kinetics, 4:1768-1770
  • radical rearrangements see rearrangements
  • radical recombinations, room-temperature ionic liquids, 1:435-436
  • radical recycling, radical enzyme mechanisms, 3:1501,1502,1503
  • radical reductions cap reductions
  • radical scavengers
  • ascorbate, 3:1268,1271,1277
  • reactive oxygen species defence, 3:1268,1270-1271,1277
  • reduced glutathione, 3:1270,1271,1276,1277
  • thiyl radicals, 3:1270-1271
  • see also radical trapping
  • radical Smiles rearrangements, xanthates, 2:778-779
  • radical stability
  • boron-centered radicals, 1:469-470,471
  • carbon-centered radicals, 1:454-465
  • 3-exo-trig cyclizations, 2:694-698
  • C-C bond cleavage, 1:451
  • definitions, 1:449-453,4:1965,2118
  • electronic stabilization, 1:57,58
  • gas phase, 1:477
  • history, 1:2,7,10
  • hydrogen transfer reaction, 1:449-450,451-452
  • hyperconjugative stabilization, 1:308,454,457
  • matrix isolation, 1:207-228
  • nitrogen-centered radicals, 1:451-453,468-469
  • oxygen-centered radicals, 1:451-453,466-468
  • relative stability scales, C-/S-/O-/N-/B-centered radicals, 1:470,472-473
  • silyl radicals, 4:2117
  • stabilization energies, 1:97-100
  • steric effects, 1:7,4:2120-2121
  • sulfur-centered radicals, 1:451-453,465-466
  • theoretical methods, 1:453-454
  • thermochemical aspects, 1:449-475
  • thermodynamic stability, 1:449-453,4:2118-2120
  • value tables, 1:455-456,459-462,465,466,467,468,470
  • radical stabilization energy (RSE), 1:97-100
  • bond dissociation energies relationship, 1:97-98
  • definitions, 1:450-453
  • electron paramagnetic resonance, 1:169-170
  • fragmentation step species, coenzyme B12-dependent enzymes, 3:1555-1556
  • silyl radicals, 4:2119,2120
  • value tables, 1:455-456,459-462,465,466,467,468,470
  • radical stabilizing groups, ring opening reaction rate effects, 1:305
  • radical substitutions
  • chain reactions, 1:60-61,62,63
  • see also SRN1 reaction
  • radical thiol additions to unsaturated compounds
  • bioorganic molecule synthesis, 4:2021-2033
  • click applications, 4:2021-2053
  • colloidal particles/surface chemistry, 4:2045-2052
  • mechanisms, 4:2017,2018-2020
  • polymers, 4:2033-2045
  • radical trapping
  • alkenylboron derivatives, 2:622-623
  • alkylborane species, 2:624
  • antioxidants, 3:1623,1627-1672
  • diboron species, 2:624
  • radiolysis, 1:395
  • acetone, 1:414-415
  • acetonitrile, 1:413-414
  • alcohols, 1:410-412
  • analysis of products/reactions, 1:396,397
  • condensed versus gaseous media, 1:397
  • gases, 1:397
  • hydrocarbons, 1:417-418
  • ionic liquids, 1:418-420
  • liquids, 1:400-420
  • methods, 1:396-397
  • principles, 1:395-396
  • radical initiation, 1:37,52
  • room-temperature ionic liquids, 1:434,437,441,443,444,445
  • solids, 1:420-423
  • solutions, 1:396
  • tetrahydrofuran, 1:412-413
  • water, 1:398,400-404
  • RAFT see reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer
  • RAGEs see receptors for advanced glycation end products
  • random copolymerization
  • nitroxide-mediated polymerization, 4:1840
  • organoheteroatom-mediated radical living polymerization, 4:1943-1944
  • random walk model
  • DNA excess electron transfer study, 3:1415,1416,1422
  • DNA hole transfer study, 3:1404-1405,1406,1413
  • rate coefficients, polymerization conversion effects, 4:1742-1743,1773-1775
  • rate constants
  • direct measurements, 1:107
  • indirect determination, 1:107
  • radical clocks, 1:107-124
  • synthetic planning, 1:107
  • unusual cyclizations, 2:695
  • rate of polymerization, 4:1740-1741
  • reaction profiles, electron transfer, 3:1477
  • reaction rates, controlled/living radical polymerization, 4:1787,1788-1797
  • reaction schemes, radical polymerization, 4:1739-1740
  • reactive nitrogen species (RNS)
  • diabetes, 3:1685
  • DNA reactions, 3:1283,1305-1307,1309-1310
  • generation in cells, 3:1284
  • inflammatory response, 3:1283,1284,1285-1286
  • lipid peroxidation, 3:1577
  • protein reactions, 3:1439-1441
  • reactive oxygen species (ROS)
  • biological chemistry, 3:1259-1281
  • cellular reactivity, 3:1285-1290
  • molecular versus radical species, 3:1285-1290
  • diffusion and compartmentalization, 3:1275-1277
  • DNA reaction kinetics, 3:1290-1311
  • drugs/xenobiotics, 3:1265-1266
  • evolution of life, 3:1261
  • fatty acids, 3:1685-1690
  • Fenton chemistry, 3:1272-1273
  • flavoprotein oxidases, 3:1264,1265
  • generation in cells, molecular pathways, 3:1283-1285
  • heme protein autoxidation, 3:1264-1265,1266
  • history, 3:1260-1261
  • inflammatory response, 3:1283-1312
  • intentional generation in cells, 3:1260-1261
  • interactions, 3:1267
  • kinetics, 3:1267,1268,1271,1273-1275
  • lipid peroxidation, 3:1577
  • mitochondria, 3:1261-1262
  • molecular, 3:1259,1260,1285-1290
  • NADPH oxidases, 3:1262-1264
  • nucleic acids, sugar radical formation, 3:1345-1370
  • nucleobase modifications, 3:1319-1344
  • properties, 3:1266-1272
  • radiation, 3:1265
  • radical and non-radical, 3:1259,1260,1288-1290
  • radical reactions, 3:1267-1271
  • reduction potential, 3:1266-1267
  • sources, 3:1261-1266
  • transition metals, 3:1272-1273
  • two-electron oxidants, 3:1271-1272
  • the metabolic syndrome
  • diabetic complications, 3:1693,1694
  • fatty acids, 3:1685-1690
  • hyperglycemia, 3:1681-1682,1683,1684
  • mitochondria, 3:1679,1681-1682,1683,1684,1686
  • obesity, 3:1691,1692
  • reactive species
  • atmospheric chemistry, 1:505
  • DNA reactions, inflammatory response, 3:1283-1317
  • reactivity control, silyl radicals, 4:2117
  • reactivity ratios, copolymerization parameters, 4:1715
  • reagent-induced activation
  • organic electron donors
  • aminium cation-radical salts, 2:842-844
  • ceric ammonium nitrate, 2:834-837
  • copper reagents, 2:840-841
  • hypervalent iodine reagents, 2:844
  • iron reagents, 2:837-840
  • manganese reagents, 2:841-842
  • real time observations, short-lived radicals/radical ions, magnetic resonance techniques, 1:175-206
  • rearrangements
  • chain reactions, 1:62
  • cyclopropylcarbinyl→homoallyl-type, 1:301-307
  • diradicals, history, 1:7-8
  • 1,2-esters, 2-deoxy sugar synthesis, 2:1158
  • ester-substituted radicals, 1:125-129
  • history, 1:7-8,13
  • hydrogen atom migrations, 1:129-143
  • monoradicals, history, 1:7-8,13
  • not involving carbon skeleton reorganization, 1:125-145
  • radical chain reactions, 1:62
  • stannylaminyl radicals, aliphatic azide-derived, 2:1023
  • receptors for advanced glycation end products (RAGEs), 3:1684-1685
  • rechargeable batteries
  • conventional, 4:2163
  • organic, 4:2163-2169
  • rectifiers, protein-based, 3:1495
  • redox active transition metals, biological chemistry of reactive oxygen species, 3:1272-1273
  • redox cycling, reactive oxygen species generation by drugs and xenobiotics, 3:1265
  • redox-initiated polymerization, industrial radical polymerization, 4:1710
  • redox potential of radicals
  • definitions, 1:249-250
  • determination, 1:249,250-258
  • competitive q method, 1:253-255
  • computational electrochemistry, 1:258
  • cyclic voltammetry, 1:250-253
  • electrochemical techniques, 1:249,250-255
  • laser flash electron photoinjection, 1:255-256
  • photoelectrochemical techniques, 1:249,255-257
  • photomodulation voltammetry, 1:256-257
  • pulse radiolysis, 1:257
  • second harmonic voltammetry, 1:255
  • thermochemical cycles, 1:257-258
  • equilibrium constant correlation, ATRP, 4:1866-1868
  • tables, 1:258-270
  • redox properties, 1:249-273
  • evaluation techniques, 1:250-258
  • reactive oxygen species, 3:1266-1267
  • spin probes, 4:1982-1984,1985,1988
  • standards, 1:250
  • value tables, 1:258-270
  • redox reactions
  • cascade reactions, 2:746-763
  • radical initiation, 1:37,50-52
  • radical polymer batteries, 4:2164-2165,2166-2167
  • redox regulation, reactive oxygen species in biological systems, 3:1261,1277-1278
  • redox status determination, spin probes, 4:1982-1984,1985,1988
  • redox switching
  • catenanes, 1:241
  • rotaxanes, 1:243,244
  • reduced flavin electron donor, DNA excess electron transfer study, 3:1415
  • reduced glutathione (GSH) see glutathione (reduced)
  • reducing agents, catalyst regeneration, atom transfer radical addition/cyclization, 4:1880-1882
  • reducing radicals, water radiolysis, 1:402,403-404
  • reduction potentials
  • definition, 1:249
  • DNA nucleobases, 3:1398-1399
  • radicals, tables, 1:258-267
  • standard, 1:250
  • reductions
  • aldehydes, samarium diiodide, 2:857-860
  • aliphatic azides, dichlorindium bromide, 2:1026
  • alkoxyl radical fragmentations, carbohydrates, 2:1168-1169
  • alkyl halides,
  • nickel-mediated, electrochemically initiated, 2:1208-1211
  • samarium diiodide, 2:856-857
  • tris(trimethylsilyl)silane-mediated, 2:1244-1246
  • amides, samarium diiodide, 2:860
  • aromatic azides
  • dichlorindium bromide, 2:1026
  • triethylsilane, 2:1025-1026
  • tris(trimethylsilyl)silane, 2:1026
  • aromatic compounds, radical enzymes, 3:1534-1536
  • aryl esters, samarium diiodide, 2:860
  • borohydride-mediated, 2:621
  • boron derivatives, 2:620-622
  • carbonyls, samarium diiodide, reaction mechanisms, 2:853-856
  • carboxylic acids, samarium diiodide, 2:860
  • conjugated aldol cyclizations, samarium diiodide-mediated, 2:888-889
  • dialkyl nitroxides, 2:1096
  • 1,3-diesters, samarium diiodide, 2:860
  • electrochemical nickel-mediated, alkylhalides, 2:1208-1211
  • electron-deficient alkenes, samarium diiodide, 2:863
  • esters
  • samarium diiodide, synthetic applications, 2:860
  • silicon surfaces, functionalized monolayers, 4:2104-2106
  • followed by coupling with electrophiles, 1:289
  • glycosyl pyridyl sulfones, aldehydes/ketones, 1,2-trans-C-glycosides synthesis, 2:1137
  • halides, organoboranes, 2:602-603
  • α-heteroatom-substituted carbonyl groups, samarium diiodide, 2:860-862
  • 1-iodoadamantane, fluorous tin hydride-mediated, 2:536
  • ketones
  • electrochemical coupling, 2:1211-1212
  • samarium diiodide, 2:857-860
  • lactones, samarium diiodide, 2:860
  • Lewis acid-mediated, α-iodo-β-alkoxyesters, 2:662-663
  • reductions (continued)
  • molecular oxygen, tris(trimethylsilyl)silane, 2:568-569
  • multiply-bonded silicon compounds, stable anion radicals, 4:2135-2137
  • nickel-mediated, alkylhalides, 2:1208-1211
  • nitrogen-containing compounds, samarium diiodide, synthetic applications, 2:862-863
  • noble metal ions, nanoparticle synthesis, 4:2197,2202
  • nonanomeric C-radicals, carbohydrate synthesis, 2:1158-1160
  • nucleosides, tris(trimethylsilyl)silane, 2:570
  • one- and two-electron reductions, fullerenes, 4:2190
  • organohalides, samarium diiodide, 2:852-853
  • phosphine selenides, tris(trimethylsilyl)silane, 2:565-566
  • phosphine sulfides, tris(trimethylsilyl)silane, 2:565-566
  • radical initiation, 1:50-51
  • reactive oxygen species, 3:1267,1269
  • ruthenium-mediated photocatalysis, alkyl halides, 2:1225-1226
  • silane-mediated, 2:561-599
  • silylenes, stable anion radicals, 4:2137-2138
  • stereoselective, α-alkoxy radicals, 2:656
  • sulfur-containing compounds, samarium diiodide; 2:863-864
  • thyiyl radicals, 3:1461
  • tris(silyl)-substituted silyl radical generation, 4:2124-2125
  • tris(silyl)-substituted silyl radicals, 4:2130
  • tris(trimethylsilyl)silane-mediated, alkyl halides, flow microreactor experiments, 2:1244-1246
  • xanthates, N-heterocyclic carbene boranes, 2:621
  • reductive alkylations
  • chiral Lewis acid-mediated
  • α,β-disubstituted enoyls, 2:674-675
  • enones, 2:676-677
  • template effects, 2:673-674
