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聖書に準拠するシェイクスピアの思考・用語

清水, 護(1908-)

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タイトル 聖書に準拠するシェイクスピアの思考・用語
著者 清水, 護(1908-)
注記 At his funeral service, King Henry V was praised as "a king bless'd of the King of kings", who "fought the battles of the Lord of hosts". It is striking that such a concept of the ideal kingship derives from the figure of the Israelite kings in their prime of power. Even the future of the 'infant Elizabeth', daughter of Henry VIII, is blessed with the felicitous picture modelled upon the peaceful life of Solomonic prosperity. Dominant among the English people was the respect for their king as being 'the Lord's anointed', or 'the deputy elected by the Lord', as is seen in Ricbard II IV. i or Ricbard III III. i. Similar concepts of the 'demigod Authority' (Measure for Measure I. ii) and 'the deputed sword' (Id.II.ii) may have bearings upon the political theory of the Divine Right of Kings, which in turn seems to be based on Scriptural ideas as is evident in Romans 13. 1-4. Apart from the prominent idea concerning the ideal sovereignty, a casual analysis of the text of Henry V reveals a number of instances of Biblical images and wordings embedded in common parlance, such as 'th' offending Adam', 'have no wings to fly from God', 'death is to him advantage'. Over and above its title, a variant of the lex talionis, Measure for Measure is rich in Biblical references, notwithstanding that some of them are more or less obscure. 'Virtues go forth of us', 'torcbes do not ligbt them for themselves', 'Nature lends tbe smallest scruples of ber excellence but she determines herself the glory of a creditor, both thanks and use (=usury)' (all in I. ii), are instances which may be taken as reminiscences of Gospel passages. It must, however, be admitted that the last of the above illustrations is somewhat elusive, because the whole is the story of the one talent and the returning master in disguise, as was the Duke himself, who went on a journey disguised. Two kinds of imagery concerning the 'candle' or 'light' may be distinguished in the Bible-the one which emphasizes the giving forth of light to the world, which is prominent i
注記 n the New Testament, and the other, the putting out of the light (of life), prominent in the Old Testament. Reflections of both of them can be found in Shakespeare. Macbeth's "Out, out, brief candle!" may be taken as an instance of the latter. It often happens in Shakespeare, as in many authors, that a cluster of Biblical phrasings appear in certain passages, particularly in those that have gained special popularity. The well-known soliloquy in Macbetb V. v is a striking example, where, besides the apparent 'dusty death', the sequence of 'candle light'→(walking) sbadows→(poor) players (→signifying notbing→vanity) could be traced by taking into account such passages as Job 8.9, Psalter 39. 6-7. "It is a tale told (by an idiot)" calls for special notice. The most likely source is Psalter 90.9: "We bring our years to an end, as it were a tale tbat is told." But why is life like a tale...? A comparison of various versions makes is clear that there is one group of translators which chooses words which denote transient breatb, such as sigb, murmur, talk. Another puts here quite surprisingly a spider's web. The problem is, why can the same original be rendered a breatb by some, and a spider ('s web) by others? It was further made clear that the Hebrew original favors breatb or sigb (→talk, tale), whereas, the Greek (LXX), the Syriac Version and the so-called popular 'Gallican Psalter' of the Vulgate (Which is Jerom's revision of the Old Latin Version in 387 A.D.) stand for spider, and that the Psalter and AV followed the 'Hebrew' Psalter of the Vulgate (which is Jerome's translation, started in 389 A.D., direct from the Hebrew). There is, however, nothing that bridges the ideas of the 'spider's web' and 'a tale' except the English rendering of the Greek and English LXX of this particular verse: "our years have spun out their tale as a spider." One thing should be added in this connection. Against AV's Job 27.18: "(The wicked man) buildeth his house as a motb", RSV puts "The house which he builds is like a s
注記 pider's web", which is a translation according to LXX and the Syriac. Thus there seems to be a tendency in LXX and the Syriac to prefer the figure of a spider to signify something frail and transient. Further, 'as a tale that is told (i.e. has been told)' may have occasioned 'as tedious as a twice told tale' (King Jobn III. iv). It is sometimes open to question whether any particular Biblical reference was made wittingly. But a careful study of all such reminiscences and echoes is necessary and rewarding for the appreciation of English litereature, specifically Shakespeare, who is so outstanding in the use of the Scriptures. My thanks are due to my colleagues and friends who encouraged me in clarifying the mystery of 'a tale that is told', although something still remains untold.
別タイトル On Some Scriptural Concepts and Diction in Shakespeare
出版年月日等 19790000
対象利用者 一般
掲載誌名 英米文学評論
掲載巻 25
掲載号 1
掲載ページ 98~117

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