  • α,β-disubstituted enoyls, chiral Lewis acid-mediated, 2:674-675
  • enones, chiral Lewis acid-mediated, 2:676-677
  • stereoselective, chiral Lewis acids, 2:672-676
  • reductive cleavage
  • alkyl halides, trisffrimethylsilyllsilane, 2:569-570
  • chalcogens, tris(trimethylsilyl)silane, 2:562-564
  • ruthenium-mediated photocatalysis, C-Br bonds, 2:1225-1226
  • reductive coupling
  • alkenes, ethyl 2-(benzenesulfonylamino)acrylate, 2:613
  • cyclopentane derivative synthesis, 2:1151
  • hydrazones, ketones, electrochemically initiated, 2:1211-1212
  • imines, samarium diiodide, 2:876
  • ketones
  • hydrazones, electrochemically initiated, 2:1211-1212
  • nitrones, electrochemically initiated, 2:1211-1212
  • oximes, electrochemically initiated, 2:1211-1212
  • nitrones, ketones, electrochemically initiated, 2:1211-1212
  • oximes, ketones, electrochemically initiated, 2:1211-1212
  • reductive cyclizations
  • carbonyl groups, 2:1206-1208
  • electrochemically initiated, 2:1206-1209
  • iron-catalyzed, 6-halo-l-hexene, 2:1012
  • ketones, 2:1206-1208
  • silanes, 2:602
  • tandem, polyenes, 2:1209
  • reductive decarboxylations, tin hydride-mediated, cyclopropanes, 2:547
  • reductive dehalogenation, tri-n-butyltin hydride mediated, 1:64
  • reductive (electron-loss) pathway, DNA radical formation, 3:1373,1374-1375
  • reductive one-electron transfer, radical generation by enzymes, 3:1502
  • reductive opening
  • epoxides, alcohol formation, 2:990-993
  • titanocene-catalyzed, epoxides, 2:992-993
  • reductive removal of functional groups, radical chain reactions, 1:66-69
  • reductive tandem cyclizations, polyenes, 2:1209
  • reformation, alkoxyamine C-ON bonds, nitroxide-mediated polymerization, 4:1831-1833
  • Reformatsky reactions, samarium diiodide-mediated, 2:884-887,889
  • regiochemical trends, Δ-5-hexenyl radicals/radical anions, 1:322-323
  • regioregularity, polythiophenes, polymer-based field-effect transistors, 4:2061-2062
  • regioselectivity
  • additions, thiyl radicals to vinylidenecyclopropane, 2:800
  • 4-exo-trig cyclizations, 2:698-702
  • cyclizations
  • aryl radicals, 2:721
  • 6-hepten-l-one radical anions, 1:321-322
  • Δ-5-hexenyl radicals, 1:318
  • ring size effects, 2:712
  • γ-lactone synthesis, 2:904-905
  • lipid peroxidation, 3:1579-1580
  • propagation, industrial radical polymerization, 4:1712-1713
  • relative radical stabilization energies, 1:97-100
  • relative stability scales, C-/S-/O-/N-/B-centered radicals, 1:470,472-473
  • relaxation phenomena, electron paramagnetic resonance, 1:148-150
  • relay amino acids (relay stations)
  • electron transfer in peptides/proteins, 3:1480-1487
  • aromatic amino acids, 3:1481-1484
  • sulfur-containing amino acids, 3:1484-1487
  • trimethoxyphenylalanine, 3:1480-1481
  • relay cyclizations, tetrahydrofuran synthesis, (-)-amphidinolide K core, 2:736
  • remote functionalizations
  • photoinduced, 2:1231-1235
  • radical history, 1:29
  • reorganization energy, electron transfer rate, 3:1475,1477
  • REqEPR see radical equilibrium electron paramagnetic resonance
  • reservoir species, stratospheric chemistry, 1:508,509-510
  • resonance, reaction rate prediction, 1:100
  • resonance-delocalized radicals, stability measurement, 1:452-453
  • resonance stabilization
  • carbon-centered radicals, 1:454-455,457
  • imidoyl radicals, 2:1038-1039
  • resonance structures, isonitriles, 2:1036
  • resorcinols, antioxidant action, 3:1657-1659
  • respiration
  • electron transfer in proteins, 3:1475,1476
  • reactive oxygen species generation, 3:1261-1262
  • reverse atom transfer radical polymerization, 4:1861-862
  • reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), DNA oxidation products, 3:1322
  • reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization
  • advantages/limitations, 4:1807
  • agents, 4:1896
  • aqueous homogeneous, 4:1919-1920
  • ATRP combination, 4:1902
  • block copolymers
  • convergent synthesis, 4:1912-1916
  • divergent synthesis, 4:1907-1912
  • controlled architecture, 4:1806,1906-1916
  • degenerative transfer processes, 4:1786,1787,1805-1806
  • emulsions, 4:1920-1924
  • end-group chemistry, 4:1916-1919
  • homogeneous/heterogeneous processes, 4:1919-1925
  • industrial processes, 4:1726,1730-1731
  • kinetics, 4:1898-1899
  • low molecular weight polymer preparation, 4:1903
  • mechanism, 4:1896-1898
  • molecular weights, 4:1899-1903
  • distribution, 4:1899-1901
  • range/control, 4:1901-1903
  • monomer range/functional groups, 4:1903-1906
  • monomers/initiators, 4:1805-1806
  • organoheteroatom-mediated radical living polymerization comparison, 4:1955
  • polydispersities, 4:1900,1901,1902,1903
  • polymeric architectures, 4:1806,1906-1916
  • radical initiators, chain end functionality, 4:1794-1795
  • radical polymerization, 4:1895-1929
  • radical thiol-X click chemistry, 4:2033,2036,2041
  • transfer agents, 4:1806
  • transfer constants, 4:1899,1901
  • unique morphologies, 4:1925
  • universal agents, 4:1908,1910,1912
  • reversible additions, lipid isomelization, nitrogen centered radicals, 3:1604
  • reversible chain transfer-catalyzed polymerization (RTCP), 4:1933-1937,1939-1944,1949,1960
  • see also organoiodine-mediated radical living polymerization
  • reversible deactivation of growing chain, controlled/living radical polymerization, 4:1726
  • reversible redox reactions, radical batteries, 4:2164-2165,2166-2167
  • reversible termination (RT) mechanism
  • organoheteroatom-mediated radical living polymerization, 4:1953-1954,1956
  • see also persistent radical effect
  • rhenium-centered radicals, fullerene addition, 4:2183
  • rhodium-catalyzed reactions, hydroborations, 2:612
  • ribonucleosides
  • C2' sugar radicals, 3:1361,1362
  • C3' sugar radicals, 3:1359
  • C4' sugar radicals, 3:1356-1357
  • C5' sugar radicals, 3:1352
  • ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs), 3:1503-1505
  • classes, 3:1503-1504
  • electron transfer, 3:1475,1477,1483,1485,1493-1495
  • mechanism, 3:1505,1507
  • oxygen initiation, 3:1539
  • radical generation, 3:1504-1505
  • theoretical studies, 3:1568-1570
  • ring closures
  • 5-exo/6-exo radical cyclizations followed by SRN1 reaction, 1:344
  • acyl radicals, at silicon, 2:648-649
  • at germanium, 2:650-653
  • at oxygen, 2:644-645
  • at selenium, 2:637-644
  • at tellurium, 2:637-641
  • at tin, 2:650-653
  • chiral sulfoxides, 2:636
  • 10-exo-trig closures, benzylic radical synthesis, 2:714-715
  • EPR studies, 1:169
  • homolytic substitutions, 2:629-654
  • intramolecular SRN1 reactions, 1:344-347
  • kinetics, 2:632-635
  • β-lactams, 2:640-641
  • leaving groups, 2:634-635
  • SRN1 reactions, 1:333,342-347
  • sulfurs, 2:635-637
  • O-trityl oximes, diphenyl diselenide effects, 2:809-810
  • vinyl iodides, at silicon, 2:648
  • ring conformation study, methyl radical spin probes, EPR, 1:158
  • ring expansions
  • cobalt-mediated, cyclopentane-1,3-diones, electrochemically initiated, 2:1210-1211
  • cycloketones, tris(trimethylsilyl)silane, 2:581-582
  • electrochemically initiated
  • cyclopentane-1,3-diones, 2:1210-1211
  • oxazolidines, vinyl ethers, 2:1205
  • history, 1:9
  • lactam synthesis, organic azides, 2:1023-1024
  • one-carbon, cycloketones, tris(trimethylsilyl)silane, 2:581-582
  • oxazolidines, vinyl ethers, electrochemically initiated, 2:1205
  • ring formation
  • A rings, 1,22-dihydroxynitiane nitiol analogs, 2:1228
  • xanthate transfers, 2:976-981
  • ring opening
  • aziridines, N-tosylamino radical formation, 2:778
  • cerium(IV) ammonium nitrate-mediated, 2:932-935
  • cyclopropane, radical anions, 1:303-304
  • cyclopropanol silyl ethers, 2:934
  • epoxides, alcohol formation, 2:990-993
  • EPR studies, 1:168
  • industrial radical polymerization, 4:1713
  • iron(III) salt-mediated, 2:932-935
  • ketyl radical anions, 1:302-307
  • manganese(III) acetate-mediated, 2:932-935
  • metal-dependent, 2:932-935
  • titanocene-mediated, epoxides, 2:990-993
  • ring opening polymerization (ROP), industrial, 4:1713
  • RIs see radical initiators
  • RNA
  • ribonucleoside sugar radicals, 3:1352,1356-1357,1359,1361,1362
  • spin labels and spin probes, 4:1970-1971
  • RNRs see ribonucleotide reductases
  • RNS see reactive nitrogen species
  • roll-to-roll (R2R) technique, polymer-based solar cells, 4:2076-2077
  • room-temperature ionic liquids, 1:433-443
  • aromatic anions, 1:442-141
  • cations, 1:411-146
  • ionization of ions, 1:436-438
  • nonaromatic anions, 1:438-442
  • radiation-induced radical reactions, 1:418-420
  • room-temperature magnetic bistability, thiazyl radicals, 4:2148-2151
  • ROP see ring opening polymerization
  • ROS see reactive oxygen species
  • rotational dynamics, room-temperature ionic liquids, 1:434
  • rotaxanes, 1:239-244
  • electrochemical switching, 1:241,242-244
  • molecular shuttles, 1:240,241-244
  • paramagnetic, 1:244
  • structure, 1:239,240
  • RO-X compounds, oxygen-centered radical formation, 2:781-782
  • RP HPLC see reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography
  • RPs see radical pairs
  • RSE see radical stabilization energy
  • RT see reversible termination
  • RTCP see reversible chain transfer-catalyzed polymerization
  • ruthenium-catalyzed reactions
  • aerobic oxidations, alcohols, nitroxide-mediated, 2:1119-1121
  • atom transfer radical additions, 2:955-956
  • atom transfer radical cyclizations, 2:955-956
  • reoxidants, nitroxides, 2:1106
  • ruthenium complexes
  • atom transfer radical addition/cyclization, 4:1880,1882
  • atom transfer radical polymerization, 4:1859,1860
  • ruthenium-mediated photocatalysis
  • C-H functionalizations, indoles, 2:1226-1227
  • [2+2] cycloadditions, enones, 2:1221-1222
  • reductions, alkyl halides, 2:1225-1226
  • reductive cleavage, C-Br bonds, 2:1225-1226
  • synthetic strategies, 2:1221-1227
  • SA see stilbene dicarboxamide
  • saccharides
  • synthesis, radical thiol additions, 4:2022
  • see also disaccharides; sugars
  • salt effects, nitroxide-mediated polymerization, 4:1835-1836
  • SAM (S-adenosylmethionine) see adenosylmethionine
  • samariations, intermolecular, C-disaccharide synthesis, 2:1139-1141
  • samarium complex-catalyzed reactions, cascades, 2:759-760
  • samarium diiodide
  • additive effects, 2:850-852
  • aldol-type reactions, 2:884,887-889
  • asymmetric reductions, 2:859
  • Barbier reactions, 2:879-884
  • carbonyl-alkene coupling, 2:870-877
  • carbonyl-arene cyclizations, 2:875-876
  • cyclopentane derivative synthesis, 2:1151-1152
  • ester carbonyl-alkene cyclizations, 2:876-877
  • fragmentations, ketones, 2:859-860
  • glycosyl pyridyl sulfone reductions
  • C-disaccharide synthesis, 2:1140
  • 1,2-trans-C-glycosides synthesis, 2:1137
  • Grignard reactions, 2:879-884
  • imine pinacol coupling, 2:868-870
  • intermolecular carbonyl-alkene coupling, 2:871-872
  • intermolecular pinacol coupling, 2:865-866
  • intramolecular carbonyl-alkene coupling, 2:872-876
  • intramolecular pinacol coupling, 2:866-868
  • pinacol coupling, 2:864-870
  • reductions
  • aldehydes, 2:857-860
  • alkyl halides, 2:856-857
  • amides, 2:860
  • carbonyls, reaction mechanisms, 2:853-856
  • carboxylic acids, 2:860
  • electron-deficient alkenes, 2:863
  • esters, 2:860
  • α-heteroatom-substituted carbonyl groups, 2:860-862
  • ketones, 2:857-860
  • nitrogen-containing compounds, 2:862-863
  • organohalides, 2:852-853
  • sulfur-containing compounds, 2:863-864
  • reductive coupling, imines, 2:876
  • Reformatsky reactions, 2:884-887
  • synthetic applications, 2:849-900
  • samarium intermediates, glycos-l-yl radicals, C-glycoside synthesis, 2:1137
  • samarium iodide, Lewis acid-mediated diastereoselective reactions, 2:663-664
  • samarium-mediated reactions, asymmetric electron transfers, 2:686-687
  • SAMs see self-assembled monolayers
  • Sandmeyer borylations, 2:624
  • sarcosine esters, fullerene photochemical reactions, 4:2187
  • saturated fatty acids, free-radical-mediated lipid peroxidation, 3:1580
  • saturation effects, radical stability, 1:458,468
  • SBRP see stibine-mediated living radical polymerization
  • scandine, additions, C60, 2:1217-1218
  • Schmittel cycloaromatizations, 2:710-711
  • Schreiner-pascal cycloaromatizations, 2:710-711
  • Schulz-Flory distribution, chain-length distribution, polymerization kinetics, 4:1744,1745
  • Schwartz reagent, zirconium-catalyzed reactions, 2:1015-1016
  • β-scission
  • alkoxy radicals, 2:783-785
  • cyclopropanols, 2:785
  • polymerization kinetics, 4:1756,1760,1761,1780-1781
  • SDSL see site-directed spin-labeling
  • SEC see size-exclusion chromatography
  • secondary amines, synthesis; tris(trimethylsilyBsilane, 2:565
  • secondary batteries, 4:2163
  • see also rechargeable batteries
  • secondary organic aerosol (SOA), troposphere, 1:514,519,525
  • second harmonic alternating current voltammetry (SHV), redox potential determination, 1:255
  • secrotome, adipose tissue, 3:1691
  • seeded emulsion polymerization, reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer, 4:1921-1922
  • seeded growth, metal nanoparticles, 4:2206,2208
  • selective radical generation
  • radiolysis
  • halogenated hydrocarbons, 1:416
  • ionic liquids, 1:419
  • organic solvent, 1:410,412
  • water, 1:401-404
  • selectivity, radical ions versus neutral free radicals, 1:365
  • selenacephalosporin, synthesis, 2:640
  • selenapenam, synthesis, 2:640
  • 5-selenapentopyranose derivatives, synthesis, 2:641
  • selenides
  • intramolecular homolytic substitutions, kinetics, 2:633-634
  • phosphine, reductions, tris(trimethylsilyl)silane, 2:565-566
  • stereoselective atom transfer radical additions/cyclizations, 2:958
  • selenium
  • intramolecular homolytic substitutions, 2:582,630-631
  • tandem radical homolytic substitutions, 2:641-644
  • selenium-carbon bonds
  • cleavage
  • photoinduced mesolytic, 1:296
  • tin-hydride mediated, 2:550-551
  • formation, carbohydrate synthesis, 2:1164-1165
  • selenium-centered radicals
  • additions, insaturations, 2:808-809
  • chemistry, 2:804-810
  • homolytic substitutions, 2:805-808
  • silicon substitutions, 2:805-806
  • substitutent effects, 2:804-805
  • thioselenations, isocyanide, 2:807
  • tin substitutions, 2:805-806
  • selenium-containing amino acids
  • functions, 3:1459
  • radical reactions, 3:1459,1466-1467,1472
  • structure, 3:1461
  • selenium-containing organic molecules, antioxidant action, 3:1625
  • selenium-selenium bonds, photoinduced mesolytic cleavage, 1:296-297
  • selenium-silicon bonds, photoinduced mesolytic cleavage, 1:296-297
  • selenocarbonates, cyclic, synthesis, 2:642
  • selenochromanes, synthesis, 2:642-643
  • selenocysteine (SeCys)
  • cellular function, 3:1459
  • proteins, radical reactions, 3:1467
  • radical reactions, 3:1466-1467
  • structure, 3:1461
  • selenoesters, synthetic applications, 2:805-809
  • selenoethers, radical generation, tin hydride-mediated, 2:550-551
  • selenols, hydrogen transfer to radicals, 3:1460
  • selenomethionine (SeMet)
  • cellular function, 3:1459
  • hydrogen atom radical reactions, 3:1472
  • structure, 3:1461
  • selenomilfasartan, synthesis, 2:641
  • selenothioethers, radical reactions, 3:1467,1472
  • selenotocopherol, synthesis, 2:639
  • self-assembled monolayers (SAMs)
  • α-helical peptides, electron transfer, 3:1488,1496
  • protection of metal nanoparticles, 1:237-239
  • silicon surfaces, 4:2081-2116
  • attachment methods, 4:2089-2096
  • experimental/theoretical modeling studies, 4:2096-2100
  • functionalization, 4:2101-2112
  • perspectives, 4:2112-2114
  • radical chain propagation, 4:2084-2089
  • surface preparation, 4:2082-2083
  • thiol addition to unsaturated compounds, 4:2049-2052
  • self assembly
  • colloidal metal nanoparticles, 4:2197-2210
  • free radicals, 4:1999,2000-2004
  • lipophilic guanosines, 1:237,238
  • mechanical interlocking of free radicals, 1:239-244
  • metal nanoparticle protection, 1:237-239
  • polyradicals, 1:237
  • supramolecular radical chemistry, 1:237-244
  • self-immolative protecting groups, radical translocation, 1:139,140
  • self-initiated autoxidation, β-carotene, 3:1670,1671
  • self-termination reactions, nitroxide-mediated polymerization, 4:1825-1826
  • semibatch (semicontinuous) reactors, industrial radical polymerization, 4:1725
  • semiconductors
  • organic molecule substitutes in electronic devices, 3:1495-1497
  • polymer-based field-effect transistors, 4:2061-2067
  • n-type, 4:2066-2067
  • p-type, 4:2061-2066
  • silicon, surface monolayers, 4:2081-2116
  • semiquinone radical anions, hydrogen bond effects, 1:229-230
  • semiquinones, redox cycling, 3:1265,1268
  • semiquinone state of fiavin
  • oxygen initiated radical enzymes, 3:1539
  • SAM-dependent enzymes, 3:1503,1529-1534,1538
  • semi-radical-mediated polymerization (SRMP), 4:1726
  • SEPR see steady-state EPR
  • sequential processes
  • atom transfer radical addition/cyclization, 4:1882-1884
  • organic transformations, 4:1884-1887
  • carbon-carbon bond formation, samarium diiodide-mediated, 2:890-895
  • radical cyclization-intermolecular trapping, branched-chain sugar synthesis, 2:1146-1147
  • sequential proton loss electron transfer (SPLET), hydrogen atom transfer mode, 1:324-325
  • serum proteins, antioxidant action, 3:1625
  • SET see single electron transfer
  • SET-CRP see single-electron-transfer-controlled radical polymerization
  • seven-membered carbocycles, synthesis, 2:1154-1155
  • SF6 see sulfur hexafluoride
  • SFRP see stable free radical polymerization
  • SG1, nitroxide-mediated polymerization, 4:1814,1821,1826,1827,1838,1839
  • SG-1 (acyclic phosphonylated α-hydro nitroxide), industrial nitroxide-mediated polymerization, 4:1728-1729
  • Sharpless epoxides, ring opening, enantioselective 5-exo cyclizations, 2:997-998
  • 1,2-shift, esters, radical rearrangements, 1:125-129
  • short-lived radicals/radical ions, magnetic resonance techniques, 1:175-206
  • short timescales, radical study by CIDEP/CIDNP, 1:175-204
  • shrinkage, industrial radical polymerization, 4:1713
  • SHV see second harmonic alternating current voltammetry
  • side-chain carbon-centered radicals, proteins, 3:1430
  • side-chain functional polymers, synthesis, radical thiol-X click chemistry, 4:2033,2035-2037
  • side reactions, radical thiol addition to unsaturated compounds, 4:2017,2020
  • σ-bond homolysis, radical generation by enzymes, 3:1502,1506,1509
  • σ-radicals
  • geometries, electron paramagnetic resonance, 1:156
  • stability, 1:463-465
  • signaling
  • lipid peroxidation products, 3:1594
  • radical modification of enzymes, 3:1459
  • reactive oxygen species, 3:1262,1264,1274
  • signatures, photoionization of gas phase radicals, 1:487-488
  • silacycles, synthesis, 2:646
  • silanes
  • consecutive radical reaction mediation, 2:574-595
  • phenol derivative transformations, 2:594-595
  • polarity reversal catalysts, 2:572-574
  • reductions, 2:561-599
  • reductive cyclizations, 2:602
  • tin-free Barton-McCombie deoxygenations, 2:967-970
  • silica, organosilicas, 9-mesityl-10-methylacridinium ion immobilization, 1:369-370
  • silicon, intramolecular homolytic substitutions, 2:632,645-650
  • silicon-carbon bonds
  • formation, tris(trimethylsilyl)silane, 2:566-568
  • photoinduced mesolytic cleavage, 1:292-293
  • self-assembled monolayers, 4:2081,2084-2089
  • silicon-centered radicals
  • 5-endo-dig cyclizations, 2:706
  • electron paramagnetic resonance, 1:161-162
  • fullerene reactions, 4:2183,2184
  • history, 1:19
  • silicon hydrides
  • defunctionalizations, 2:571-572
  • unimolecular chain transfers, 2:948
  • silicon-mercury bond cleavage, tris(silyl)-substituted silyl radical generation, 4:2124
  • silicon-selenium bonds, photoinduced mesolytic cleavage, 1:296-297
  • silicon semiconductors, surface monolayers, 4:2081-2116
  • silicon-silicon bond cleavage, tris(sily1)-substituted silyl radical generation, 4:2122,2124
  • silicon surfaces, 4:2081-2116
  • alkene attachment, 4:2085-2086
  • hydrogen terminated Si(100)/Si(111)
  • oxidation, 4:2083-2084
  • preparation, 4:2082-2083
  • self-assembled monolayer growth, 4:2084-2089
  • monolayer generation
  • adventitious oxides/glass reaction vessels, 4:2091-2092
  • diazonium salts, 4:2092-2093
  • exciton-mediated initiation, 4:2093-2096
  • experimental/theoretical modeling studies, 4:2096-2100
  • fluoride-catalyzed attachment, 4:2096
  • functionalization, 4:2101-2112
  • halogen impurity effects, 4:2088-2089
  • neutral attachment, 4:2096
  • perspectives, 4:2112-2114
  • quantum-chemical calculations, 4:2097-2098
  • radical cations initiation, experimental models, 4:2099-2100
  • radical initiation, 4:2089-2096
  • thermal attachment, 4:2089
  • TTMSS models, 4:2098-2099
  • UV attachment, 4:2089-2091
  • oxidation, 4:2081,2082,2083-2084
  • radical cations initiation, experimental models, 4:2099-2100
  • self-assembled monolayers, 4:2081-2116
  • siloxyl monolayers, 4:2087-2088
  • silyl radicals, 4:2117
  • surface-centered sayl radicals, monolayer generation, 4:2089-2096
  • TTMSS models, 4:2098-2099
  • vinyl radical reactions, 4:2086-2087
  • N-siloxyenamine, ketone α-alkylations, 2:606
  • siloxyl monolayers, silicon surfaces, 4:2087-2088
  • siloxy substituted cylopropanes, ring opening/expansions, 1:309-310
  • silver-catalyzed reactions, 2:1014
  • silver complex-catalyzed reaction cascades, 2:756-757
  • silver nanoparticles
  • AuCl4- ions, photochemical radical-mediated metal nanostructure synthesis, 4:2202,2203
  • light induced morphology/size changes, 4:2207-2208
  • radical-mediated photochemical synthesis, 4:2198,2201,2202,2205-2206
  • silver radicals, photochemical nanostructure synthesis, 4:2203
  • α-silyl acetic acids, Kolbe dimerizations, 2:1200-1201
  • silylated cyclohexadienes
  • chain reactions, 2:571,573
  • cyclizations, dienes, 2:594
  • hydrosilylations, dienes, 2:594
  • silylated tertiary amines, photoinduced additions, alkynes, 2:1218-1219
  • silylations, electrochemically initiated, piperidine derivatives, 2:1205
  • silylenes, reduction, stable anion radicals, 4:2137-2138
  • silyl enol ethers, cyclizations, metal-dependent, 2:928-929
  • silyl ether-based protecting groups, hydrogen atom abstraction, 1:138
  • silyl ethers, cyclopropanol, ring opening, metal-dependent, 2:934
  • silylheptadienes, cyclizations, 2:739-740
  • silyllithium radicals, persistent and stable, 4:2138-2140
  • silylmethyl radicals, 5-endo-trig cyclizations, 2:705-706
  • silyl radicals
  • anion radicals, 4:2135-2138
  • applications, 4:2117
  • bis(silyl) silicon-centered radicals, 4:2132-2135
  • conformational analysis in solution, stable radicals, 4:2131-2132
  • electron paramagnetic resonance parameters, 4:2126-2127,2128,2131
  • kinetic stabilization, 4:2120-2121
  • metal substituted, 4:2137-2143
  • outlook, 4:2143-2144
  • persistent and stable, 4:2117-2146
  • anions and metal-substituted radicals, 4:2135-2143
  • bis(silyl)-substituted radicals, 4:2132-2135
  • tris(silyl)-substituted radicals, 4:2121-2132
  • polysilyl radicals, 4:2117,2121-2141
  • silicon surface chemistry, 4:2117
  • stability control, 4:2118-2121
  • structures, 4:2121
  • thermodynamic stabilization, 4:2118-2120
  • tris(silyl)-substituted, 4:2121-2132
  • X-ray crystallography, 4:2125-2126
  • 1,n-silyl translocations, intramolecular homolytic substitutions, 2:650
  • simultaneous reverse and normal initiation (SR&NI), atom transfer radical polymerization, 4:1862
  • single bonds, carbon-centered radicals, 1:57,58
  • single-electron oxidations see one-electron oxidations
  • single-electron-transfer-controlled radical polymerization (SET-CRP), industrial processes, 4:1730
  • single-electron transfer (SET)
  • amines and fullerenes, 4:2186
  • cyclopropylcarbinyl→homoallyl rearrangement, 1:301
  • mechanistic enzyme inhibitors, 1:310
  • nitroxide-mediated, 2:1104-1108
  • photoinduced
  • followed by radical cation fragmentation, 1:291
  • nucleophiles, 1:289
  • ring opening, N-cyclopropylbenzylamine radical cation, 1:310
  • versus hydrogen atom transfer, tertiary amine oxidation, 1:310
  • single-molecules, biomolecular electronic devices, 3:1397,1412,1413,1495,1496,1497
  • single-pulse pulsed-laser polymerization (SP PLP), termination rate coefficients, 4:1752-1753
  • single-step electron transfer, 3:1475,1477-1478
  • single strand breaks (SSBs), DNA damage, 3:1373,1390-1391
  • singlet oxygen
  • cholesterol oxidation, 3:1587
  • DNA oxidation, 3:1319,1320-1321,1333
  • guanine oxidation, 3:1320-1321,1326
  • lipid oxidation, 3:1578,1579
  • protein damage, 3:1445-1447
  • quenching, β-carotene, 3:1670
  • singly occupied molecular orbitals (SOM0s)
  • DNA radicals, 3:1380,1339-1390,1393
  • heterocyclic thiazyl radicals, 4:2148
  • SOMO catalysis
  • cascade cycloadditions, 2:683-684
  • enantioselective reactions, 2:680-684
  • polycyclic product synthesis, 2:683-684
  • ruthenium-mediated photocatalysis, 2:1224-1225
  • stereoselective radical cyclizations, 2:658
  • site-directed spin-labeling (SDSL), 4:1967,1970,1971
  • six-membered rings, synthesis, 2:709-711,742-745
  • size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), 4:1744,,1748,1762,1763,1765
  • small cycles, unusual cyclizations, 2:694-702
  • small models, radical enzymes, 3:1547
  • small molecule antioxidants, 3:1624-1625,1627
  • small molecule chain transfer, radical polymerization kinetics, 4:1739,1777-1778
  • small molecule synthesis, atom transfer radical addition/cyclization, 4:1855,1880-1887
  • small reactive species
  • DNA damage, 3:1283-1317
  • DNA reaction kinetics, 3:1290-1311
  • generation in cells, 3:1283-1290
  • inflammatory response, 3:1283-1312
  • smart cards, radical batteries, 4:2168-2169
  • Smiles rearrangements, xanthates, 2:778-779
  • SOA see secondary organic aerosol
  • SOD see superoxide dismutase
  • sodium π-butyltellurolate, selenium/tellurium heterocycle formation, 2:638-639
  • solar cells
  • basic principles, 4:2059
  • see also polymer-based solar cells
  • solid phase, radiation-induced radical reactions, 1:420-423
  • solid-state chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization studies, 1:199
  • solid-state heterocyclic thiazyl radicals, 4:2147-2161
  • solution based thermal dissociation, "cage" effect, 1:42
  • solution polymerization systems
  • industrial processes, 4:1720
  • nitroxide-mediated polymerization, 4:1820-1822
  • solvated electrons, radiolysis of ionic liquids, 1:418-419
  • solvation effects, DNA radical properties, 3:1383-1384
  • solvent cages, thermolysis, 1:42
  • solvent effects
  • Δ-5-hexenyl radical cyclization, 1:319-320
  • nitroxide-mediated polymerization, 4:1835
  • phenolic antioxidant action, 3:1654-1655
  • reaction rates, 1:81
  • solvents
  • controlled/living radical polymerization, 4:1791-1792
  • effects on redox properties, 1:249
  • high-energy radiation effects, 1:396
  • one-electron oxidation of guanine, 3:1297-1298
  • organic, radiolysis, 1:410-418
  • water, radiolysis, 1:400-410
  • SOMOs see singly occupied molecular orbitals
  • soot, formation in combustion, 1:479
  • Sp see spiroiminodihydantoin
  • spatial control, photochemical radical-mediated metal anostructure synthesis, 4:2198
  • SPB see surface plasmon band
  • species X, persistent radical effect, controlled/living radical polymerization, 4:1786-1787
  • rac-specionin, total synthesis, 2:1227-1228
  • spectroscopic methods
  • characterization of photoinduced radicals, 1:297-298
  • combustion engine research, 1:479
  • see also individual techniques
  • sp-hybridized carbons, cyclizations, aminyl radicals, 2:717-718
  • spin cages
  • metal organic polyhedra, 4:1999-2000
  • verdazyl radicals, self-assembly, 1:237
  • spin-gap formation versus antiferromagnetic ordering, thiazyl radicals, 4:2151-2152
  • spin labels and spin probes, 4:1965-2015
  • biological membranes, 4:1967,1968
  • biological systems and organic polymers, 4:1966-1987
  • distance measurements in the nanometer range, 4:1971
  • EPR, ring conformation study, 1:158
  • imaging techniques, 4:1972-1975
  • nitroxide radicals, 4:1965,1966-1967
  • nucleic acids, 4:1970-1971
  • oxymetry, 4:1978-1982,1983,1984
  • pH measurements, 4:1974,1975-1978
  • profluorescent, 4:1985-1987
  • protein study, 4:1967,1969-1970
  • redox status determination, 4:1982-1984,1985,1988
  • supramolecular systems, 4:1987-2004
  • spin polarization, electron paramagnetic resonance, 1:153
  • spin-spin relaxation, electron paramagnetic resonance, 1:149
  • spin trapping
  • agents, 4:2002,2004-2005
  • drawbacks, 4:2003,2005
  • electron paramagnetic resonance combination, 4:1966,2002,2003,2004-2005
  • history, 1:28
  • oxidative stress investigation, 4:2005,2006
  • spirocycles, synthesis, metal-dependent, 2:913
  • spirocyclic azidocyclohexadienyl radicals, formation, aromatic azides, 2:1032-1033
  • spirocyclic cyclohexadienones, synthesis, arene aryl radical additions, 2:1063-1064
  • spirocyclic cyclopropane radical cation, ring opening, 1:310
  • spirocyclic C-ketoside derivatives, synthesis, intramolecular carbon-carbon bond formation, 2:1145
  • spirocyclic vinylcyclopropane, ring expansion, 1:309
  • spiroiminodihydantoin (Sp), 8-oxoG oxidation, 3:1307,1309-1310,1311-1312
  • spirolactones, synthesis, electrochemically initiated, 2:1189
  • SPLET see sequential proton loss electron transfer
  • spontaneous electron transfers
  • dithiadiazufulvalenes, synthetic applications, 2:826-831
  • organic electron donors, 2:817-831
  • polyaza-substituted ethenes, synthetic applications, 2:826-831
  • tetrathiafulvalenes, synthetic applications, 2:818-826
  • spontaneous self assembly see self-assembled…
  • SP PLP see single-pulse pulsed-laser polymerization
  • spurs, ionizing radiation, 1:395-396,401
  • SQUID see superconducting quantum interference device
  • SR&NI see simultaneous reverse and normal initiation
  • SR, see also synchrotron radiation
  • SRMP see semi-radical-mediated polymerization
  • SRN1 (unimolecular radical nucleophilic substitution) reaction, 1:333-364
  • activated allyl derivatives, 1:361
  • activated benzyl derivatives, 1:355-358
  • activated benzyl halides, 1:360-361
  • aliphatic substrates, 1:348-361
  • aromatic substrates, 1:333,336-347
  • bridged halides, 1:349-351
  • carbanion nucleophiles, 1:336-338
  • cycloalkyl halides, 1:348-349
  • electron-withdrawing groups, 1:354-361
  • following, 5-exo/6-exo radical cyclizations, 1:344
  • heterocyclic benzyl analog substrates, 1:358-360
  • SRN1 (unimolecular radical nucleophilic substitution) reaction (continued)
  • mechanism, 1:334-335
  • neopentyl halides, 1:351-352
  • N/P/As/Sb-based nucleophiles, 1:339-340
  • perfluoroalkyl halides, 1:352-354
  • ring closure, 1:342-347
  • S/Se/Te-based nucleophiles, 1:340-342
  • α-substituted nitroalkanes, 1:354-355
  • tin nucleophiles, 1:338-339
  • vinylic substrates, 1:347-348
  • SSBs see single strand breaks
  • SSP see steady-state polymerization
  • stabilization..., see also radical stability
  • stabilization constants, enthalpies of formation calculation, 1:91
  • stabilization energies, radicals, 1:97-100
  • stabilization of metal nanoparticles, 4:2197,2206
  • stabilization of monomers, in storage and in-process, 4:1717-1718
  • stable free radical polymerization (SPRP), 4:1813
  • advantages/limitations, 4:1806-1807
  • nitroxide-mediated polymerization, 4:1799-1802
  • organometallic radical polymerization, 4:1799,1800-1802
  • persistent radical effect, 4:1786,1787,1797-1799
  • see also nitroxide-mediated polymerization
  • stable radicals
  • definition, 4:1965,2118
  • silyl radicals, 4:2117-2146
  • see also radical stability
  • standard potentials
  • definition, 1:250
  • radicals
  • measurement, 1:258-259
  • tables, 1:258-270
  • standard radicals, electron paramagnetic resonance, 1:150-151
  • standard redox potentials, 1:250
  • stannane-mediated pinacol coupling, intramolecular homolytic substitutions, 2:651-652
  • α-stannoimidoyl radicals, indole synthesis, tin hydride-mediated, 2:552-556
  • stannylaminyl radicals
  • additions, 2:768-769
  • aliphatic azide-derived, 2:1023
  • cyclizations, 2:1023-1025
  • formation, 2:768
  • organic azide reductions, 2:1023
  • O-stannylketyl radicals, 2,3-disubstituted indole synthesis, tin hydride-mediated, 2:553-554
  • 1,4-stannyl migrations, intramolecular homolytic substitutions, 2:649
  • stannyl radicals
  • chain additions, isonitriles, 2:1037
  • cyclizations, alkenyl isothiocyanates, 2:1050
  • 1,5-translocations, 2:652-653
  • 1,n-stannyl translocations, intramolecular homolytic substitutions, 2:651
  • star polymers, atom transfer radical polymerization, 4:1873-1874
  • statistical copolymers, 4:1714,1871
  • steady-state EPR (SEPR), rearrangement kinetics, 1:168-169
  • steady-state measurements, kinetic EPR spectroscopy, 1:167-169
  • steady-state polymerization (SSP), kinetics, 4:1740,1741,1750
  • step-growth polymerization, radical thiol-X click chemistry, 4:2033,2039,2041,2043,2044,2047
  • stereoblock copolymers, atom transfer radical polymerization, 4:1873
  • stereochemical trends, Δ-5-hexenyl radicals/radical anions, 1:322-323
  • stereoelectronic effects
  • cyclizations, 2:693,703-709
  • glycos-1-y1 radicals, acrylonitrile additions, 2:1131-1132
  • radical stability, 1:451,458,460,463
  • stereosective reactions, see also enantioselective reactions
  • stereoselective reactions
  • acyclic 1,2-inductions, 2:655-656
  • atom transfer radical additions, organoselenides, 2:958
  • atom transfer radical cyclizations, organoselenides, 2:958
  • chiral auxiliaries, 2:659-662
  • chiral chain-transfer reagents, 2:666-667
  • chiral Lewis acids, 2:668-679
  • cyclic radicals, 2:658-661
  • cyclizations, 2:657-659,958
  • 6-hepten-l-one radical anions, 1:321-322
  • diastereoselective, 2:655-666
  • enantioselective, 2:666-689
  • halogen atom transfers, Lewis acid-mediated, 2:670-672
  • Δ-5-hexenyl radical cyclization, 1:318-319
  • hydrogen atom transfers, Lewis acid-mediated, 2:668-670
  • hydroxysulfenylations, organoboranes, 2:620
  • 1,n-inductions, 2:656-657
  • 1,3-inductions, 2:656-657
  • Lewis acid-mediated, 2:662-666
  • lipid peroxidation, 3:1579-1580
  • memory of chirality, 2:667-668
  • polar crossover reactions, 2:657-658,659
  • reductions, α-alkoxy radicals, 2:656
  • reductive alkylations, chiral Lewis acids, 2:672-676
  • SRN1 reactions, 1:337
  • 1,3-stereoinductions, 2:656-657
  • styrylations, allcenylindium, 2:606
  • stereoselective synthesis, 2:655-691
  • aldols, 2:661-662
  • 1,2-trans-C-glycosides, 2:1137
  • α-C-glycosides, 2:1137-1139
  • β-glycosides, 2:1156-1158
  • tin hydrides, 2:538-540
  • steric (hinderence) stabilization
  • carbon-centered radicals, 1:58
  • radical history, 1:7
  • silyl radicals, 4:2120-2121
  • steroid alkaloids, synthesis, nitrogen-centered radical remote functionalizations, 2:1234
  • steroids, remote functionalizations, benzophenones, 2:1229-1231
  • stibine-mediated living radical polymerization (SBRP), 4:1932-1958,1960
  • sticky end sequence, DNA blocks, nanoscale electronic wiring, 3:1412,1413
  • stilbene dicarboxamide (SA), DNA hairpin conjugation, 3:1401,1402,1404-1406,1408
  • stilbene diether (SD), DNA hairpin conjugation, 3:1404-1405,1406,1408
  • stoichiometric factors
  • antioxidants
  • catechols/hydroquinones, 3:1657,1658
  • N-containing compounds, 3:1662,1663,1664,1665
  • phenols, 3:1629,1632,1633,1648,1655
  • preventative, 3:1625,1626
  • radical-mediated metal nanostructure synthesis, 4:2206
  • storage
  • metal nanoparticles, 4:2206
  • monomer stabilization, 4:1717-1718
  • strained systems, cyclobutylcarbinyl radical trapping, 5-exo-trig cyclizations, 2:699-700
  • strand breaks, DNA damage, 3:1371,1373,1390-1391
  • stratosphere, 1:505
  • Chapman mechanism, 1:506-507
  • matrix isolation spectroscopy, 1:212
  • ozone depletion mechanisms, 1:506,508-509,510-513
  • radical chemistry, 1:506-513,525
  • halogen radicals, 1:510-511
  • heterogeneous reactions, 1:511-513
  • null cycles, 1:509-510
  • odd-oxygen destruction, 1:507-509
  • troposphere interaction, 1:505,513,515-516
  • Strecker synthesis, α-arninoamides, 2:747-748
  • structural resonance, isonitriles, 2:1036
  • styrenes
  • additions, SOMO catalysis, 2:681-682
  • alkylations, cobalt-catalyzed, 2:1010-1011
  • cyclopropyl benzene synthesis, cobalt-mediated, 2:1210-1211
  • double alkylations, alkyl halides, titanium-catalyzed, 2:1014-1015
  • inhibited autoxidation, 3:1631-1632
  • organoheteroatom-mediated radical living polymerization, 4:1939-1941
  • polymerizations
  • n-butyl acrylate, flow microreactor experiments, 2:1248-1250
  • flow microreactor experiments, 2:1248-1250
  • hollow spheres, 4:1925
  • nitroxide-mediated, 4:1838
  • styrylations
  • organoboranes, 2:606-607
  • stereospecific, alkenylindium, 2:606
  • substituent effects
  • bond dissociation energies/atom abstraction rates, 1:102-103
  • phosphorus-centered radicals, 2:790-792
  • selenium-centered radicals, 2:804-805
  • ortho-substituted benzoyl rings, homolytic substitution cascades, 2:738-739
  • substituted catechols, coupling, anodic oxidations, 2:1205-1207
  • substituted cyclohexanes, synthesis, titanocene-mediated 6-endo cyclizations, 2:998-999
  • N-substituted/N,N-disubstituted acrylamides, nitroxide-mediated polymerization, 4:1838
  • substituted imines, enantioselective reactions, hexylsilane-mediated, 2:595-596
  • α-substituted nitroalkanes, SRN1 reactions, 1:354-355
  • 4-substituted phenylhydrazine hydrochlorides, fullerene reactions with sodium nitrite, 4:2180
  • substitutions
  • aromatic, free-radicals, history, 1:28-29
  • conjugated Reformatsky reactions, samarium diiodide-mediated, 2:889
  • electron transfer, history, 1:20
  • homolytic aromatic, 2:737-739,1059-1080
  • ipso-type, intermolecular, synthetic strategies, 2:1079
  • radical chain reactions, 1:60-61,62,63
  • see also SRN1 reaction
  • sugars
  • brominations, 2:1165-1166
  • synthesis, radical thiol additions, 4:2022
  • see also nucleic acid sugar radicals
  • sulbactam, synthesis, 2:640
  • sulfonyl radicals, additions, isonitriles, five-membered heterocycle synthesis, 2:1045
  • sulfatase activation, alcohol oxidation to aldehyde, SAM radical enzymes, 3:1520
  • sulfenic acids, antioxidant action, 3:1625,1646,1666-1667,1673
  • sulfides
  • hydrogen transfers, intramolecular homolytic substitution competition, 2:635
  • intramolecular homolytic substitutions, kinetics, 2:633-634
  • phosphine, reductions, tris(trimethylsilyl)silane, 2:565-566
  • sulfinamides, ring-closures, 2:637
  • sulfinates, ring-closures, 2:637
  • sulfonamidyl radicals
  • allylations, 2:1028
  • formation, 2:775
  • hydrogen atom migration, 1:131
  • sulfonate anions, room-temperature ionic liquids, 1:441-442
  • sulfonate esters, rearrangements, 1:126
  • sulfones, reductions, Julia-Lythgoe olefinations, 2:864-865
  • sulfonyl azides, as radical acceptors, 2:1027-1031
  • sulfonyl radicals, allylations, 2:1028
  • sulfoxides, antioxidant action, 3:1666
  • sulfur, see also thio…
  • sulfur-based mediators, sulfur-centered radicals, 2:796-798
  • sulfur-carbon bonds, formation, carbohydrate synthesis, 2:1164-1165
  • sulfur-centered radicals
  • additions, multiple bonds, 2:798-803
  • chemistry, 2:796-804
  • electron paramagnetic resonance, 1:164-165
  • eliminations, 2:803-804
  • fragmentations, 2:803-804
  • fullerene reactions, 4:2180-2182
  • history, 1:19
  • hydroxysulfenations, 2:800-801
  • lipid isomerization, 3:1601-1604,1605,1606
  • natural product synthesis, 2:798-799
  • oxidative cleavage, olefins, 2:801-802
  • stability measurement, 1:451-453,465-466
  • tandem racemizations, amines, 2:798
  • see also thiyl radicals
  • sulfur-containing amino acids
  • desulfurization, 3:1607-1609
  • functions, 3:1459
  • radical formation, 3:1433
  • radical generation, 3:1605-1607
  • radical reactions, 3:1459-1474
  • thioethers/selenothioethers, 3:1467-1472
  • thiols/selenols, 3:1460-1467
  • relay stations in electron transfer, 3:1484-1487
  • structure, 3:1461
  • thioethers/selenothioethers, 3:1467-1472
  • thiols/selenols, 3:1460-1467
  • sulfur-containing biomolecules, time resolved chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization, 1:193-194
  • sulfur-containing compounds
  • antioxidant action, 3:1625,1665-1667,1673
  • degradative processes, thiyl radical generation, 3:1605
  • photochemical transformations, 1:193-194,2:1235-1238
  • reductions, samarium diiodide, synthetic applications, 2:863-864
  • sulfur dioxide/sulfuric acid, atmospheric, 1:519
  • sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), radiation-induced radicals in gaseous systems, 1:399
  • sulfur insertions, SAM radical enzymes, 3:1523-1524
  • sulfur-nitrogen interactions, heterocyclic thiazyl radicals, 4:2147,2148
  • sulfur-nitrogen three-electron intermediate
  • selenothioether radical reactions, 3:1472
  • thioether radical reactions, 3:1468-1471
  • sulfur-oxygen three-electron intermediate, thioether radical reactions, 3:1471-1472
  • sulfurs
  • intramolecular homolytic substitutions, 2:582,630-631,635-637
  • ring-closures, 2:635-637
  • sulfur species, atmospheric reactions, 1:519
  • sulfur-sulfur bonds, thermolysis, 1:41
  • sultines, synthesis, alkyl radicals, 2:638
  • sunlight initiated reactions, history, 1:2,14
  • superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID), radical polymer batteries, 4:2166
  • supercooling, thiazyl radicals, 4:2152
  • superexchange, electron transfer bridges, 3:1477,1478,1479,1490-1491,1492
  • superoxide dismutases (SODs), 3:1260,1270,1271,1626
  • superoxide radicals
  • additions, 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine radical cation, 3:1310
  • cysteine residue reactions, 3:1464-1465
  • DNA oxidation, 3:1319,1321,1322
  • generation
  • fatty acid effects, 3:1686,1687
  • hyperglycemia effects, 3:1681-1682,1683
  • mitochondria, 3:1681-1682,1686
  • heme protein autoxidation, 3:1264-1265
  • inflammatory response, 3:1283,1290
  • mitochondrial respiration, 3:1261
  • NADPH oxidases, 3:1262-1264
  • nitric oxide radical interaction, 3:1284
  • photocatalytic oxygenation, 1:370,389
  • radiation-induced production, 1:403
  • radical reactions, 3:1269-1270
  • superoxide spin adducts, 4:2003,2005,2006
  • supported tin hydrides, 2:532-534
  • supramolecular control, radical reactivity, inside zeolites, 1:245
  • supramolecular lipid organization, positional isomer preferehce, 3:1610-1612
  • supramolecular radical chemistry, 1:229-248
  • halogen bonding, 1:232-233
  • host-guest complexes, 1:233-237
  • hydrogen bonding, 1:229-232
  • self-assembly, 1:237-244
  • spin labels and spin probes, 4:1987-2004
  • surface-centered silyl radicals, formation, silicon surface monolayers, 4:2089-2096
  • surface chemistry
  • metal nanoparticles, 4:2197,2209
  • plasma effects, 1:480-481
  • radical thiol addition click chemistry, 4:2045,2048-2052,2053
  • silicon, self-assembled monolayers, 4:2081-2116
  • surface plasmon band (SPB), absorption spectra, noble metal nanoparticles, 4:2198
  • surfactant-free emulsions, RAFT polymerization, 4:1923-1924
  • surfactants, emulsion polymerization, industrial processes, 4:1721
  • suspension polymerization
  • industrial processes, 4:1720-1721
  • mini-emulsion polymerization comparison, 4:1724
  • symmetry of reference compounds, radical stabilization energy characterization, 1:451
  • synchrotron radiation (SR), photoionization of gas phase radicals, 1:479,487,495-496
  • synergism, antioxidants, 3:1667-1669
  • synthetic rubber, industrial emulsion polymerization, 4:1721,1723
  • synthetic strategies
  • alkoxyamine homolysis, nitroxides, 2:1102-1103
  • arylations, 2:1059-1093
  • aryl radicals, 2:1080-1087
  • intermolecular homolytic aromatic substitutions, 2:1074-1079
  • intramolecular homolytic aromatic substitutions, 2:1059-1074
  • atom transfer radical additions, chalcogens/halogens, 2:943-963
  • atom transfer radical cyclizations, chalcogens/halogens, 2:943-963
  • boron radical chemistry, 2:601-628
  • carbohydrates, 2:1131-1174
  • cascade reactions, 2:729-765
  • cerium(IV) ammonium nitrate-mediated oxidations, 2:901-941
  • cyclizations
  • ATRC, chalcogens/halogens, 2:943-963
  • metal-dependent, 2:918-932
  • electrochemically initiated reactions, 2:1175-1215
  • epoxides, titanocene-catalyzed/mediated reactions, 2:989-1001
  • flow microreactor experiments, 2:1243-1258
  • intermolecular homolytic substitutions, 2:1074-1079
  • intramolecular homolytic substitutions, 2:629-654,1059-1074
  • iron(III) salt-mediated oxidations, 2:901-941
  • isonitriles, 2:1041-1048
  • main group element radicals, 2:767-816
  • manganese(III) acetate-mediated oxidations, 2:901-941
  • neophyl-type rearrangements, 2:1070-1071
  • nitrogen-centered radicals, 2:767-781
  • nitroxide-mediated oxidations, 2:1104-1123
  • nitroxides, 2:1095-1129
  • Norrish reactions, 2:1227-1231
  • organic electron donors, 2:817-847
  • electrochemical induction, 2:844-845
  • photoactivation, 2:832-834
  • reagent-induced activation, 2:834-844
  • spontaneous/thermal electron transfers, 2:817-831
  • oxidations
  • cerium(IV) ammonium nitrate-mediated, 2:901-941
  • iron(III) salt-mediated, 2:901-941
  • manganese(M) acetate-mediated, 2:901-941
  • oxoammonium salts, 2:1108-1119
  • oxygen-centered radicals, 2:781-790
  • phosphorus-centered radicals, 2:790-796
  • photochemistry, 2:1217-1241
  • ring opening, metal-dependent, 2:932-935
  • ruthenium-mediated photocatalysis, 2:1221-1227
  • samarium diiodide, 2:849-900
  • additive effects, 2:850-852
  • carbonyl-alkene coupling, 2:870-877
  • pinacol coupling, 2:864-870
  • reaction mechanisms, 2:852-856
  • selenium-centered radicals, 2:804-810
  • single electron transfers, nitroxide-mediated, 2:1104-1108
  • stereoelectronically disfavoured cyclizations, five membered rings, 2:703-709
  • stereoselective reactions, 2:655-691
  • sulfur-centered radicals, 2:796-804
  • tin hydrides, 2:529-560
  • functional group transformations, 2:540-556
  • preparation, 2:529-540
  • titanocene-catalyzed/mediated reactions, 2:989-1001
  • transition metals, 2:1003-1018
  • tris(trimethylsilyl)silane-mediated reductions, 2:561-599
  • unsaturations, nitroxide additions, 2:1103-1104
  • unusual cyclizations, 2:693-728
  • carbon-centered radicals, 2:719-724
  • four-membered rings, 2:698-702
  • iminyl radicals, 2:717-718
  • nitrogen-centered radicals, 2:716-717
  • oxygen-centered radicals, 2:717-719
  • small cycle synthesis, 2:694-702
  • stereoelectronically disfavoured, 2:703-709
  • unusual radical acceptors, 2:1019-1057
  • xanthates, 2:965-987
  • T2D see type-2 diabetes
  • T:A-T triplex DNA structure, hole transfer, 3:1407-1409
  • TAM see triarylmethyl
  • tandem base lesions
  • DNA oxidation, 3:1335-1338
  • hydroxyl radicals, 3:1292-1293
  • intrastrand pyrimidine-purine cross-links, 3:1335-1336
  • pyrimidine hydroperoxyl radicals, 3:1336-1338
  • tandem conjugate addition-aldol cyclizations, B-alkylcatecholborane-mediated, 2:612
  • tandem conjugate addition-aldol reactions, trialkylboranes, 2:608
  • tandem conjugate addition-fragmentation reactions, enantioselective, chiral Lewis acid-mediated, 2:678-679
  • tandem cyclizations
  • cross-coupling arylations, cobalt-catalyzed, 2:1008-1009
  • electrochemically initiated, polyenes, 2:1209
  • 2β-iodo glucopyranosides, branched-chain sugar synthesis, 2:1147-1148
  • Lewis acid-promoted, aryltelluro groups, 2:959
  • metal-dependent, 2:928-932
  • tris(trimethylsilyl)silane-mediated, 2:590-592
  • tandem enantioselective conjugate addition-radical alkoxyaminations, B-alkylcatecholboranes, 2:615
  • tandem homolytic addition/substitution reactions
  • cyclic alkoxysilane synthesis, 2:646
  • selenides, 2:641-644
  • tandem protein-lipid damage, radical attack, 3:1607-1609
  • tandem racemizations, amines, sulfur-centered radicals, 2:798
  • tandem reactions, tris(trimethylsilyl)silane-mediated, 2:587-593
  • targeted degree of polymerization (DPT)
  • controlled/living radical polymerization, 4:1788,1789,1790-1791,1792
  • dead chain fraction relationship, 4:1789,1790-1791,1792
  • definition, 4:1789
  • TBADT see tetrabutylammonium decatungstate
  • TBARS see thiobarbituric acid reactive substances
  • TDAE see tetrakisdimethylaminoethene
  • TD-DFT see time dependent density functional theory
  • tellurides, intramolecular homolytic substitutions, kinetics, 2:633-634
  • tellurium, intramolecular homolytic substitutions, 2:631
  • tellurium-containing antioxidants, 3:1625
  • tellurium-mediated living radical polymerization (TERP), 4:1932-1960
  • β-telluroacrylamides, synthesis, 2:960-961
  • telluro derivatives, additions, isonitriles, 2:1046
  • temperature, 10 hour half-life, thermolysis, 1:38,39
  • temperature control, industrial radical polymerization, 4:1719-1720,1721
  • temperature-dependent phase transitions, thiazyl radicals, 4:2149-2152
  • template effects, reductive alkylations, chiral Lewis acid-mediated, 2:673-674
  • temporal control, photochemical radical-mediated metal nanostructure synthesis, 4:2198
  • TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpipericline-1-oxyl radical)
  • 1,4-benzene diradical trapping, enediyne Bergman cyclizations, 2:1101-1102
  • bond dissociation energies, 1:92-93
  • carbohydrate oxidations, 2:1202-1203
  • carbon radical trapping
  • after cyclizations, 2:1099-1101
  • enamine a-oxyaminations, 2:1097-1099
  • hydroxy group installation, 2:1096-1097
  • dendrimer investigation, 4:1988-1989
  • electrochemically initiated reactions, 2:1202-1203
  • gold nanoparticle monolayer protection, 1:238-239
  • halogen bonding, 1:232-233
  • hydrogen abstractions
  • alcohols, 2:1119-1121
  • catechols, 2:1121-1122
  • phenols, 2:1121-1122
  • -malonate, additions to alkenes, 2:1247
  • nitroxide-mediated polymerization, 4:1816,1827,1838,1839
  • nitroxides, spin labels and spin probes, 4:1966,1967
  • nonchain reaction sequences, 1:109
  • α-oxyaminations, enamines, 2:1097-1099
  • redox reactions, 4:2164-2165
  • rotaxanes capping groups, 1:244
  • stability, 1:449,450
  • structure, 4:1814,1965
  • terminal model (TM), copolymerization propagation, 4:1714-1715,1749-1750
  • termination
  • polymerization, 4:1738
  • chain-length-dependent termination, 4:1740,1745-1748,1771-1775,1787,1793-1794
  • chain-length-independent termination, 4:1741,1743,1745-1746,1747,1753
  • industrial processes, 4:1717-1719
  • kinetics, 4:1739-1740,1770-1777,1788-1789,1792-1793
  • nitroxide-mediated polymerization, 4:1818,1819,1825-1826
  • radical versus ionic polymerization process, 4:1785
  • radical chain reactions, 1:60,62,108
  • SRN1 reactions, 1:334
  • termination rate coefficients, 4:1752-1753,1770-1771,1773-1775
  • termination rate constant (k1), 4:1788-1789,1792-1793
  • TERP see tellurium-mediated living radical polymerization
  • N-tert-butyl-N-2-methyl-l-phenylpropyl nitroxide (TIPNO), nitroxide-mediated polymerization, 4:1729,1827,1838
  • tertiary allylic alcohols, oxidative rearrangements, oxoammonium salts, 2:1110
  • tertiary amines
  • borane complexes, 2:620
  • fullerene additions, 4:2187,2188
  • photoinduced additions, pyrrolizadine synthesis, 2:1220
  • photoinduced electron transfer, radical addition to alkenes, 1:291-292
  • silylated, photoinduced additions, alkynes, 2:1218-1219
  • tertiary carbon radicals, 5-endo-trig cyclizations, 2:705
  • tethered radicals, additions, unsaturated carbohydrates, branched-chain sugar synthesis, 2:1146-1149
  • tetraalkylphosphonium benzoate radicals, room-temperature ionic liquids, 1:442
  • tetrabutylammonium decatungstate (TBADT) catalysis, fullerene radical reactions, 4:2173-2174,2175
  • tetracyclic nitro compounds, denitrations, tin-hydride mediated, 2:548-549
  • tetrahydrofuran (THF)
  • anellated, 2:788-789
  • radiolysis, 1:412-413
  • synthesis
  • cobalt-catalyzed, 2:789
  • diastereoselective, 2:1180
  • electrochemically initiated, 2:1176-1177,1179,1180
  • enol ether oxidations, 2:1176-1177
  • ketene dithioacetal oxidations, 2:1179
  • Kolbe electrolysis, 2:1199
  • metal-dependent, 2:932-933
  • oxygen-centered radicals, 2:788-789
  • relay cyclizations, 2:736
  • samarium diiodide solution, 2:849-895
  • titanium-mediated radicals, 2:644-645
  • tetrahydronapthalenes, synthesis, 2:617,911
  • tetrahydropyrans, synthesis, 2:933-934,1199
  • tetrakisdimethylaminoethene (TDAE)
  • coupling, α-bromoketones, 2:828
  • electron transfers, 2:826-828
  • reductions, arenediazonium salts, 2:828
  • N,N,N',Nprime-tetramethyl-1,5-diaminonapthalene (TMDN), DNA conjugation, 3:1416,1417,1418
  • S(2,2,5,5-tetramethy1-2,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrol-3-yl)methyl methanesulonothioate (MTSL), 4:1967,1969,1970
  • 1,1,4,4,-tetramethyl ioindolin-N-oxyl (TMIO) radical
  • nitroxide-mediated polymerization, 4:1827
  • structure, 4:1814
  • 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (and similar) see TEMPO
  • 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl-malonate, additions, alkenes, 2:1247
  • 2,2,5,5-tetramethylpyrrotidine-N-oxyl nitroxides, spin labels and spin probes, 4:1967
  • 2,2,5,5-tetramethylpyrroline-N-oxyl nitroxides, spin labels and spin probes, 4:1967
  • tetranitromethane, additions, B-alkylcatecholboranes, 2:615
  • meso-tetraol, synthesis, 2:810-811
  • tetraphenylethylene (TPE), photocatalytic oxygenation to 1,2-dioxetane, 1:372-374
  • tetrasubstituted alkenes, synthesis, xanthates, 2:983
  • tetrasubstitutions, SRN1 reactions, 1:335,351,355,358,361
  • tetrathiafulvalene (TTF), 2:818-826
  • tetrathiatriarylmethyl radicals, history, 1:24-25
  • TGBC see top-gate bottom-contact
  • TGTC see top-gate top-contact
  • theoretical calculations, redox potential determination, 1:257-258
  • theoretical modeling studies
  • DNA damage, 3:1392-1393
  • DNA radicals, 3:1371
  • anisotropic hyperfine interactions, 3:1380-1381
  • excited state properties, 3:1392-1393
  • ground state properties, 3:1381-1388
  • monolayer generation on silicon surfaces, 4:2096-2100
  • radical enzymes, 3:1547-1576
  • thermal attachment, monolayer generation on silicon surfaces, 4:2089
  • thermal control, industrial radical polymerization, 4:1719-1720,1721
  • thermal electron transfers
  • dithiadiazafulvalenes, 2:826-831
  • organic electron donors, 2:817-831
  • polyaza-substituted ethenes, 2:826-831
  • tetrathiafulvalenes, synthetic applications, 2:818-826
  • thermal initiation
  • industrial radical polymerization, 4:1706
  • radical chain reactions, 1:110
  • thermally-induced reactions, flow microreactor experiments, 2:1243-1250
  • thermochemical cycles, redox potential determination, 1:257-258
  • thermochemistry, 1:81-106
  • bond dissociation enthalpies, 1:81-100
  • empirical estimation schemes, 1:84,88
  • enthalpies of formation, 1:82-97
  • experimental/ab initio values, 1:84
  • Hess's Law, 1:81-82
  • hydrogen transfer kinetics, 1:100-102
  • literature enthalpy values, 1:85-87
  • radical stabilization energies and scales, 1:97-100
  • substituent effects, 1:102-103
  • thermodynamic parameters
  • determination, EPR, 1:169-170
  • redox potential determination, 1:257-258
  • thermodynamics
  • activation energy, 3:1267,1268,1271
  • atom transfer radical polymerization, 4:1863-1869
  • cyclizations, 2:693
  • 5-endo-dig cyclizations, 2:706-709
  • kinetics correlation, phenolic antioxidants, 3:1646-1650
  • phenolic antioxidants, 3:1646-1650
  • versus kinetics, 3:1267,1268,1271,1646-1650
  • thermodynamic stability
  • radicals, definitions, 1:449-453
  • silyl radicals, 4:2118-2120
  • thermolysis
  • azo compounds, 1:39-40
  • N-O bonds, 1:41
  • organometallic compounds, 1:41
  • peroxides, 1:38-39
  • radical initiation, 1:37-42
  • S-S bonds, 1:41
  • thermosensitive micelles, organoheteroatom-mediated radical living polymerization, 4:1958
  • THF see tetrahydrofuran
  • thiacarbenium ions, metal-dependent formation, 2:916-917
  • thiamine diphosphate (ThDP), SAM-dependent enzymes, 3:1519-1520,1522
  • thiazole-2[3H]-thione derivatives, alkoxy radical generation, photo-irradiation, 2:1238
  • thiazyl radicals
  • 1,3,2-benzodithiazolyl, 4:2151-2152
  • conductive/magnetic materials, 4:2147-2161
  • conductivity, 4:2156-2161
  • drastic phase transitions, 4:2147-2154
  • photoconductivity, 4:2159
  • physical properties, 4:2147-2161
  • room-temperature magnetic bistability, 4:2148-2151
  • transition metal complexes, 4:2154-2155
  • 1,3,5-trithia2,4,6-triazapentalenyl, 4:2148-2151,2156-2157
  • thieno[3,4-b]thiophene/benzodithiophene alternating copolymer (PTBx), polymer-based solar cells, 4:2074
  • N-thioaryl compounds, nitrogen-centered radical generation, 2:772-773
  • thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), human physiological levels, 3:1591
  • thiobismuthine (Bi-S) cocatalysts, organoheteroatom-mediated radical living polymerization, 4:1935-1936,1941,1942-1943,1956-1958
  • α-thio carbamates, electrochemically initiated functionalizations, 2:1205
  • thiocarbonate thio compounds, reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer agents, 4:1896
  • thiocarbonyl derivatives, general reaction manifolds, 2:984
  • thiocarbonyl organosilanes, chain reactions, 2:571
  • N-thiocarbonylsulfanyl compounds, nitrogen-centered radical generation, 2:773
  • "thio-click" reaction, use of term, 4:2033
  • thioenol ethers, amine-bearing, electrochemically initiated cyclizations, 2:1177-1178
  • thioesters
  • cleavage, nickel-mediated, 2:1209-1210
  • see also Barton esters
  • thioethers
  • carbon-S bonds, photoinduced homolytic α-cleavage, 1:283
  • radical generation, tin hydride-mediated, 2:550-551
  • radical reactions, 3:1467-1472
  • thiohydroximidate esters, selenotocopherol synthesis, 2:639
  • α-thioketones, synthesis, metal-dependent, 2:916
  • thiol-ene addition reactions, 4:2017,2018-2019,2020
  • clickable, 4:2022,2023-2025,2029-2053
  • thiol pair reactions, tris(trimethylsilyl)silane, 2:568-571
  • thiol proteins, hydrogen peroxide reactions, 3:1274-1275
  • thiols
  • antioxidant action, 3:1665-1666
  • aromatic, coupling, anodic oxidations, 2:1205-1207
  • desulfurations, alkyl radical generation, 2:1047
  • formation, alcohol conversions, Barton-McCombie deoxygenations, 2:971-972
  • hydrogen transfer to radicals, 3:1460
  • ionization, 3:1460
  • radical addition to unsaturated compounds
  • click chemistry, 4:2017,2021-2053
  • mechanisms, 4:2017,2018-2020
  • radical reactions, 3:1460-1467
  • thiol-specific nitroxide spin labels, GSH detection/quantification, 4:1984,1985,1986
  • thiol-yne addition reactions, 4:2017,2018,2019-2020
  • clickable, 4:2025,2028-2030,2039,2043,2053
  • thionocarbonates, cyclizations, 2:970
  • γ-thionocarbonyloxy alkyl radicals, rearrangements, 1:127-128
  • thiophene backbone structure modification, polythiophenes, polymer-based field-effect transistors, 4:2062-2063
  • 1,2-thiophosphinoylations, alkyne radicals, phosphorus-centered radicals, 2:793-794
  • thioselenations, isocyanide, selenium-centered radicals, 2:807
  • thiosulfinates, antioxidant action, 3:1625,1666-1667,1673
  • thiyl radicals
  • biological relevance, 3:1502
  • formation and properties, 3:1460-1461
  • hydrogen transfer from organic compounds, 3:1460
  • lipid isomerization, 3:1601-1604
  • inhibition, 3:1617
  • liposomes, 3:1610,1611,1612,1613
  • oxygen role, 3:1616
  • molecular oxygen reactions, 3:1466
  • polarity reversal catalysts, 3:1460
  • reactions in biological systems, 3:1270
  • regioselective additions, vinylidenecyclopropane, 2:800
  • S-containing amino acids/peptides, 3:1605-1609
  • unsaturated carbon addition reactions, 4:2018-2020
  • Thorpe-Ingold effect, 4-exo-trig cyclizations, 2:699
  • ThPD see thiamine diphosphate
  • three-component coupling reactions, tris(trimethylsilyl)silane-mediated, 2:588-589
  • three-electron intermediate, thioether radical reactions, 3:1468-1472
  • three-membered rings, synthesis, unusual cyclizations, 2:694-698
  • thymine (T)
  • dimer electron acceptor, 3:1415
  • hydroxyl radical reactions, 3:1291-1292
  • one-electron oxidation, thermodynamics, 3:1293-1294
  • oxidation
  • hydroxyl radicals, 3:1321-1323
  • one-electron transfer, 3:1328-1330
  • reduction, DNA charge transfer, 3:1398
  • thysiferol, synthesis, 2:994
  • time dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT), DNA radicals, 3:1388,1389-1390,1392
  • time resolved chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization (TR-CIDNP), 1:176-177,180-187
  • applications, 1:190-198
  • experiment, 1:182-184
  • inter-/intramolecular electron transfer, 1:194-197
  • photoreactions
  • glycylglycine, 1:191-193
  • sulfur-containing biomolecules, 1:193-194
  • time-resolved electron paramagnetic resonance (TR-EPR)
  • antioxidant studies, 3:1640
  • radical study in real time, 1:175
  • see also chemically induced dynamic electron polarization
  • time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy, photoinduced radicals, 1:298
  • time-resolved infrared spectroscopy, photoinduced radicals, 1:298
  • time-resolved photoelectron spectrum, gas phase radicals, 1:492
  • tin, see also stannane...; stannyl…
  • tin-centered radicals
  • electron paramagnetic resonance, 1:161-162
  • history, 1:19
  • tin-free modifications, Barton-McCombie deoxygenations, 2:967-970
  • tin hydride method, carbon radical clock calibration, 1:112-113
  • tin hydrides, 2:529-560
  • additions, unsaturated systems, radical generation, 2:551-554
  • alkyl bromide reduction, radical chain reaction steps, 1:108
  • carbon-centered radical generation, 2:543-554
  • C-halogen bond cleavage, radical generation, 2:543-546
  • fluorous, preparation, 2:534-537
  • heteroatom-centered radical generation, 2:554-556
  • as hydrogen-donors, 2:541-542
  • nitrogen-centered radical generation, 2:554-556
  • oxygen-centered radical generation, 2:555-556
  • preparation, 2:530-540
  • radical chain mediators, 1:63-65
  • radical generation, 2:542-556
  • reaction types, 2:540-541
  • in situ generation, 2:532
  • stereoselective reactions, preparation, 2:538-540
  • supported, preparation, 2:532-534
  • water-soluble, preparation, 2:537-538
  • tin nucleophiles, SRN1 reaction, 1:338-339
  • tin reagents
  • intramolecular homolytic substitutions, 2:650-653
  • photochemical cleavage, 2:1238-1239
  • radical chain mediators, 1:63-65,66
  • TIPNO see N-tert-butyl-N-2-methyl-1-phenylpropyl nitroxide
  • Titan, atmospheric chemistry, 1:480
  • titanium-mediated reactions
  • asymmetric electron transfers, 2:687-688
  • carbodiazenylations, alkenes, 2:747-748
  • cascades, 2:746-749
  • double alkylations, styrenes, 2:1014-1015
  • fomitellic acid AB ring synthesis, 2:749
  • oxidative additions, 2:1014-1015
  • titanocene-mediated reactions
  • epoxides, 2:989-1001
  • cyclizations, 2:995-999
  • reductive opening, 2:990-993
  • epoxypolyenes, cyclizations. 2:748-749
  • β-titanoxy radicals, synthesis, epoxides, 2:989-990
  • TM see terminal model
  • TMC see transition metal-catalysis
  • TMDN see N,N,N',Nprime-tetramethyl-1,5-diaminonapthalene
  • TMIO see 1,1,4,4,-tetramethyl ioindolin-N-oxyl
  • (TMS)3SiH see tris(trimethylsilyl)silane
  • α-tocopherol (α-TOH/vitamin E)
  • antioxidant action, 3:1623,1631
  • ascorbate synergism, 3:1667,1669
  • kinetic measurements, 3:1637-1639
  • TolSQ see 1-(p-tolysulfinyl)-2,5-benzoqinone
  • 1-(p-tolysulfinyI)-2,5-benzoqinone (TolSQ), semiquinone radical anions, hydrogen bonded to protonated histidine, 1:229-230
  • top-gate bottom-contact (TGBC), organic-based field-effect transistors, 4:2058
  • top-gate top-contact (TGTC), organic-based field-effect transistors, 4:2058
  • topological connections, mechanical interlocking of free radicals, 1:239-244
  • N-tosylamino radicals, formation, aziridine ring opening, 2:778
  • toxins
  • radical chain mediators, tri(organo)tin hydrides, 1:63-64,65
  • reactive oxygen species generation, 3:1265-1266
  • TPE see tetraphenylethylene
  • transannular hydrogen abstraction, alkyl radicals, 1:141
  • trans fatty acids
  • human health, 3:1599-1600
  • lipid isomerization, 3:1599-1622
  • lipidomics of biological samples, 3:1612-1615
  • transfer constants, reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer, 4:1899-1901
  • transfer reaction kinetics, polymerization, 4:1739
  • transient heteroatom-centered radicals, electron paramagnetic resonance, 1:161-165
  • transient radicals, use of term, 1:449
  • transition metal..., see also individual metals
  • transition metal-catalysis (TMC)
  • atom transfer radical addition, 4:1851,1853-1854,1879-1880
  • atom transfer radical polymerization, 4:1803-1804,1854-1855,1856-1860
  • fullerene radical reactions, 4:2174-2178
  • C-glycoside synthesis, 2:1136
  • Kharasch-type reactions, 2:1003-1004
  • oxidative additions, 2:1003-1018
  • transition metal-centered radicals, fullerene reactions, 4:2183-2184
  • transition metal complexes
  • atom transfer radical polymerization, 4:1803-1804
  • thiazyl radicals, 4:2154-2155
  • transition metal ions, chelating agents, 3:1623,1624
  • transition metals
  • biological chemistry of reactive oxygen species, 3:1266,1272-1273
  • Fenton-like chemistry, 3:1272-1273
  • transition metal-substituted silyl radicals, persistent and stable, 4:2141-2143
  • transition states (TSs)
  • exocyclic closure effects, electronics, 2:714-715
  • hydrogen atom migration, 1:133
  • reaction rate prediction, 1:81,100-103
  • translational dynamics, room-temperature ionic liquids, 1:434
  • 1,5-translocations, stannyl radicals, 2:652-653
  • translocations
  • cascade reactions, with cyclizations, 2:735-737
  • β-glycoside synthesis, 2:1157-1158
  • trapping
  • amidyl radicals, 2:976-977
  • carbon radicals
  • after cyclizations, nitroxides, 2:1099-1101
  • nitroxides, 2:1095-1102
  • cations, tetrathiafulvalenes, sytithetic applications, 2:820-824
  • cyclopropylacyl radicals, 2:976-977
  • deactivation/activation process, controlled/living radical polymerization, 4:1786-1787
  • decarboxylated Barton esters, 2:1236-1237
  • iminyl radicals, 2:971-972
  • see also spin trapping
  • trapping agents, competition kinetics, 1:111
  • trialkylboranes
  • carbon-centered radical attack, 2:602
  • conjugate additions, 2:607-609
  • β-fragmentations, 2:609-610
  • heteroatom-centered radical attack, 2:602
  • triarylmethyl (TAM) radicals
  • history, 1:2-6,21-25
  • pH sensitive spin probes, 4:1976-1978,1980
  • triazenes, nitrogen-centered radical generation, 2:771-772
  • triazole derivatives, RAFT polymerization, 4:1905
  • triblock copolymers, nitroxide-mediated polymerization, 4:1843
  • tributyltin hydride
  • cyclopentane derivative synthesis, 2:1149-1152
  • fullerene addition, 4:2184
  • preparation, 2:531
  • radical chain processes, 1:40,63-66
  • 1,1,1-trichloroethane see methyl chloroform
  • trichloromethyl radical
  • Kharasch reaction, 1:62-63
  • metal-catalyzed chain reactions, 1:75-76
  • tricyclic products, enol-ether furan derivative cyclizations, 2:1182
  • tricyclic pyrolidines, synthesis, oxime ether cascade cyclizations, 2:730-731
  • tricyclopropyl amine radicals, neutral versus cation, 1:308
  • triethylamine, cyclizations, bromoalkynes, 2:1252-1253
  • triethylsilane, aromatic azide reductions, 2:1025-1026
  • trifluoromethyl acetate anions, room-temperature ionic liquids, 1:441
  • trifluoromethylations, lithium enolates, organoboranes, 2:605
  • triglycerides, natural, lipid isomerization, 3:1603-1604
  • trimethoxyphenylalanine, relay station in two-step electron hopping, 3:1480-1481
  • trimethylboranes, substitutions, methoxyl radicals, 2:602
  • tri(organo)tin hydrides, radical chain mediators, 1:63-65
  • triphenylboranes, substitutions, methoxyl radicals, 2:602
  • triphenylene cores, synthesis, 2:1191-1192
  • triphenylmethyl (trityl) oximes, closure, diphenyl diselenide effects, 2:809-810
  • triphenylmethyl (trityl) radicals
  • dimer structure, 1:2-3,58
  • discovery, 1:2-3
  • formation routes, 1:5
  • oxymetric spin probes, 4:1979,1981,1983,1984
  • peroxide formation, 1:2,3-4
  • pH sensitive spin probes, 4:1976-1978,1980
  • profluorescent spin labels and spin probes, 4:1986
  • properties, 1:5-6
  • redox status spin probes, 4:1984
  • stability, 1:7,58,4:1965,1966
  • triphenylmethyl (trityl) triarylmethyl radicals, history, 1:24-25
  • triphenylphosphene, photocatalytic oxygenation, 1:378-380
  • triphenyltin hydride, preparation, 2:531
  • triplet repulsion, hydrogen transfer kinetics, 1:102
  • triplet silyl biradicals, persistent and stable, 4:2134-2135
  • tripropyltin hydride, preparation, 2:531
  • tris(silyl)-substituted silyl radicals
  • dimerization, 4:2127-2130
  • EPR, 4:2127,2128,2131
  • generation, 4:2121-2125
  • hydrogen abstraction, 4:2122
  • silicon-mercury bond cleavage, 4:2124
  • silicon-silicon bond cleavage, 4:2122,2124
  • oxidation/reduction/ionization, 4:2130
  • persistent and stable, 4:2121-2132
  • photochemistry, 4:2130
  • reactions, 4:2127-2130
  • stability, 4:2123
  • structure, 4:2125-2127
  • tris(trimethylsilyl)silane (TTMSS; (TMS)3SiH), 2:562-571
  • additions, fluoroalkyl radicals, carbon-carbon multiple bonds, 2:585-586
  • N-alkoxyamine synthesis, 2:586-587
  • alkyl halide reductions, flow microreactor experiments, 2:1244-1246
  • allylations, 2:584-585
  • autoxidations, 2:568-569
  • carbocyclizations, 2:574-575
  • carbon-carbon bond formation, 2:583-585
  • carbon-phosphorus bond formation, 2:587-588
  • carbon-silicon bond formation, 2:566-568
  • cascade reactions, 2:587-593
  • cyanations, 2:584-585
  • cyclic amine synthesis, 2:576-577
  • cyclic ether synthesis, 2:575, 577
  • cyclizations, 2:579,590-592
  • cyclonucleoside synthesis, 2:590
  • decarbonylations, acyl derivatives, 2:563-565
  • dehalogenations, 2:562-563
  • desulfidations, phosphine sulfides, 2:565-566
  • 1,2-dial reductions, olefin synthesis, 2:563-564
  • domino reactions, 2:592-593
  • β-eliminations, 2:584-585
  • enantioselective reactions, 2:583-584
  • furan synthesis, 2:575-576
  • homolytic aromatic substitutions, 2:586-587
  • hydrogen abstractions, 2:561-562
  • hydrosilylations, 2:566-568
  • intermolecular reactions, 2:583-587
  • internal homolytic substitutions, 2:582
  • model silicon surface, monolayer generation, 4:2098-2099
  • multistep reaction mediation, 2:574
  • neophyl-type rearrangements, 2:589-590
  • nitrogen heterocycle synthesis, 2:578
  • nucleoside reductions, 2:570
  • olefinations, 1,2-diol reductions, 2:563-564
  • one-carbon ring expansions, cycloketones, 2:581-582
  • oxidations, molecular oxygen, 2:568-569
  • as reducing agent, 2:561-599
  • reductions
  • aromatic azides, 2:1026
  • nucleosides, 2:570
  • phosphine selenides, 2:565-566
  • phosphine sulfides, 2:565-566
  • selenides, phosphine, 2:565-566
  • sulfides, phosphine, 2:565-566
  • reductive cleavage, 2:562-566,569-570
  • secondary amine synthesis, 2:565
  • tandem cyclizations, 2:590-592
  • tandem reactions, 2:587-593
  • thiol pair reactions, 2:568-571
  • trisubstituted alkyl radicals, stability, 1:457-463,464
  • trisubstitutions, SRN1 reactions, 1:335,339,361
  • 1,3,5-trithia2,4,6-triazapentalenyl (TTTA)
  • carrier doping for Mott phase, 4:2156-2157
  • crystal structures, 4:2150
  • room-temperature magnetic bistability, 4:2148-2151
  • trityl see triphenylmethyl
  • Trommsdorff/Trommsdorff-Nomish effect, polymerization kinetics, 4:1742-1743
  • troposphere, 1:504-505
  • complexity, 1:513-514
  • radical chemistry, 1:513-525
  • aqueous-phase oxidants, 1:519
  • chain oxidation of CO/CH4, 1:519-522
  • halogen radicals, 1:516-519
  • HOx radicals, 1:514-516,519-522,525
  • isoprene oxidation, 1:523-525
  • nitrate radicals, 1:516
  • organics with 2+ carbon atoms, 1:522-525
  • ozone reactions, 1:514-515,516,518,520,523,525
  • PAN, 1:522-523
  • pollutant cleansing, 1:514-525
  • stratosphere interaction, 1:505,513,515-516
  • tryptophan, relay amino acids in electron transfer, 3:1481-1483
  • TTF see tetrathiafulvalene
  • TTMSS see tris(trimethylsilyl)silane
  • TTTA see 1,3,5-trithia2,4,6-triazapentalenyl
  • TTTA.Cu(hfac),
  • coordination polymers, 4:2154-2155
  • crystal structure, 4:2155
  • tungsten carbenes, functionalized, synthesis, titanocene-catalyzed, 2:994
  • tunneling mechanisms, DNA charge transfer, 3:1399-1403,1414
  • two-electron oxidants, reactive oxygen species in biological systems, 3:1266,1271-1272
  • two-electron reductions, fullerenes, 4:2190
  • two leaving groups, SRN1 reactions, 1:335,336-337
  • two-photon two-color laser flash photolysis, characterization of radicals, 1:297
  • type-2 diabetes (T2D)
  • complications, 3:1692-1694
  • free radicals, 3:1679,1680-1684
  • tyrosine, relay amino acids in electron transfer, 3:1481-1482,1483-1484
  • tyrosyl radicals, cysteine residue reactions, 3:1465-1466
  • Ugi products, cyclization-rearrangements, metal-dependent, 2:912
  • ultrafast spectroscopy, unimolecular reactions, gas phase radicals, 1:492,493,494
  • ultramicroelectrodes, cyclic voltammetry, redox potential determination, 1:253
  • ultraviolet (UV), UV-vis spectroscopy, matrix isolation, 1:209
  • ultraviolet (UV) filters, preventive antioxidants, 3:1623,1624
  • ultraviolet (UV) irradiation
  • curing of coatings/inks/adhesives, industrial radical polymerization, 4:1711-1712
  • DNA damage and repair, 3:1397
  • monolayer attachment to silicon surfaces, 4:2089-2091
  • protein photo-oxidation, 3:1443-1447
  • reactive oxygen species generation in biological systems, 3:1265
  • umpolung, electrochemical, intramolecular cyclizations, 2:1176
  • unconjugated monomers, organoheteroatom-mediated radical living polymerization, 4:1940,1943
  • uniform barrier model, electron transfer in peptides/proteins, 3:1478
  • unimolecular alkoxyamine initiators, nitroxide-mediated polymerization, 4:1727-1728
  • unimolecular chain transfers, silicon hydrides, 2:948
  • unimolecular radical nucleophilic substitution see SRN1
  • unimolecular reactions, gas phase radicals, 1:479,492-495,498
  • unimolecular rearrangements, neutral radicals versus radical ions, 1:301
  • unimolecular routes, photochemical radical-mediated metal nanostructure synthesis, 4:2201-2202
  • universal agents, reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer, 4:1908,1910,1912
  • unpaired electrons (UPEs), electron paramagnetic resonance, 1:147-170
  • unsaturated carbohydrates
  • additions
  • branched-chain sugar synthesis, 2:1146-1149
  • α-C-glycosides synthesis, 2:1137-1139
  • unsaturated compounds
  • additions
  • C-glycoside synthesis, 2:1133-1135
  • radical dials, 4:2017,2018-2053
  • tin radicals, 2:551-554
  • see also carbon—carbon multiple bonds; individual compounds
  • α,β-unsaturated esters, additions, L-fucos-1-yl radicals, 2:1133
  • unsaturated fatty acids
  • lipid isomerization, 3:1599-1622
  • see also monounsaturated fatty acids; polyunsaturated fatty acids
  • unsaturated radicals, matrix isolation spectroscopy, 1:214-218
  • unsaturations
  • nitroxide additions, 2:1103-1104
  • phosphorus-centered radicals, 2:792-795
  • phthalimide N-oxyl, 2:1103-1104
  • N-unsubstituted spiroindolone, synthesis, organic azides, 2:1033-1034
  • unsymmetrical ketones, synthesis, photo-carbonylations, 2:1254
  • unusual cyclizations, 2:693-728
  • bond formation steps, 2:715-724
  • carbon-centered radicals, 2:719-724
  • five membered rings, 2:703-709
  • five-membered ring synthesis, 2:709-711
  • four-membered ring synthesis, 2:698-702
  • large ring synthesis, 2:711-715
  • medium ring synthesis, 2:711-715
  • rate constants, 2:695
  • six-membered ring synthesis, 2:709-711
  • small cycle synthesis, 2:694-702
  • three-membered ring synthesis, 2:694-698
  • unusual radical acceptors, 2:1019-1057
  • UPEs see unpaired electrons
  • UV see ultraviolet
  • vegetable oils, radical thiol additions, 4:2022
  • veratrol, anodic coupling, anisole, 2:1191-1192
  • verdazyl radicals, self-assembly of spin cages, 1:237
  • vertical layers, atmosphere, 1:504-505
  • vicinal hydroxysulfones, alkene formation, xanthate Barton-McCombie deoxygenations, 2:971
  • vindoline, dimerizations, 2:1194
  • (±)-vindoline, synthesis, cascade cyclizations, 2:1081-1082
  • vinyl acetate, RAFT polymerization, 4:1905
  • vinylations
  • B-alkylcatecholboranes, 2:614
  • xanthates, 2:981-982
  • α-vinylations, aldehydes, SOMO catalysis, 2:681-682
  • vinyl azides, iminyl radical generation, 2:770
  • vinyl epoxides, additions, xanthates, 2:619
  • vinyl ethers, oxazolidine ring expansions, 2:1205
  • vinylic substrates, SRN1 reactions, 1:347-348
  • vinylidenecyclopropane, regioselective additions, thiyl radicals, 2:800
  • vinyl iodides
  • cyclizations, Lewis acid effects, 2:665-666
  • ring-closures, at silicon, 2:648
  • vinylpinacolborane, Giese-type additions, 2:623
  • vinyl radicals
  • [4+1] annulations, isonitriles, 2:1043
  • clocks, 1:116-117
  • cyclizations
  • aldimines, 2:720-721
  • ketimines, 2:720-721
  • organic azides, 2:1022
  • hydrogen abstraction, 1:137,141
  • matrix isolation spectroscopy, 1:215-216
  • ring closures
  • at silicon, 2:648
  • at sulfur, 2:636
  • silicon surface reactions, 4:2086-2087
  • vinyl substituted cylopropanes, ring opening/expansions, 1:309-310
  • viologen radicals, rotaxane molecular shuttles, 1:241,243,244
  • viscosity effects, industrial radical polymerization, 4:1719,1720,1721
  • visible light
  • photocatalysis, cascade reactions, 2:761-763
  • UV-vis spectroscopy, matrix isolation, 1:209
  • vitamin A, 3:1670,1673
  • see also β-carotene
  • vitamin C see ascorbic acid
  • vitamin E see α-tocopherol
  • vitamin interactions, antioxidants, 3:1667,1669
  • voltammetry, see also cyclic; photomodulation; second harmonic
  • water
  • gas phase
  • radiation-induced radicals, 1:398-399
  • see also water vapour
  • liquid phase, radiation-induced radical reactions, 1:400-410
  • radiolysis
  • gas phase, 1:398-399
  • oxidizing radicals, 1:402-403
  • primary radicals, 1:401-402,404-408
  • radical reactions, 1:404-410
  • reducing radicals, 1:402,403-404
  • secondary radicals, 1:402-404,408-410
  • see also aqueous…
  • waterborne polymer dispersions, industrial emulsion polymerization, 4:1722-1723
  • water-insoluble monomers, emulsion polymerization, 4:1721-1722
  • water-soluble monomers, inverse emulsion polymerization, 4:1722
  • water-soluble polymerization systems, initiation stage, nitroxide-mediated polymerization, 4:1821,1822
  • water-soluble tin hydrides, preparation, 2:537-538
  • water vapour, radiation-induced radicals in gaseous systems, 1:398-399
  • wavefunction-based methods, radical stability determination, 1:454
  • whitasomnine, synthesis, alkyl selenide arylations, 2:1066
  • white adipose tissue, oxidative stress, 3:1690-1692
  • Wohl-Ziegler reaction, 1:18
  • α-xanthate-α-fluoroacetate, additions, dihydrofuran, 2:606
  • xanthates
  • additions
  • alkenes, 2:976
  • olefins, 2:976-977
  • vinyl epoxides, 2:619
  • allylations, 2:981-982
  • amidyl radical generation/trapping, 2:976-977
  • aminomethylations, alkenes, 2:975
  • Barton-McCombie deoxygenations, 2:965-967
  • tributyltin hydride-mediated, 2:549-550
  • cyclizations, 2:976-981
  • cyclopropylacyl radical generation/trapping, 2:976-977
  • degenerative transfers, 2:972-983
  • mechanisms, 2:972-974
  • group transfers
  • allylpinacolborane, 2:623
  • organoboranes, 2:606
  • radical chain reactions, 1:77,78
  • homolytic aromatic substitutions, synthetic applications, 2:1066
  • polycyclic aromatic compound synthesis, 2:978-981
  • radical-polar crossover reactions, 2:978-979
  • radical Smiles rearrangements, nitrogen-centered radicals, 2:778-779
  • reductions, N-heterocyclic carbene boranes, 2:621
  • reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer, 4:1895,1896,1898,1904,1905-1906,1921
  • synthetic applications, 2:965-987
  • tandem cyclizations, branched-chain sugar synthesis, 2:1147-1148
  • tetrasubstituted alkene synthesis, 2:983
  • tin-free modifications, 2:967-970
  • vinylations, 2:981-982
  • see also dithiocarbonates
  • xenobiotics, reactive oxygen species generation, 3:1265-1266
  • xenon, matrix isolation spectroscopy, 1:207
  • xenon exciplexes, inducing thermal reactions in matrix isolated radicals, 1:210
  • X-ray crystallography
  • silyl radicals, 4:2121,2124,2125-2126
  • bis(silyl)-substituted, 4:2134
  • disilenes/disilynes, 4:2136-2137
  • tris(silyl)-substituted, 4:2125-2126,2131
  • X-rays, interactions with matter, 1:395,396
  • p-xylene, photocatalytic oxygenation, 1:374-378
  • xylobovidine, synthesis, 2:1147-1148
  • ynones, macrocyclization/transannulations, 2:732-733
  • Zeeman interactions, EPR spectra, 1:148
  • zeolites
  • radiation-induced radical reactions, 1:421-423
  • radical reactions inside framework, 1:245
  • zinc complex-catalyzed reactions, cascades, 2:755-756
  • zirconium-catalyzed reactions, 2:1015-1016
  • zirconocene dichloride, Schwartz reagent generation, 2:1015-1016

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